2005

Chapman, K., & Bosque, D. D. “Ask a UT system librarian: A multi-campus chat initiative supporting students at a distance.”Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 3/4 (2005): 55-79.
Chapman and del Bosque give an excellent summary of issues and anxieties found in the literature as well as some of the available literature with solutions. Their survey results from among the participating System librarians was mixed in terms of feelings about effectiveness. Twenty-one percent of the connections to the chat service dropped off at the response of the librarian which may have been caused by the newness of the service. Overall the paper is a frank description of chat service. M. Horan

Nicholas, Martina and Melba Tomeo. “Can You Hear Me Now? Communicating Library Services to Distance Education Students and Faculty.” Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 8, no.2 (Summer 2005). Online. Available: http://www.westga.edu/%7Edistance/ojdla/summer82/nicholas82.htm
When a LibQual survey indicated that many students were unaware of the library’s remote resources and services, Slippery Rock University’s Bailey Library undertook a project to determine best practices for presenting information for remote users on library websites. They studied the websites of 100 institutions in order to determine library contact information including evidence of a distance learning librarian, information on remote access to databases and other e-resources, interlibrary loan, course-specific pathfinders, and information for “distance education faculty.” They also developed a list of questions that users might ask such as “Who can I contact with a reference question?” Findings are presented looking at factors such as size of the collection. For example, they discovered that libraries with a distance education enrollment of 5,001-10,000+ offered the most database tutorials (29%) and course specific pathfinders (42%). They were also likely to designate a distance learning librarian (14%). The authors conclude by suggesting that libraries should provide a distance education or off-campus gateway readily available from the library homepage. I. Frank.

Yang, Zheng Ye (Lan). “Distance Education Librarians in the U.S. ARL Libraries and Library Services Provided to their Distance Users.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31, no. 2 (2005): 92-97.
This article describes and analyzes the results of a telephone survey the author conducted to determine how ARL libraries provide services to distance students and if those libraries have a full-time librarian assigned specifically for distance students. The author provides a literature review and describes the methodology he employed. The questionnaire used to obtain the survey data is included as an appendix. Using the survey data the author presents a profile of distance education librarians, discusses how ACRL standards and guidelines for distance students are being met, and describes the types of library services provided to distance students by the libraries he surveyed. Some of the challenges facing distance education librarians are presented along with suggestions for improving services to distance students. For librarians working with distance students this article provides a good description of how their peers at ARL institutions are providing services and resources to meet the needs of their distance students. S. Heidenreich
Many of the ARL libraries have been involved in distance learning through coorespondence and other extension services since the 1890’s. While ARL is known for its extensive and on-going surveys, the author here adds to an area they had not measured previously, ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. Coincidently, ARL and ACRL were doing a survey on DL collaboration in ARL libraries (SPEC kit # 286). Unfortunately, Yang excluded the Canadian members of ARL so correlations cannot be directly made between the two. Otherwise, the high number of respondents makes the survey an important one. The author includes a copy of the survey. M. Horan

2004

Cassner, Mary and Kate E. Adams. “A Survey of Distance Librarian-Administrators in ARL Libraries: An Overview of Library Resources and Services.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 63-71. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 85-96.
This 2003 study follows up on a 1996 ARL survey of distance learning services and a 1997 article by Lebowitz which forecast the affect of tight budgets on distance learning library services. The researchers sent surveys to the directors of all 112 ARL libraries and 73 usable surveys were returned. The thirteen survey questions covered a broad range of library resources and services for distance students. Questions included access to library materials, databases, reference, library instruction; library materials delivery options; staffing models; future funding; and collaboration with teaching faculty. The article includes all the questions and responses, along with the authors’ analysis. A primary goal of the research was to determine how budgetary concerns will affect library services to distance learners in the future. The authors determined that libraries will continue to support new technologies, such as class web pages, chat reference, etc., while phasing out older technologies, such as print handouts and delivery of photocopies. Because budgets are not expected to increase significantly, ARL libraries will have to make philosophical and practical decisions about how to offer services, while keeping an eye on the bottom line. The research also outlines the current state of services ARL libraries offer to distance students. E. Onega.

Jurkowski, Odin L “Academic Library Web Sites and Distance Education: A Content Analysis.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 3 (2004): 29-50.
The content of seventeen academic library websites is analyzed for features of interest to distance learners. Statistical analysis indicates a significant correlation exists between the size of the institution and the number of features on its website. No significant relationship was found between the number of features and the amount of distance education offered by the institution. Library websites for colleges and universities that were primarily distance education institutions offered fewer features than institutions that offered less distance learning. The author concludes many institutions are jumping into distance education unprepared and are not offering the full range of web-based services needed by distance learners. A coding sheet for website features is included in the appendix. J Brandt.

Moyo, Lesley M. “The Virtual Patron.” Science & Technology Libraries, 25 (2004), 185 – 209.
Briefly presents results of a survey of distance users Moyo conducted while serving as Gateway Librarian for Penn State University’s World Campus. The summation is preceeded by a lengthy literature review of research on the nature, research behaviors, and expectations of virtual patrons. The literature review usefully sums up key trends and observations through about 2003. Key observations Moyo (now at Virginia Tech) extracts from this previous research include: the distinction between three categories of virtual patrons (on- and off-campus remote users and distance education users), the need for detailed user information to effectively plan instruction and mediation services for remote users (existing services are not much used by them), and the tendency of remote users to ask for help from librarians last and fellow students first. Moyo’s survey instrument is appended and the local results confirm the trends she identifies in the larger studies. No new information is presented but the summations are excellent and succinct for use in explaining the need for and planning of services to distance users. E. Bentsen

Reiten, Beth A. and Jack Fritts. “The Impact of Distance Learning Library Services Experience on Practitioners’ Career Paths.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 273-281. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 365-374.
Central Michigan University has sponsored the Off-Campus Library Services Conferences every other year for twenty years, and the list of attendees provided the authors with a pool of librarians to survey about careers in distance education. Results indicate that most of the respondees either work in distance education instruction or reference, or library administration, and that many of the respondees in administration were previously involved in distance education. Results seem to support the hypothesis that experiences in distance education have helped librarians move into administrative roles later in their careers. The survey and personal interview questions are included. C. Biles.

Snyder, Carolyn A. , Howard Carter, and Jerry C. Hosterler. “Distance Education Support in University Libraries.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 2 (2004): 15-30.
After a review of developments in distance education since a previous survey was conducted in 1996, results from a 2003 survey of distance services in ARL libraries are summarized. A discussion of institutional programs describes the different methods for delivering distance education and various ways distance programs are administered. Descriptions of library services include responsibility for coordinating distance services, budgeting practices, instructional support for faculty, and the provision of services listed in the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. For programs delivered via interactive video, survey results describe the location of classrooms, type of network, size of bandwidth, type of equipment, and who is responsible for maintenance and support. Significant issues mentioned by libraries regarding the future of distance services include courseware, emerging technology, interaction with the distance learning unit on campus, 24/7 services, e-texts, and collaboration among students, academicians, and students. The authors conclude librarians have demonstrated commitment to serving distance learners despite significant challenges, and have become well informed and involved participants in the distance learning process. J Brandt.

Tuñón, Johanna, Rita Barsun, and Laura Lucio Ramirez. “Pests, Welcomed Guests, or Tolerated Outsiders?: Attitudes of Academic Librarians Toward Distance Students from Unaffiliated Institutions.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 365-381. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 485-505.
Distance education students often turn to local public and academic libraries for access to resources to complete classwork, rather than to their home libraries. Reactions among librarians to these students range from mildly positive to very negative, depending on the size and type of the local institution. Librarians have a public service mentality, but considerations of time and budget favor preferred service for affiliated users whose taxes or tuition pay for the libraries services. Academic librarians were invited through the medium of professional mailing lists to participate in a survey in the spring of 2003. The results of the survey show that among the respondents librarians from larger state institutions were more positive about distance students and their collections’ ability to meet the students needs, but the overall trend is to have mixed feelings about unaffiliated distance students and their institutions. C. Biles.

2003

Barsun, Rita. “Library Web Pages and Policies Toward ‘Outsiders’: Is the Information There?” Public Services Quarterly 1, no. 4 (2003): 11-27.
This article presents the findings of a survey of the web sites of 100 ARL libraries in both public and private universities in the US. The purpose was to determine if those web sites contained information on those libraries’ policies regarding unaffiliated patrons’ restriction or access of library resources and services. Looking specifically at admittance to the library, circulation policies, ILL, and the use of proprietary databases, the author also looked for mention of services to unaffiliated patrons in library mission statements and analyzed any charges to unaffiliated patrons for any of these services or resources. Findings indicated a wide ranging array of policies, whether written on web sites or not. No attempt was made to confirm the information by direct correspondence with staff at the libraries, in part because the intent was to determine only what one could learn from a library’s web site. A brief summary of professional literature on the subject of unaffiliated use of university libraries indicated an awareness of this phenomenon, often expressed with considerable concern, and an effort by national organizations (ACRL and ARL) to establish guidelines for setting access policy guidelines. The author concludes with two general areas which warrant further study: how accessible to the average user is information on policies and restrictions in library web sites and how accurately do these web sites reflect actual policies toward unaffiliated users. P. Ortega.

Covey, Denise Troll. “The Need to Improve Remote Access to Online Library Resources: Filling the Gap Between Commercial Vendor and Academic User Practice.” Portal: Libraries and the Academy 3, no. 4 (October 2003): 577-599.
The author looks at remote access to library resources as a high priority need to serve an academic user population used to convenience and ease-of-use. Libraries are providing access via proxy server and VPN (virtual private network) technology. Covey surveyed academic libraries to look at costs including estimates of labor costs, rate of technical problems encountered by users, workflow of problem reporting to problem handling within institutions, time spent troubleshooting and explaining access, etc. The results of the survey suggest that libraries find these technologies problematic, but necessary. The author suggests emerging technologies such as Shibboleth can provide a single sign-on approach for institutions that have developed a campus-wide directory environment. Solutions like Shibboleth can provide better security for vendors as well as convenient access for users. I. Frank.

Jurkowski, Odin. “Reaching Out to Online Students: Librarian Perspectives on Serving Students in Distance Education.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 4 (2003): 77-89.
The author conducted telephone interviews with a librarian at each of four different college libraries to see what current issues they are facing with the steady increase in off-campus users. All four librarians strongly agreed that distance education students should have equivalent services to those on campus. All also agreed on the importance of both bibliographic instruction and needs assessment. Problems encountered ranged from the difficulties of getting print resources to students to issues involved with administrators and other campus departments. Areas for improvement are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research. A. Lawrence.

Jurkowski, Odin Lech. An Analysis of Library Web Sites at Colleges and Universities Serving Distance Education Students. EdD diss., Northern Illinois University, 2003. 144 pp.
The author researched library services offered to distance learners at 17 institutions with various degrees of distance learning, from a few online courses to entire degree programs. Jurkowski provides a constructivist framework for his study. He suggests that library instruction and other services should provide opportunities for individual learning experiences and personal guidance in the use of library resources. Jurkowski analyzed library websites, conducted personal interviews with librarians, and surveyed distance education students. He notes that some institutions with well-developed distance learning programs provide fewer library services than some institutions smaller distance learning programs. While all librarians felt they were doing a good job, there were disparities in library services and resources. Among other things, students noted the need for more online full text resources, faster document delivery, and personal support in the use of library resources. As librarians struggle to offer services with limited resources, The author suggests that librarians need to undertake more formal needs assessments to determine what their users really want. I. Frank.

Latham, Don and Stephanie Maatta Smith. “Practicing What We Teach: A Descriptive Analysis of Library Services for Distance Learning Students in ALA-Accredited LIS Schools.” Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 44, no. 2 (Spring 2003): 20-36.
What is the level of library service available to students in ALA-accredited schools of library and information science? The authors present their research findings, which comprise a study of library websites and survey results from 28 programs included in the study. The study sought to find out what services are available to distance learning students, how the services are promoted, whether or not library service providers have any special training in working with distance learners, and how the effectiveness of library services are evaluated. The authors found that services appear to be adequate overall, that websites are the primary marketing tool, and that students are aware of available services. The study also showed that most programs do not employ a specialized distance learning librarian. The authors pointed to a lack of data on the effectiveness of distance learning library services, and suggested this as a potential area for further study. J. Markgraf.

Lessin, Barton M., Barbara K. Redman, and Nancy A. Wilmes. “A Usage Survey of Standards and Guidelines Affecting Library Services to Distance Education Nursing Programs.” Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 1 (2004): 55-78.
The standards and guidelines issued by professional organizations are intended to provide guidance to those who set up and administer academic programs and support services. The authors of this article investigated program administrators’ and librarians’ level of knowledge about the standards for academic nursing programs, library services for distance learners, and information literacy competency. They identified relevant standards or guidelines and sent a survey to the selected test group. They were attempting to identify the level of knowledge about the standards, and also whether they were being applied by those in the test group. The study results were supportive of their expectation that each surveyed group would be at least somewhat familiar with standards issued by their own professional organizations, but not as familiar with those of the other group being surveyed. For example, the librarians would be at least somewhat familiar with standards for library service, but not as familiar with standards for administration of nursing education programs. The authors describe characteristics of several sets of standards, and include a tabular comparison of Use and Non-Use Rates for Guidelines and Standards. J. Marshall.

2002

Adams, Kate E. and Mary Cassner. “Content and Design of Academic Library Web Sites for Distance Learners: An Analysis of ARL Libraries.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 1-9. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 3-13.
After an examination of all 123 ARL library websites, 48 with distance education pages were analyzed for 15 design characteristics and 48 content elements. Several design elements appeared in a solid majority, including navigation bars, the library’s logo, and variable font sizes. The presence of other design elements varied widely (such as the number of links or the number of colors used), and some were only used on a small percent of the sites (wall paper, a text-only option). Content elements found on almost all of the distance education pages included explanation of services available as well as links to the library’s and the university’s home page. Few of the distance education pages analyzed were designed to stand apart from the library’s website, so the study also examined relevant content on the library’s home page. The authors conclude by encouraging distance librarians collaborate with web developers to improve access. They emphasize the need for making the distance education page easy to locate from the library’s home page, including user-friendly terminology, avoiding jargon, outlining services for faculty, and identifying and providing contact information for the distance education librarian. J. Brandt.

Jones, Marie F. “Help! I’m the New Distance Librarian – Where Do I Begin?” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 309-319. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 397-410.
After soliciting input from participants in two distance library service email discussion groups, the author compiled and summarized recommendations for new distance education librarians from 27 respondents. The strongest recommendation concerns the importance of networking and communication with colleagues from four different areas. Cooperation and collaboration with other librarians within the organization is deemed to be essential to support the distance education program. Long-term, sustained efforts are recommended to ensure effective cooperation with teaching faculty and distance program administrators. National associations, conferences and discussion lists are emphasized as sources of critical expertise and support. The benefits of cooperating with libraries in closer proximity to the students are also highlighted. Different aspects of gathering critical information to support the program are also discussed, including understanding users and their needs, documenting the use of distance library services, and identifying possible sources for funding. Other recommendations include proactively marketing services, the need to be flexible, effectively utilization of information technology, and the importance of national guidelines and standards as a resource. J. Brandt.

Thompson, Hugh. “The Library’s Role in Distance Education: Survey Results from ACRL’s 2000 Academic Library Trends and Statistics.” College & Research Libraries News 63, no. 5 (May 2002): 338-340.
As part of it’s annual survey of trends and statistics in academic libraries, the Association of College and Research Libraries included a section on distance learning in their 2000 questionnaire. Over half of the 3,000 libraries sampled returned the survey, including representation from associate, baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral granting institutions. Distance learning trends were addressed in two separate parts of the survey. The first covered demographics and how libraries administered the program, while the second focused on the delivery of services. A summary of key findings indicates a majority of all types of institutions offer distance programs, but over 90% of these programs served a relatively small number of students. Institutions utilize both newer technology and traditional methods to delivery service to distance learners. A majority of libraries reported using both face-to-face meetings as well as the Internet to deliver materials, library instruction, and reference service. J. Brandt.

Tipton, Carol Johnson. Academic Libraries and Distance Learners: A Study of Graduate Student Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Library Support for Distance Learning. PhD diss., Texas A&M University, 2002. 134 pp.
The author studied distance learners library policies and services at three institutions in the Texas A&M University System. The librarians most directly responsible for distance learning library services were interviewed. In addition, surveys were administered to graduate students enrolled in courses at remote sites available through the Trans Texas Videoconferencing Network (TTVN). At the time this study was conducted (1999), Tipton discovered that there were no formal policies for distance learning library services though librarians offered access to electronic resources, provided reference services, and were able to arrange for interlibrary loans for users at remote sites. Librarians did not have formal training in distance learning library services and no additional funds were available to provide services for remote users. Students did not feel that their home institution’s library met their information needs. Libraries need to improve their policies and strategies to provide services to distance learners. I. Frank.

2001

Association of College and Research Libraries. Center For Survey Research. “Trends in Distance Learning Library Service.” In 2000 Academic Library Trends and Statistics for Carnegie Classification: Doctoral-Granting Institutions, edited by Hugh A. Thompson. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2001, 94-100, 171-172
The annual survey of the Association of College and Research Libraries gathered data from over 1600 academic libraries on current operations, and also included two sections on distance learning. Data are organized by Carnegie classification (Associates, Baccalaureate, Masters, and Doctor granting institution). While a majority of institutions of all types offer distance education programs, most of these are relatively small (enrolling 499 or fewer students). Roughly 90% of libraries at institutions offering distance education provide library services for distance learners. The survey measured operating methods for distance library services such as cooperative agreements, contract services, remote access, off-campus libraries, and central library service. An overview of delivery methods for instruction, reference services, and materials reveals that institutions utilize both newer technology (various Internet-based services) and traditional methods (e.g. face-to-face meetings) to provide these services. Data are also available on staff involvement, organizational relationship with the main library, orientation, budget issues, and assessment. J. Brandt.

RUSA Business Reference and Services Section. “Serving Business Distance Education Students: A Checklist for Librarians.” Reference and User Services Quarterly 41, no. 2 (Winter 2001): 144-158.
The Business Reference and Services Section (BRASS) surveyed librarians serving business Distance Education (DE) students to investigate if some unique aspects existed and were attention-worthy enough to create new guidelines. The results revealed some key points: MBA was the most common type of distance education, the home institution’s own state was the most commonly cited location for offering DE to the business students, and library services to distance students varied among different institutions. The predominant view in the survey was that there were no unique issues, but some comments indicated otherwise. By acknowledging issues unique to libraries and librarians serving business distance students and emphasizing important issues and challenges, BRASS developed a checklist, complementing the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. To better serve the business distance students, a virtual library tailored to their needs, is absolutely important. Coordination of existing library services (e.g. circulation, document delivery, reference assistance) should be adequate to support distant access. Access to electronic resources necessitates licensing and technical support issues. Relationships need to be fostered with faculty who are instrumental in promoting library services to the distance students. Serving international distance students is more challenging as issues revolving access to local library resources in students’ own country, technical problems, cultural communications barriers need to be resolved. The need to develop and promote a content-rich, user-friendly website specifically for the distance students and to have this as a link from the business school’s web page is paramount. A need for building partnerships and cooperative agreements with other libraries is essential. Future recommendations included accreditation standards, information literacy, copyright, and licensing which were identified as key areas of concern. M. Chakraborty.

Snyder, Carolyn A., Susan Logue, Howard Carter, and Mickey Soltys. Instructional Support Services. SPEC Kit 265. Washington, DC: Office of Leadership and Management Services, Association of Research Libraries, 2001. 96 pp. ERIC ED 463 760. Summary online. Available: http://www.arl.org/spec/265sum.html
Libraries are providing a variety of instructional support services to keep up with the increasing demand and development of web-based and other education programs in academic institutions. One hundred and twenty one ARL member libraries surveyed in June 2001 addressed issues related to the implementation of steadily growing sophisticated instructional services (e.g. the types of instructional support services, collaboration with other institutional unit/s, staffing, budget, promotion and evaluation of such services). The types of services at the highest desired service level were digital imaging, distance learning, web courses, and instructional technology. As a measure of collaboration, different institutional units shared responsibility for providing this range of services (e.g. Technology Training Center, Center for Teaching Effectiveness, Audiovisual Services, Multimedia Instructional Development Center, and Office of Information Technology). Maximum collaboration between the library and another institutional unit was in the areas of web course development, and instructional technology. Digital imaging, distance learning, web courses were the most often services provided for so new and reallocated staff were assigned to these areas whereas instructional support services by libraries to library and other staff were the responsibilities of the existing staff and existing budget. New funding came from grants or university sources. Libraries use some informal and inexpensive techniques to promote (web pages, email, brochures, campus newspaper, newsletter) and evaluate (feedback, statistics, survey, peer institution comparison) their instructional support services. M. Chakraborty.

2000

Heller-Ross, Holly and Julia Kiple. “Information Literacy for Interactive Distance Learners.” In Teaching the New Library to Today’s Users: Reaching International, Minority, Senior Citizens, Gay/Lesbian, First-Generation, At-Risk, Graduate and Returning Students, and Distance Learners, edited by Trudi E. Jacobson and Helene C. Williams. The New Library Series, Number 4. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000, 191-219.
A review of the literature and responses from a survey of distance librarians identify critical administrative, pedagogical, and technology issues for distance learning instruction librarians. Organizational issues cited include staffing, budgeting, planning, and promotion. A discussion of information literacy pedagogical issues incorporates learning theories, adapting traditional teaching methods, asynchronous learning, technology and collaboration with faculty. Information technology concerns and logistical issues consist of training, networking, costs, support, distribution of materials, and schedule coordination. The authors examine different approaches to these issues developed by three institutions. The University of Maine Network for Education and Technology Services (UNET) focuses on electronic resources, collaborating with faculty, and hiring instructors to work directly with distance learners. Nova Southeastern contracts with research libraries to extend access to collections and provides instruction on-campus, on-site, and via the Internet. Platsburgh State University offers instructional services via site visits, a credit course, research guides, and in-class demonstration. A summary of trends and directions describes organization issues, teaching methods, time, and instructional technology. J. Brandt.

1999

Dirr, Peter J. “Putting Principles Into Practice: Promoting Effective Support Services for Students in Distance Learning Programs: A Report on the Findings of a Survey”. Part of the “Putting Principles Into Practice” project conducted by the Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET). 1999. Online. Available: http://www.wcet.info/projects/studentservices/Survey%20Report.pdf Appendices: http://www.wcet.info/projects/studentservices/appendices.pdf (in pdf format)
Library services are examined in the context of all support services for distance learning programs in this comprehensive study of 1028 institutions of higher learning. Findings suggest that most institutions tended to focus their attention on converting existing courses to distance ones, without much thought given to developing new support services for students at a distance. While one-third of the institutions surveyed reported providing no special library access for distance learners, overall library services were regarded as among the most innovative of support services. A review of the literature regarding innovations in support services is presented. J. Markgraf.

1998

Jones, William G. Transforming Libraries 6: Issues and Innovations in Distance Learning. SPEC Kit 234. Washington, DC: Office of Leadership and Management Services, Association of Research Libraries, 1998. 40 pp. Summary online. Available: http://www.arl.org/spec/234fly.html
Descriptions of ten different institutions demonstrate the diversity of library programs for distance learners. The University of Maine supports television courses offered throughout the state, while the University of Maryland University Colleges provides services for a web-based program. Supporting distance education providers in many different states, Western Governor’s University provides service through a partnership with the University of New Mexico Library to supplement the services offered by the participating institutions. The University of Colorado, Colorado Springs partners with Jones Intercable and CARL Uncover to provide document delivery. A statewide Reference Referral Center, inter-institutional borrowing and electronic reserves are important parts of service offered by the University of South Florida. Specially created videos as well as a website describe services available to distance students enrolled at Central Connecticut State University. The Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois, is exploring electronic reserves, course packs, telephone reference, and the library needs of distance students in general. Analysis of a grant funded-pilot project and a survey of distance students and faculty at SUNY-Buffalo reveals the importance of collaborating with faculty, developing online reserves, and access to appropriate technology. The University of Minnesota Library is phasing in services such as document delivery and implementing fees to recover costs. To expand services to distance learners, the University of Iowa Library is conducting a pilot document delivery project, recruiting new staff, and collaborating with faculty and other institutions. J. Brandt.

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