Appalachian State University (North Carolina)

Kreszock, Martha H. “Greetings from the Mothership: Library Services for Off-Campus Students.” Teaching and Learning at Appalachian 6 (2001-2002): 13-15. Online. Available: http://www.hubbard.appstate.edu/fad/tla/2002.pdf (in pdf format)
The library services developed for off-campus students at Appalachian State University are described by the author in the first person. Among the topics she discusses are: the library-wide approach to off-campus services, web resources, document delivery, electronic reserves, reference services, staffing, and library instruction. The author emphasizes that the library is committed to providing off-campus students with an equitable level of service to reinforce that they are not second-class citizens but rather part of the Appalachian family. A. Slade.

Arizona State University

Barnard, John. “Distance Learners Use of the Internet and Academic Libraries: Supplement or Replacement?” In ED-MEDIA 1999: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications: Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 99, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Seattle, Washington, USA, June 19-24, 1999, Volume 2, edited by Betty Collis and Ron Oliver. Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 1999, 1396-1397.
Results of an Arizona State University survey to gather data on distant learners’ library and Internet use are presented. Results indicate that distance learners rank the Internet as their first information source of choice, followed by academic libraries, personal contacts, public libraries, and personal book collections. Although they didn’t rank libraries as their first choice, a majority of respondents agreed that libraries were necessary. Based on the findings, the author advocates the library’s role in providing value-added service to assist students in using the overwhelming amount of information to which they have access and to meet increasing expectations brought about by the Internet. J. Markgraf.

Austin Community College (Texas)

Buckstead, Jonathan R. “Developing an Effective Off-Campus Library Services Web Page: Don’t Worry, Be Happy!” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 61-71. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 93-107.
As academic libraries have moved to Web OPACs and a multitude of Web-delivered resources, a well-designed library services Website can provide more effective, integrated access to resources than traditional printed information packets that are cost and workload intensive. In setting out to achieve this objective, the author reviewed many models, representing all levels of higher education. He identifies and describes key components, including essential components, recommended components, and prioritization of content. Further, he emphasizes the need for simple and consistent organization and page layout, a commitment to ongoing updates and maintenance, and a means for users to provide feedback. On the technical side, the paper contains a brief description of minimal hardware and software requirements, including a need for maintaining statistics on the use of the Website. While a well-designed Website can be a highly effective marketing tool, the Website itself must be promoted to distance learning faculty, who in turn can promote it to their students. The author concludes that end users will benefit most from those sites that provide the up-front access to the real content in the most direct way possible. A. Prestamo.

Austin Peay State University (Tennessee)

Buchanan, Lori E., DeAnne L. Luck, and Ted C. Jones. “Integraing Information Literacy Into the Virtual University: A Couse Model.” Library Trends 51, no. 2 (Fall 2002): 144-166.
The authors detail a graduate level online course in multimedia literacy developed by the user education librarian, the library’s webmaster, and a communications professor at Austin Peay State University in Tennessee and which was largely based on the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education and the ACRL Instruction Section’s Objectives for Information Literacy Instruction. The course evolved from a longstanding collaboration between composition and communications faculty and librarians in developing and team-teaching two humanities courses on campus. Then, after attending an ACRL Institute for Information Literacy Immersion Program, librarians initiated meetings with teaching faculty to discuss incorporating IL outcomes in their classes. The plans for the collaborative online multimedia literacy course were initiated. In the course, students addressed and applied all five IL standards in their group-designed and created web sites as well in their individual web portfolios. Student evaluations of the course were largely favorable with practical suggestions for modifying course content and assignments. The authors offered their own practical recommendations for similar collaborative IL courses, starting with establishing firm connections with teaching faculty and continuing learning more about instructional design and online delivery. P. Ortega.

Ball State University (Indiana)

Calvert, Hildegund M. “Distance Education From a Collections Development Perspective.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 93-99. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 117-126.
This article begins with a summary of the effects of improved technology on customer expectations and on the need for change in library technical services. With the increase in the number of formats for the delivery of information, there appears the need for flexibility in workflow and job skill acquisition in order to effect full access of materials for patrons. As a member of a team involved in expanding online degree opportunities, the author helped the Nursing Department and the libraries apply the ACRL Distance Learning guidelines. Using surveys with students, faculty and in-house monitoring of resource use, the library staff was able to provide a client centered approach to resource selection and delivery. The overall effect of these changes on the collection development staff was to expand collaboration among the other departments of the library and the university. There is also a short discussion of the issues involved with aggregator bundling, complete cataloging, monopoly on journal titles, journals jumping from one aggregator to another, and in-house academic publishing. M. Horan.

Calvert, Hildegund M. “Document Delivery Options for Distance Education Students and Electronic Reserve Service at Ball State University Libraries.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 73-82. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 109-125.
An extensive literature review of the evolution of document delivery services and the growth of distance learning programs sets the stage in this paper. Distance learning programs and existing document delivery services at Ball State University are described. Document delivery services use a combination of the Research Library Group’s Ariel software and the National Library of Medicine’s DocView software, enabling delivery of articles to distance learning students via email. An Electronic Reserves Working Group was formed in March of 1997, and a pilot program began in spring 1998. During the initial semester, seven instructors placed 69 articles on E-Reserve. In summer 1998 the library migrated to a new automation system, which provided new options for providing access to E-Reserve materials. Web File Manager, a locally developed application, aided in file transfer, password protection, and copyright management. Scanning workflows are described. Use of the E-Reserve system grew 553% from spring 1998 to spring 1999. The author concludes with an exhortation to librarians to be proactive in provision of document delivery services and E-Reserves, or run the risk of being marginalized by commercial services willing to meet these needs. A. Prestamo.

Dorner, Jennifer L., Susan E. Taylor, and Kay Hodson-Carlton. “Faculty-Librarian Collaboration for Nursing Information Literacy: A Tiered Approach.” Reference Services Review 29, no. 2 (2001): 132-140.
The librarians at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana, worked with faculty and healthcare professionals to design and implement a tiered approach for teaching information literacy skills to nursing students. The article described how the undergraduate information literacy training was tied to two required English classes. Just as importantly, additional training was tied to required classes in the School of Nursing’s undergraduate degree program, the RN completion program, and the master’s degree program. The first of these modules to be developed collaboratively with the nursing faculty was Nursing 605. However, at the time of the writing of the article, full implementation was still a couple years away. J. Tuñón.

Bowling Green State University (Ohio)

Broughton, Kelly. “Our Experiment in Online, Real-Time Reference.” Computers in Libraries 21, no. 4 (April 2001): 26-31.
The author highlights the importance of libraries providing online, real-time reference assistance to remote users and describes Bowling Green State University library’s experience in implementing chat software to do this. The library chose HumanClick, a software program that at the time was free, for its initial experimentation. The experience of communicating via chat is briefly described; some users are comfortable with the multitasking nature of chat, and one can quickly adapt to this mode of communication. Valuable features such as canned messages and the ability to push Web pages to users are described here, but a major disadvantage encountered was the lack of technical support because the software was free. After their initial experience, the library decided to pursue grant funding to purchase a commercial product, Virtual Reference Desk from Library Systems & Services. While the cost was high, they felt the advantages made it worthwhile. The product, aimed at libraries, utilizes customer call center software, with features beyond traditional chat software – transcripts of reference interactions, statistical reports, the ability to queue users, customization and co-browsing features. The author concludes with two future concerns of the library: the impact on workload and continued funding of the service. M. Feeney.

Brigham Young University (Utah)

Washburn, Allyson and Jessica Draper. “80 Miles from the Nearest Library, with a Research Paper Due Monday: Extending Library Services to Distance Learners.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 383-402. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 507-529.
Brigham Young University supports a large population of distance learners, comprising close half of the student enrollment. The library, in response to the needs of the distance students, created a portal for the students taking English courses integrating an off-campus authentication system for access to electronic resources and library services including email and chat reference. The library also created course specific library pages to be integrated with web based courseware (Blackboard), and publicized to faculty and distance students the availability of the portal and courseware pages. In the final phase of the project, the library conducted extensive usability testing on the portal and specific course pages. This project was funded by an ALA grant funded by SIRSI. C. Biles.

California State University, Chico

Blakeslee, Sarah and Kristin Johnson. “Using HorizonLive to Deliver Library Instruction to Distance and Online Students.” Reference Services Review 30, no. 4 (2002): 324-329.
Information literacy and instruction librarians at California State University, Chico decided to collaborate with selected teaching faculty, using HorizonLive virtual classroom software for convenient and flexible delivery of information literacy concepts to its distance education students. The librarians began by soliciting responses from interested faculty who agreed to participate in the proposal. They researched HorizonLive’s capabilities and then selected the course content, using screenshots as the preferred format for the presentation’s slides instead of live Web pages. Humorous images and explanatory text were incorporated into the presentation for added interest and clarity. The presentation’s slides were then placed in order and recorded; however HorizonLive did not allow for easy editing, once the presentation was initiated. A chat reference component was added in case there were any questions; however, none of the students chose to use the chat feature. The students were given a follow-up quiz via WebCT, which indicated that most had listened and paid attention to the presentation. HorizonLive, albeit cost-prohibitive, was to be easy to use, requiring very little technical expertise or additional software. Overall, the library’s project proved successful among the students and faculty who participated. M. Thomas.

California State University, Fullerton

Ruttenberg, Judy and Elizabeth Housewright. “Assessing Library Instruction for Distance Learners: A Case Study of Nursing Students.” In Managing Library Instruction Programs in Academic Libraries: Selected Papers Presented at the 29th National LOEX Library Instruction Conference, edited by Julia K. Nims and Eric Owen. Library Orientation Series, No. 33. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press, 2002, 137-148.
A California State University, Fullerton, pilot study measured the effectiveness of bibliographic instruction program offered to nursing students residing off-campus and to those studying on-campus. 45 of 57 nursing students responded to a pre/post -test and user satisfaction survey was given at then end of a month-long library instruction module. The same bibliographic instruction session was simultaneously given to on-campus students and was delivered via NetMeeting to the distance students. Results revealed that the control group, the on-campus and off-campus all showed improvement in their post-test scores, as all participants benefited from the bibliographic instruction sessions; however, the satisfaction portion of the survey revealed a slight difference in satisfaction levels among distance versus on-campus students. The authors will use the results and evaluation of this study to further improve real-time instruction and to implement improved technology for electronic delivery. Included in the appendices are the Library skills test and the Satisfaction Survey. M. Thomas.

California State University, Hayward

Manuel, Kate. “Teaching an Online Information Literacy Course.” Reference Services Review 29, no. 3 (2001): 219-228.
While academic librarians have been creating Web-based tutorials in support of their institutions’ distance education programs for some time, there are relatively few for-credit, distance education, information literacy courses for undergraduate students. The author describes her experience in developing such a course (LIBY 3200) for distance education students at California State University, Hayward. Findings from her experience teaching LIBY 3200 suggest that many students are less prepared to function &endash; technologically and cognitively &endash; in a Web-based distance education environment than might be predicted. Design and delivery of course content proved time-consuming and teaching methods had to be adapted to help the students become autonomous learners, capable of self-directed learning. F. Devlin.

California State University, Sacramento

Gu, Fang. “The role of library media services in the University Distance and Distributed Education.” Library Management 27,6/7 (2006): 379. Retrieved from Emerald Library Journals 27 February 2007.
Library and media services at California State University Sacramento are well integrated into the Distance and Distributed Education (DDE) efforts at their institution. This case study highlights the DDE efforts at CSUS with a particular focus on the contributions of the library media center. DDE at CSUS has expanded from a single-campus service to a consortial arrangement between fourteen separate on and off campus units. Services offered by library and media services include next-day availability of filmed classes in the OPAC, conversion of video from obsolete media into digital formats, and an online reserve system for media. N. Schiller

Central Michigan University

Casey, Anne Marie. “Library Services for Off-Campus Business Professionals.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 73-85, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 73-85.
The author gives a history and course description background for the school’s extended programs that have been operating since 1971. The Off-Campus Library Services (OCLS) has served these programs since 1976. Beginning with two librarians, one at the school and the other at an extended site in another state, OCLS has grown tremendously, evolving with the needs of their clients and the availability and character of the resources. OCLS now serves over 60 centers throughout the U.S. OCLS offers instruction and reference in traditional and non-traditional ways. It also maintains its own collection of materials with multiple copies for delivery when there are repeating reference questions, such as “business startups” in a particular course. OCLS does not have formal agreements with external libraries, but does resource share and purchase resources for other libraries under particular circumstances. M. Horan.

Casey, Anne Marie and Pamela A. Grudzien. “Increasing Document Delivery to Off-Campus Students Through an Interdepartmental Partnership.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 111-117. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 137-145.
The library at Central Michigan University provides services to off-campus students through a department of Off-Campus Library Services (OCLS). There is a Document Delivery Office (DDO), separate from Interlibrary Loan (ILL) that has sent materials to distance education students. The authors describe the genesis and progress of a partnership between the DDO and ILL. This partnership has increased the fill rate of document delivery to distance students. It has also led to more partnerships between OCLS and other library departments. Since OCLS has its own budget, these collaborations may lead to enhanced services through and increased ability to purchase desirable products for services to students. J. Marshall.

Casey, Anne Marie, Sheri Sochrin, and Stephanie Fazenbaker Race. “Fair is Fair, or is It? Library Services to Distance Learners.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 119-129. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 147-161.
Different types of institutions take different approaches to providing services to distance learners, depending on their resources. The methods used by three different institutions are examined. The first institution discussed is the Florida Distance Learning Reference & Referral Center (RRC), a state-sponsored center created to provide reference and instruction to distance learners at ten universities and twenty-eight community colleges. Although the RRC closed at the end of 2001, it was recognized nationally for its successes during its operation. The second institution discussed is Central Michigan University (CMU), a doctoral/research university with distance students around the world. Some of the challenges at CMU have been student difficulties with the proxy server, teaching the students about library services, and providing reference assistance during the hours needed because of differing time zones. Springfield College, a small private college, is the third institution discussed. To offer remote access services to distance learners, Springfield College’s Babson Library has reorganized many of its services and created new ones. A weak point is that of providing library instruction to the remote students. Since traveling to all remote campuses is an impossibility, alternatives such as videos, phone instruction, and the courseware program Manhatten have been explored. The library is hoping to use videoconferencing for instruction when the college’s videoconferencing facilities are completed. A. Lawrence.

Ivanitskaya, Lana, Ryan Laus, and Anne Marie Casey. “Research Readiness Self-Assessment: Assessing Students’ Research Skills and Attitudes.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 125-136. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 167-183.
Librarians at Central Michigan University (CMU) created an online assessment tool for their distance students. CMU offers degree programs and courses to students in over sixty centers throughout North America as well as through the web. The librarians involved with instruction for distance students believed that students perceived their research skills were better than they actually were and that the Internet provides more useful information than it does. The librarians wanted an assessment tool that they could use to more effectively reach students with user education. They began their work with a literature review and focus groups to determine key skills and attitudes that should be assessed. They, then, agreed on an assessment format: multiple choice questions about terminology, identifying plagiarism, etc.; hands-on problems to determine facility with databases and searching; and attitudinal measures to explore how and why students use the research methods they do. Since this assessment tool was being created in-house, they also addressed technical and scalability issues, as well as portability from one set of students to another. The librarians believe this tool, the Research Readiness Self Assessment (RRSA) is useful because it provides immediate feedback for students, works as both a pretest and a posttest, is adaptable to different levels and disciplines of students, and is easy for the library to maintain and administer. E. Onega.

Central Missouri State University

Dinwiddie, Mollie and Janice Winters. “Two-Stepping with Technology: An Instructor/Librarian Collaboration in Health Promotion for Baccalaureate Nursing Students.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 4 (2004): 33-45.
As a result of collaboration between nursing faculty and a librarian, a Blackboard-based project to enhance the learning environment for nursing students was developed at Central Missouri State University. The authors discuss the importance of utilizing collaboration and technology to create learning communities that improve student learning and success. Newly matriculated nursing students are enrolled in a Blackboard course entitled “Research Assistance for Nursing Students,” and remain in this non-credit, extra-curricular “pseudo-course” until graduation. The courseware technology provides an ongoing forum where students are able to access the nursing liaison librarian, their fellow students, nursing faculty, and supplemental research materials at any time during their student career. By instructing students how to use this forum, the librarian facilitates student work on a specific “health promotion” research project as well as cultivates personal and institutional links with students and faculty. The results of a questionnaire regarding this Blackboard-based forum are included in the appendix. J. Brandt.

Dinwiddie, Mollie and Linda L. Lillard. “At the Crossroads: Library and Classroom.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 199-211. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 251-267.
Librarians at Central Missouri State University actively participated in nursing and criminal justice courses delivered using Blackboard’s course management system. They had roles as co-instructors and provided web pages of useful information. Librarians posted announcements on the student discussion board throughout the semester and contacted each student individually by email to offer direct assistance with research projects. The librarians used several methods of data collection including anonymous survey of 15 questions administered through Blackboard. Overall, students responded positively to the assistance provided by librarians. They found information about accessing library resources from off-campus helpful. More than half found the library’s distance education web page useful. Less than 30% of the students were aware of reciprocal borrowing privileges. Students felt comfortable asking for help and overwhelmingly would like the same kind of assistance for other courses. However, 42% of the students had “no opinion” when asked about whether their emailed questions were answered in a timely manner. Students were interested in the idea of “real time” instructional sessions in the future. Half of the students needed to come to the physical library in order to complete their research. Student visits to the library might explain the low number of questions asked by email. Overall the student response to a librarian’s intervention in their online courses was positive. I. Frank.

Dinwiddie, Mollie M. and Linda L. Lillard. “Distance Education Library Services: An Opportunity for Personalized Customer Service.” In Distance Learning 2001: Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 8-10, 2001, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2001, 127-131.
Librarians at Central Missouri State University took on the role of co-instructors in online courses to provide personalized research assistance. This service was initially provided to one graduate and one undergraduate nursing class. In 2001, librarians participated as co-instructors in nine online courses in Criminal Justice and Nursing. Librarians sent each student email offering research assistance. They sent announcements to the class as a whole throughout the semester. When surveyed, the students were positive about the support that the librarians offered. Most students agreed that the librarian responded in a timely manner to their queries though 8% either Disagreed Somewhat or Strongly Disagreed. Presumably these students expected a turn-around response time of less than 48 hours. This kind of standard could become difficult to maintain if librarians were involved in many courses. More than half the students Strongly Agreed or Agreed that they were willing to ask the librarian for help. Students indicated that their expectations regarding assistance were met. Many students suggested that they would ask librarians for assistance in the future. The librarians will pursue this active model of providing research assistance to students taking online courses. I. Frank.

Lawson, Mollie D., Linda Lillard, Patricia Antrim, and Susan Morgan. “We’re in This Together: Librarians as Co-Instructors With Classroom Faculty for Electronic Delivery.” In Distance Learning 2000: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 2-4, 2000, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000, 251-255.
A faculty member in the Nursing Department at Central Missouri State University asked the library’s liaison to the department to participate in her Nursing Research course taught through CourseInfo courseware. Co-instructor status gave the librarian full access to course components so she could provide web links tailored to the content and communicate easily with the students via email. She advertised help with research by postings on CourseInfo’s announcement board and by emailing each student. Only 52% of the 31 students in this course contacted the librarian, but there might be a future risk of her being overwhelmed by requests. An evaluative survey surprisingly showed only 36% of respondents felt they needed a real time interactive session with the librarian, and only 45% supported the idea of an online tutorial. M. Nolan.

Colorado State University

Cullen, Kevin F. and Jennifer S. Kutzik. “Supporting Remote Access to Libraries Resources: After the Proxy Server is Implemented.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2000): 67-80.
The authors provide a history of the changes of the proxy server, Innovative Web Access Management, from 1998 through 1999. Because of a massive flood in the library, the distant learning library program became the lead in delivering materials not just to distant learners, but also to local learners who no longer had access to what had been in the library. The resulting services needs of the University for materials drove the librarians to a new server. This created the need for the librarians to find innovative ways for training users how to authenticate and to communicate when there were problems. Support teams then were able to respond to problems and communicate solutions through a number of avenues, but most specifically through their website. Remote access problem calls were cut in half after website redesign. Cross training on remote access methods, concepts and issues also helped educate users faster. The authors also described some as yet to be solved proxyserver/browser problems, such as AOL. M. Horan.

Columbus State University (Georgia)

Stratford, Sandra K. “Surviving a Distance Learning Accreditation Visit.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 377-387. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 489-501.
Regional accreditation agencies have begun to closely examine the distance education offerings of universities. If the number of distance education courses offered through an institution makes up a large percentage of the entire curriculum, the institution may be subject of a special distance education accreditation review. In 1998 Columbus State University in Georgia became the first higher education institution in the state to undergo a distance learning accreditation review by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). The author describes the preparation for the accreditation review, focusing on the library’s participation. She conveys lessons learned through the accreditation visit, and details what the library did right in order to highlight its accomplishments and to be cited as excellent in the exit conference at the end of the accreditation visit. J. Marshall.

Community Colleges of Spokane (Washington)

Gover, Harvey R. “Library Services for Overlapping Distance Learning Programs of Two Higher Education Systems in Washington State.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 20 (2003): 83-122.
Washington State is a geographically and demographically diverse state and these factors have influenced the locations of higher learning institutions around the state. Two higher education systems that offer distance education programs in the state are the Community Colleges of Spokane (CCS) and Washington State University (WSU). CCS offers its distance education programs via Internet and video taped formats, two way interactive video classes, and correspondence courses. The library services for students in these programs include a library catalog shared by two of the community colleges in the system, toll free telephone numbers, interlibrary loan services, and online reference services. WSU has a main campus in Pullman, four branch campuses, and ten Learning Centers. Distance education students attending WSU are offered web-based courses, video taped courses, courses delivered by an interactive compressed digital television network (WHETS), and face-to-face courses presented at branch campuses and learning centers. Library services for WSU distance students are provided at branch campus libraries and include a shared library catalog, electronic resources, e-mail and telephone reference service, and interlibrary loan and document delivery services. The branch libraries also maintain book and print periodical collections. Tables and figures are included in the article to enhance the narrative and provide statistical data. S. Heidenreich.

DePaul University (Illinois)

Cervone, Frank and Doris Brown. “Transforming Library Services to Support Distance Learning: Strategies Used by the DePaul University Libraries.” College & Research Libraries News 62, no. 2 (February 2001): 147-149.
This article concentrates on how the University defined and implemented the equivalency of service standard of the ACRL Distance Learning Services guidelines. This is done essentially by creating greater direct access, by reducing delivery intermediaries and enhancing broadcast of options for service and their implementation by the patron. This is done by expanding digital collections through the use of vendors and digitization, sending materials via the fastest delivery service relative to the user (while keeping copyright issues in mind) and designing websites from the point of view of patron needs. Recommended was increased collaboration with faculty and continuous assessment. The article concludes with the issue of resource concentration in the hands of a few preferred vendors. M. Horan.

Logan, Firouzeh and Erin McCaffrey. “New Partnerships for New Learning.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 207-212. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 309-318.
After laying the historical groundwork for the implementation of a student centered inquiry based adult learning program, the authors describe the growth of the relationship between the library and classroom faculty. Starting around 1978, the change was incremental, but began to gain momentum in the 1990s with the increase in delivery capabilities and the growth of program. Careful targeting of courses with appropriate resource support encouraged a more collaborative effort in curriculum and strategic planning involving the entire school. M. Horan.

Drexel University (Pennsylvania)

Johnson, Ken. “Library Services for Distance Learners at Drexel University’s LeBow College of Business.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 141-154, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 141-154.
The author begins by saying that extended services are now a “thriving component” of many business schools. While the school offers other distance programs this article focuses on the business school as offering some standard as well as some unique features. The program offers several personalized workshops and on online webpage specifically for business. One of the workshops is part of a weekend orientation retreat covering all business databases and extended services. There is a book and journal article delivery service with direct requests for books through their web catalog. Electronic reserves are used and proxy server authentication with user setup instructions is used as well for commercial database connections. The business librarian travels to sites, using live demonstrations through dial-up when possible and canned backup ones, when not. Currently there are three colleges with distance programs and the subject librarians in each act as the distance librarian. Distance learning support is embedded in the strategic planning process. The result was a shift to fewer print journals and more electronic subscriptions, and the creation of a new position, electronic resources manager. One limitation is lack of database software support for identifying distance learning students for planning purposes. M. Horan.

College of DuPage (Illinois)

Coté, Denise. “The Online College Library: An Exploration of Library Services to Distance Education Students.” Community & Junior College Libraries 10, no. 2 (2001): 61-77.
The author gives a systematic description of the services, experiences and recommendations that are an outgrowth of the development of their pilot distance programs. Reference services include in-person, an online form, instant messaging, online chat, WebBoard, Netmeeting, email, and telephone reference. Library cards were issued through the online form. But, the information had to be transferred from the form to the database. A librarian did verification of student registration with the school before a card was issued. For a fee, materials were mailed to homes and could be returned via the mail or dropped off at the schools regional office. They offered course related resource webpages and proxy server help. In the latter case, instructions in both text and image were the most help to students. Instruction took place at the regional center face-to-face. The most effective approach to marketing services was to have library information materials be included in department and college mailings and packets. Inclusion in syllabi and integrated into coursework was most effective in encouraging student use as well as being included on course websites and courseware. Feedback was very important to the program and a survey with response total is included in the article. M. Horan.

East Tennessee State University

Jones, Marie F. “Creating a Library CD for Off-Campus Students.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 137-149. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 185-202.
Originally delivered as a hands-on workshop, this paper describes the theory behind and process of creating a CD including instruction and library information for off campus students at East Tennessee State University. Some of the tutorials are also available online, but the author wanted to accommodate those students with limited bandwidth as well. Based soundly in theory, each tutorial on the CD includes Gagne and Brigg’s nine events of instruction. Software used to create the CDs is discussed, as are several tips and suggestions for some advanced PowerPoint features. The author concludes with lessons learned from the project, detailing what would be done differently the next time. P. Pival.

Emporia State University (Kansas)

Summey, Terri Pedersen and James Fisk. “Who’s Out There in Cyberspace: Profiling the Remote Learner for Service Design.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 389-395. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2003): 503-513.
Emporia State University’s School of Library and Information Management (SLIM) serves students across six states using formats such as weekend intensive courses, interactive video, and web-based courses. In spring of 2000, surveys were completed by 170 of 437 students enrolled in the SLIM program. Students were queried about their ability to access library services, their knowledge of current services, and their opinions about proposed services. 69% of the students work outside the home and 32% are parents of at least one child under age 12. 94% had Internet access. A majority of students were unaware that email reference was offered. Some students were not aware of the remote services available to them. Not all students were confident of their own research skills even though 64% currently work in libraries. Students were interested in “proposed new services” such as extended weekend hours for the Library to accommodate students taking weekend classes, a toll-free number for the Library reference desk; topical pathfinders, online instructional modules, virtual office hours with reference librarians, a distance education web page, and electronic document delivery, and remote access to more full-text databases. The Library implemented many of the changes suggested by the survey. I. Frank.

Florida Distance Learning Reference and Referral Center

Ault, Meredith and Rachel Viggiano. “Going the Distance: Traditional Reference Services for Non-Traditional Users.” Florida Libraries 43, no. 2 (Fall 2000): 6-7.
Distance Learning library services demand specialized services in order to deliver the promise of a full opportunity to learn to students in those programs. This article examines how the Florida Distance Learning Reference and Referral Center (RRC) works to provide equity for off-campus learners. The role of the Center is to ameliorate the learning needs differences among the students of the Consortium that host the Center and the differences between the resources available at and through each of the member schools. RRC then is a broker whose purpose is to even out those differences in resources and to explain what options are available at their local levels. The Center’s use has grown though marketing and expanding their repertoire of contact tools to include toll free calls and chat reference. M. Horan.

Casey, Anne Marie, Sheri Sochrin, and Stephanie Fazenbaker Race. “Fair is Fair, or is It? Library Services to Distance Learners.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 119-129. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 147-161.
Different types of institutions take different approaches to providing services to distance learners, depending on their resources. The methods used by three different institutions are examined. The first institution discussed is the Florida Distance Learning Reference & Referral Center (RRC), a state-sponsored center created to provide reference and instruction to distance learners at ten universities and twenty-eight community colleges. Although the RRC closed at the end of 2001, it was recognized nationally for its successes during its operation. The second institution discussed is Central Michigan University (CMU), a doctoral/research university with distance students around the world. Some of the challenges at CMU have been student difficulties with the proxy server, teaching the students about library services, and providing reference assistance during the hours needed because of differing time zones. Springfield College, a small private college, is the third institution discussed. To offer remote access services to distance learners, Springfield College’s Babson Library has reorganized many of its services and created new ones. A weak point is that of providing library instruction to the remote students. Since traveling to all remote campuses is an impossibility, alternatives such as videos, phone instruction, and the courseware program Manhatten have been explored. The library is hoping to use videoconferencing for instruction when the college’s videoconferencing facilities are completed. A. Lawrence.

Race, Stephanie F. and Rachel Viggiano. “It’s Not BI, It’s VI – Virtual Instruction for Distance Learners.” In National Online 2001: Proceedings of the 22nd National Online Meeting, New York, May 15-17, 2001, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2001, 377-383.
The Florida Distance Learning Reference and Referral Center (RRC) provides reference assistance and instruction to distance learners throughout Florida. A pilot project was implemented to provide real-time reference and instruction via chat software. A useful bulleted list of what to consider when choosing chat software is included. RRC’s choice was ConferenceRoom Professional Edition by WebMaster, Inc. A screen shot from the software, which RRC customized and called RRChat, is included. Features of the software include: an auditory prompt when users enter the software, and the ability to record conversations and remove users from chat rooms. RRC librarians used RRChat to provide library instruction to distance students. Lessons learned are presented, from requesting that students register for workshops to preparing scripts for teaching online classes. Problems like the inability to browse collaboratively with students and the difficulty in promoting RRC services are described. Additional potential uses of RRChat are offered, such as using the chat rooms as a “student union” for distance students. RRC created two surveys to assess student satisfaction with the chat service; a screen shot of one is included. The authors conclude that RRChat has been an effective way to provide library instruction to distance learners. M. Feeney.

Viggiano, Rachel and Meredith Ault. “Online Library Instruction for Online Students.” Information Technology and Libraries 20, no. 3 (September 2001): 135-138.
Librarians at the Florida Distance Learning Library Initiative’s Reference and Referral Center (RRC) used chat rooms to offer online bibliographic instruction synchronously to distance learners throughout the state of Florida. ConferenceRoom Professional Edition chat software produced by WebMaster was utilized. The RRC offered RRChat as a pilot service in April of 2000 for real-time reference assistance. Instructional services were used for one-on-one reference help and were used particularly for troubleshooting technical problems for students with only one telephone line. The librarians also offered instructional sessions using chat software. These instructional chat sessions were found to work best when two librarians worked as a team: one to lead the class and the other to help with individual problems and off-topic questions. The authors note that classes that were limited to less than ten students per session also proved more effective. ConferenceRoom software, however, did have some disadvantages. Although it permitted librarians to “push” URLs to students, it was limited by the fact that it did not permit collaborative browsing. Less technologically savvy students often found it overwhelming to try to learn how to use both online databases and chat software simultaneously. Nevertheless, at the time of the writing of the article, the RRC planned to continue to use chat software for bibliographic instruction. J. Tuñón.
Florida State University

Burnett, Kathleen and Marilia Painter. “Learning from Experience: Strategies for Assuring Effective Library and Information Services to Web-based Distance Learners.” Paper presented at the ACRL 10th National Conference: Crossing the Divide: Denver, Colorado, March 15-18, 2001. Available: online (in pdf format)
A five-year case study of library services for Florida State University (FSU) School of Information Studies distance learning programs provides the context for observations made on the provision of library services for distance learners. The roles of FSU libraries, the Florida Center for Library Automation, the Florida Distance Learning Reference and Referral Center, and the School of Information Studies are described. The results of a “virtual Internship” to provide more personalized distance education library service are discussed. Finally, FSU distance education library services are examined against the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services in areas of management, finances, personnel, facilities, resources, documentation and library education. J. Markgraf.

Golden Gate University (California)

Dunlap, Steven. Watch for the Little Red Light: Delivery of Bibliographic Instruction by Unconventional Means.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 221-225. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 279-285.
The librarian at Golden Gate University describes how he was able to use three technologies to reach distance students in the university’s CyberCampus. He began providing information in online forums in various Web-based classes and using closed circuit broadcast and video conferencing for online training for short overviews of resources and services available to distance students. Because synchronous library training was no longer an option at Golden Gate University, these technologies allowed the librarian to reach a greater number of students than would be possible otherwise. The author concludes that librarians must be flexible, plan carefully, have at least intermediate computer skills, and work collaboratively with faculty in order to be able to successfully work in these new technological frontiers of library instruction. J. Tuñón.

Dunlap, Steven. “From Isolation to Cooperation: The Changes That Technology Creates in Institutional Culture.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 133-138. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 195-206.
Golden Gate University’s University Library added the Innovative Interfaces’ “Web Access Management Module” in 1998. Subsequent logistical problems encountered in implementing remote access to online databases brought new opportunities for cooperation with other academic and administrative units of the University. A joint project with the Registrar to provide their CyberCampus’ distance education students with bar-coded ids hit many stumbling blocks. Restricting a database to students registered in a particular course was a challenge due to its JavaScript format and the security provisions of the networks students used to connect to it. These experiences point to the importance of inter-departmental cooperation in implementing technological change in a university. M. Nolan.

Indiana University

Sheu, Feng Ru and Paul Alford. “Making Them Work for the IST Online Program: A Case Study.” In Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the 23rd National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Denver, CO, October 25-28, 2000. ERIC ED 455 793.
Understanding the needs of participants in distance education programs is an important component in planning for library services to students and faculty. The Instructional Systems Technology (IST) program at Indiana University (IU) offers online distance education curricula. The authors, both graduate students at Indiana University, surveyed distance education students, faculty, administrators, and librarians with the intent of identifying important library services for all groups. Through a literature review and brainstorming the authors identify six categories of library services for distance learners. They interviewed thirteen people who were involved at a variety of levels with the IST program and the library, and then administered a written survey. The results are ranked by level of importance. The authors also discuss the differing expectations of distance education students and faculty as compared to librarians. They also comment on the services offered through the IU Libraries and identify needs that should be addressed. J. Marshall.

Indiana University, Bloomington

Haynes, Anne. “Distance Learning Library Services: Challenges and Opportunities for an Academic Library System.” Indiana Libraries 21, no. 1 (2002): 6-10.
Standards and models of service for distance education students are set by a number of accrediting and professional organizations. Indiana University – Bloomington (IUB) uses an integrated approach for providing library services to its distance education students where these services are an extension of the services available to students and faculty on campus. There are a number of challenges, and opportunities, associated with providing library services to IUB distance education students. The first challenge is to identify the distance education student and faculty population and this provides the distance education librarian the opportunity to interact with faculty teaching distance education courses. Distance education students often do not use the library services provided for them and this presents an opportunity to publicize and customize library services. Another challenge for IUB is to address the lack of uniform access to electronic resources. In order to keep from being isolated in her position as distance education librarian, the author works to inform her colleagues in the library about distance education library issues and serves on campus committees concerned with distance education. S. Heidenreich.

Indiana University, School of Medicine

Brahmi, F.A., & Hatfield, A.J. “Angel: Post-implementation evaluation at the Indiana University School of Medicine.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 23, no.3 (2004): 1-15.
Angel is a course management system adopted at the Indiana University School of Medicine as its online teaching environment. After approximately five years of implementation of Angel, the authors conducted an evaluation of this system. The three objectives of the evaluation were: 1) to evaluate Angel utilization levels (numbers of active accounts, active courses, etc.), 2) to determine the types of content within the courses taught using Angel, and 3) to determine whether the curriculum materials in Angel used incorporated library resources. Findings showed that library resources within Angel were not as prevalent as they could be, and that the Medical Library’s presence in the online course management system could be enhanced by increasing faculty consultation and training. One effort to increase the library’s presence is already underway in the form of the Advanced Technology Collaboratory, a faculty consultation service provided by the Medical Library working with the School of Medicine’s Education Technology unit. A Haynes

Jones International University

Dority, Kim and Martin Garnar. “The Electronic Global Library of Jones International University.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 17 (2000): 93-107.
The history, development, and philosophy of the e-global library at Jones International University (JIU), a distance education university, are described. All the major components of e-global library (bibliographic instruction, reference and research, document delivery, interlibrary loan, and electronic database searching) are explained. Some controversial issues in distance education library services are discussed, including to what extent distance students should be taught how to do their own research, and whether or not to refer students to “victim libraries,” or students’ local libraries, to supplement their institutions’ library resources. A section on the research agenda outlines a number of questions that need to be addressed as e-global library develops further. The future of distance education in the United States is discussed. References are included. A. Haynes.

Heilig, Jean M. “E-Global Library: The Academic Campus Library Meets the Internet.” Searcher: The Magazine for Database Professionals 9, no. 6 (June 2000): 34-43.
The author, Director of Research and Information for e-global library, describes the expansion and development of this electronic library, first developed for Jones International University (JIU) in 1999. e-global library was initially intended as the library system for the students of JIU, a distance university. One year after its beginning, it was marketed as an enhanced service to other institutions, such as other virtual universities, corporate universities, the military, and others without a means for offering library services to their distance students. The staff are professional librarians with subject expertise in business, general reference, government, humanities, science and technology, and social sciences. The six primary components of e-global library are described: bibliographic instruction, research assistance, core collection of research materials (including details on the collection development policies), access to electronic databases, reference assistance, and document delivery management. Future plans and challenges, such as competition with other electronic library initiatives such as Questia, XanEdu, and Fathom, are discussed. A. Haynes.

Helfer, Doris Small. “Has the Virtual University Library Truly Arrived?” Searcher: The Magazine for Database Professionals 7, no. 8 (September 1999): 62-65.
The increase in distance learning has caused increased demand for the electronic, or virtual, library. Jones International University (JUI) is an online university, established in 1993 and accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The typical student is a working adult with limited time, well-motivated, self-directed learner. Computers with high-speed Internet access are required equipment for JUI students. An essential part of JIU’s development was the incorporation of an electronic library, named the Electronic Global Library (e-global library), intended to provide not only course-related materials but access to research resources similar to those available to a campus-based university. The e-global library provided bibliographic instruction, reference services, document delivery, interlibrary loan, and database searching. The author describes the attributes of each of these parts of E-Global Library. A. Haynes.

Kelly, Rob. “Virtual Library: Providing Accessible Online Resources.” Distance Education Report 5, no. 1 (January 1, 2001): 3, 5.
Students taking courses online or in traditional settings both need access to library resources to complete their course work. While a tremendous amount of information is available on the Internet it is not all reliable or easy to locate. Jones Knowledge has developed e-global library in an attempt to organize Internet resources for students. e-global library has been constructed to assist students of any skill level and includes online tutorials and research guides. The e-global library currently has 2,500 links in its Internet research collection. Information on financial aid and career development is also available through the e-global library. Three optional services available through e-global library ‰ are on-call reference librarians, core collections of academic databases, and document delivery. Jones Knowledge developed e-global library based on the Jones International University library and will market it to higher education institutions, K-12 schools, corporations, and individuals. S. Heidenreich.

O’Leary, Mick. ” e-global library Advances the Virtual Library.” Information Today 19 no. 3 (March 2002): 19-20, 46.
The author provides a thorough review of e-global library created by Jones International University, a distance learning institution. e-global library is described as having a click-and-mortar strategy that relies on digital content and, implicitly, print resources that the students will need to access on their own. The “click” part offers digital versions of most library collections and services, including reference and instruction. It is aggregated from public Web sites, proprietary periodical databases, and, for reference and instruction, internally created content (i.e. tutorials and subject-oriented research guides) and a reference hotline. The “mortar” part contains bibliographies of books and journals that the student will seek out at neighboring academic libraries. While e-global library advances the concept of the virtual library, it is not yet ready to replace brick-and-mortar institutions. F. Devlin.

Kansas State University

Stockham, Marcia and Elizabeth Turtle. “Providing Off-Campus Library Services by “Team”: An Assessment.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 331-343. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 443-457.
Two librarians at Kansas State University designed and implemented a survey to determine students and faculty awareness of services available to remote users, use of those services, and whether additional services ought to be made available. A web based survey was chosen to minimize costs, and survey questions were modeled from previously published sources. The questionnaire was pre tested by selected faculty and students, and then sent out. The results showed that few students were aware of library services and that most relied on the World Wide Web for research materials, and faculty replies indicated that most respondents did little to no promotion of library services. Commentary from both faculty and students indicated a desire for further advertisement of available library services. At the time of publication, K-State had begun publicity efforts targeted at faculty members. C. Biles.

Kent State University (Ohio)

Hricko, Mary. “Developing Library Instruction for Distance Learning.” Paper presented at the 6th Annual Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference, Murfreesboro, TN, April 8-10, 2001. ERIC ED 463 729. Also online. Available: http://www.mtsu.edu/~itconf/proceed01/24.pdf (in pdf format)
Videoconferencing, computer-mediated instruction, and Web-based instruction are all methods used by Kent State University librarians to provide bibliographic instruction to distance education students. Videoconferencing uses a system of sending compressed audio and video signals over a dedicated line. Issues to consider when using videoconferencing include: instruction planning, having library staff at remote locations to assist students, completing a trial run of the presentation, and presenting course material in segments during the session. Guidelines for videoconference sessions are detailed. Computer-mediated instruction is done in real time but also requires a great deal of planning and preparation time. Kent State University librarians developed three subject-specific sessions to use via computer-mediated instruction. In this learning environment, interaction is extremely important and different types of interaction are listed and discussed. Web-based instruction can be as simple as “how-to” guides or as complex as course tutorials. When developing Web-based instruction clear objectives should be stated and attention should be given to page design, use of images, and the placement and use of hyperlinks. Regardless of the method chosen for distance education bibliographic instruction it is vital for librarians to collaborate with faculty. S. Heidenreich.

Lesley University (Massachusetts)

Holmes, Katherine E. “A Kaleidoscope of Learning Styles: Instructional Supports that Meet the Diverse Needs of Distant Learners.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 287-294. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 367-378.
Before starting to design their library tutorial, the university librarians at Lesley University examined several learning style theories including theories by David A. Kolb and Nishikant Sonwalkar as well as research based on Kolb’s findings. The librarians learned that accommodators (what Kolb terms people who prefer to learn from people rather than objects) appeared to have the most difficulties in online classes. Based on these conclusions, the librarians then examined various library tutorials to locate ones that personalized the interactions with students. The three identified as particularly useful were the Blais Tutorial from the Libraries of Claremont Colleges, MAGS (Magician) Tutorial from the University of California Riverside, and TILT from the University of Texas. It was concluded that Sonwalkar’s theory that instruction needs to shift away from static approaches and begin providing students with alternative methods of receiving and absorbing information in more personalized, interactive learning environments had important implications for the design of library instruction tools. Armed with these conclusions, the librarians hope that Lesley University will be able to build a library tutorial that is a “kaleidoscope through which students can bring into focus the multiple options of their library research.” J. Tuñón.

Holmes, Katherine and Cynthia Farr Brown. “Meeting Adult Learners, Wherever They May Be: If It’s Thursday, It Must Be Thermopolis!” In Teaching the New Library to Today’s Users: Reaching International, Minority, Senior Citizens, Gay/Lesbian, First-Generation, At-Risk, Graduate and Returning Students, and Distance Learners, edited by Trudi E. Jacobson and Helene C. Williams. The New Library Series, Number 4. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000, 221-235.
Collaboration between a librarian, Katherine Holmes, and a faculty member, Cynthia Brown, at Lesley College resulted in library research skills being taught in a single class. Eventually, however, their partnership expanded to incorporate library instruction in the core courses for an entire academic program. The two started by co-teaching the Educational Research and Evaluation course, but this expanded when the faculty and librarians collaborated to include technology and library literacy into the core curriculum for Lesley’s School of Education. Because classes met at 125 sites for intensive weekend classes, faculty would take library videos and handouts to support this curriculum. The videos, entitled “Look Over My Shoulder”, modeled how to search Web-based resources utilizing PowerPoint slides, captured transcriptions of computer transactions, video clips, and narrated voiceovers. Because of the limitations of so many off-campus classes offered during the same weekends, instructors acted “‘in loco librarian'”. The authors conclude that it is important that library training take a system approach to searching rather than providing instruction that only focuses on how to use specific tools. J. Tuñón.

Louisiana State University

Wittkopf, Barbara. “Recreating the Credit Course in an Online Environment: Issues and Concerns.” Reference and User Services Quarterly 43, no.1 (Fall 2003): 18-25.
In this discussion of the impetus behind, the planning for and the implementation of an online credit information literacy course, the author provides a literature review as well as a case study from Louisiana State University. The author points to revised accreditation standards and state Board of Regents mandate as the driving force behind the curricular change that resulted in the online course. She looks to the literature for criteria in designing the course to ensure that it engages students, promotes interactions between students and faculty, assesses student learning and provides appropriate student support services. The author provides an overview of existing online information literacy tutorials and courses. The LSU course is then described using the same criteria. Among the features of the LSU course are assessment initiatives that include a pre- and posttest, prompt feedback on assignments and exams, and online course evaluations. The use of interactive tutorials and research topics of personal interest to the students address student engagement issues. The author emphasizes effective rather than gratuitous use of technology. J. Markgraf.

Marshall University (West Virginia)

Arnold, Judith, Jennifer Sias, and Jingping Zhang. “Bringing the Library to the Students: Using Technology to Deliver Instruction and Resources for Research.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 19-25. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 27-37.
Librarians at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia, faced the challenge of delivering information literacy instruction to distance students in a wide range of classroom environments. One solution was to provide instruction using a CD-ROM-based multimedia presentation using such software as Snag It and PowerPoint to simulate live searching. The authors describe how they created these CD-ROM presentations which could also be given to the students to take home and view. Marshall University Libraries also developed a web-based searchable system for users to access full-text databases, find out what journals the library owns, and submit requests for document delivery. Unmediated document delivery is available for faculty, staff, and graduate students through Ingenta, with article costs being covered by the Libraries within set limits. A. Lawrence.

Mercer University (Georgia)

Harrell, Karen J. “Reducing High Anxiety: Responsive Library Services to Off-Campus Nontraditional Students.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 277-285. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 355-365.
The majority of students at Mercer University’s Extended Education Centers are young mothers who both work and go to school full time, factors that often lead to stress and high anxiety. A survey conducted by the University also revealed that most of them have a home computer with Internet access. Malcolm Knowles’ adult learning theory of andragogy is examined, along with characteristics of adult learners and elements for instruction design for adults. Possible barriers for adult learners are geography, time constraints, and psychological barriers. For library services to be responsive to adult learners, librarians should be aware of these characteristics and barriers for their nontraditional students. There should also be continuing assessment to determine needs, aggressive marketing of the library’s services, bibliographic instruction at convenient times for the students, formalized agreements with community libraries, and provision of services and materials at the time and place of need. A. Lawrence.

Michigan State University

Blair, Amy. “…And a Free 800 Line! Managing Technical and Information Support for Distance Education.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 39-42. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 61-65.
In the early nineties, Library Distance Learning Services (LDLS) at Michigan State University was developed in response to the need for extensive off-campus library and information services. An internal grant made it possible to install an 800 number, and LDLS began providing reliable and rapid service in support of the University’s off-campus courses and programs. With increased availability of online indexes by the end of the nineties, usage of the 800 line broadened to requests for technical support and research assistance as well as for various types of information delivery. Information about the calls received, the types of distance learning programs served, and plans for the future are discussed. A. Lawrence.

Fraser, Mary G., Shari Buxbaum, and Amy Blair. “The Library and the Development of Online Courses.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 47-59, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 47-59.
The Library Distance Learning Services (LDLS) unit at Michigan State University was designed to provide services to support off-campus programs and online courses. Wanting to take a pro-active approach to the planning of services to support the College of Business online programs, librarians at the Gast Business Library interviewed the faculty who were developing courses for the Virtual International Business Academy (VIBA). Results of the interviews are given, and their implications are discussed. It was found that faculty tend to discount the importance of library services to their courses and their off-campus students, yet their courses are very dependent on electronic resources provided through the library and problems occur when those resources change or their format is technologically challenging for the students. Education of the faculty regarding online resources and including copyright regulations will be a part of future outreach initiatives. A. Lawrence.

Morehead State University (Kentucky)

Austin, Gary L. “Using a ‘Summit Meeting’ to Negotiate Library Agreements.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 13-18. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 23-29.
To provide adequate library services to distance leaning students, the Camden-Carroll Library at Morehead State University has agreements with five community college libraries and one private college library in the eastern part of Kentucky. In May 1999, librarians from some of these libraries and from others met at Morehead to review the previous agreements and to discuss ways that services could be improved. The discussion centered around such issues as copyright and reserve materials and providing the partner libraries with copies of course syllabi, login to the Camden-Carroll Library’s databases, and subscriptions to a few of the journals most requested by Morehead students. An appendix to the article gives a copy of the agreement. A. Lawrence.

Murray State University (Kentucky)

Culpepper, Jetta Carol. “Pragmatic Assessment Impacts Support for Distance Education.” Collection Management 26, no. 4 (2001): 59-71.
While much has been written on library services supporting distance education, less has been written about assessment of those services, contends the author. A two-year assessment of library support for off-campus students and faculty at Murray State University (MSU) in Kentucky is described. The assessment includes results of a survey, as well as comments and questions received and informal observations made by staff. Results of the study indicate that a majority of students surveyed used a library for research, including school and public libraries in addition to the main campus library and the Kentucky Virtual Library (KVL). Students were most pleased with online resources and least satisfied with monograph collections. Extended-campus faculty and staff indicated high levels of satisfaction with library support and services. Among changes made as a result of the assessment, the MSU library converted CD-ROM subscriptions to Internet subscriptions, posted more instructional and publicity information on its website, and continues efforts to build its book collection. J. Markgraf.

National University (California)

Lockerby, Robin, Divina Lynch, James Sherman, and Elizabeth Nelson. “Collaboration and Information Literacy: Challenges of Meeting Standards when Working with Remote Faculty.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 181-187. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 243-253.
National University in San Diego has had a Library Information Literacy Plan in place since 1999. The plan was revised in 2000, and it has slowly gained strength and profile across the main campus and at the Librarian Information Centers (LICs) supported by the home collection. Success stories from three of the nine LIC librarians are presented, as are challenges to the continued success of this initiative. Major successes discussed include collaboration with administration and faculty, teaching an information literacy course at an off-campus facility, outreach, and assessment of information literacy at remote campuses. P. Pival.

Secord, Anne Marie, Robin Lockerby, Laura Roach, and Joseph H. Simpson. “Strategic Planning for Distance Learning Services.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 305-308. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 407-411.
National University has 29 distinct centers in California, catering to a primarily adult learners population. The university opened a central library in 2000, along with several satellite libraries, in an effort to improve access to library resources to a population scattered around the state. At the same time, the library staff, with input from faculty and students, created a strategic plan for improving access, changing from bricks-and-mortar to clicks-and-mortar, and fostering communication between the library and its users. C. Biles.

North Carolina State University

Argentati, Carolyn. “Library-University Partnerships in Distance Learning.” Paper presented at the 65th IFLA Council and General Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, August 20 – 28, 1999. Online. Available: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla65/papers/084-165e.htm
North Carolina State University (NCSU) has an extensive history of distance education, beginning with off-campus credit courses and correspondence courses over seventy years ago. Before 1998, however, only minimal library services were involved. In 1995, a task force recommended that the library designate a liaison for distance education, and today library services and resources are an important part of the University’s distance learning. Library initiatives include creation of a department to focus on the development of electronic resources, development of a web tutorial to teach research skills, implementation of electronic reserves, and other services. Two guiding principles for the NCSU Libraries are that services for on-campus and off-campus students should be equal and that technology is not a substitute for human interaction. Instruction, faculty liaison, access to information resources, and reference services are all part of the library services provided. A. Lawrence.

Nutter, Susan K. “Redefining the University Through Educational and Information Technologies: North Carolina State University, Its Libraries, and Distance Education.” In Development of Digital Libraries: An American Perspective, edited by Deanna B. Marcum. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001, 253-271.
North Carolina State University (NCSU) has long been a leader in distance education, as well as in technology. The author describes how the university in the late 1990’s explored its readiness to enter the distance education market in a more meaningful and larger scale way. While distance education had held a position of respect by the university for most of its history, new advances in computing and networking offered the potential to increase its outreach, scope, quality, and quantity of programming. The article describes the confluence of the various factors that contributed and led to the debate concerning the degree that NCSU’s education programs should be extended beyond its campus. F. Devlin.

Pace, Andrew K. “Distance Learning Service: It’s Closer Than You Think.” Computers in Libraries 21, no. 4 (April 2001): 49-51.
Distance learning services are not new, just different. Libraries have been giving distance service since bookmobiles began, but now technology allows for electronic reserves, email reference, and many other electronic services. These services that have been put into place to aid distance learning are services that are also enhancing the learning for on-campus students. One of the challenges for both faculty and librarians is to teach technical competence so that students can use effectively the electronic services that are provided for them. Another challenge is the marketing of those services. Library services should be measured by the degree of satisfaction of the users rather than old measures that libraries used in the past. Distance Learning Services at North Carolina State University and similar departments at other academic institutions have spent the last few years focusing on the students, and everyone has benefited. A. Lawrence.

Northcentral University (Arizona)

Meyer, Donna K. “Learner-Centered Library Service at a Distance.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 20 (2003): 67-81.
A description is provided of Northcentral University’s Electronic Learning Resource Center (ELRC)’s online services to undergraduate and graduate students and their faculty mentors. The librarians employ a variety of tools from the telephone to videoconferencing to provide library services and access to resources twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Students are encouraged to develop one-on-one relationships with librarians. Library instruction is available via an online course for students, and a separate course for faculty mentors. The Library provides self-paced tutorials, course-related research guides, a Dissertation Center, etc. Document delivery and other forms are available online. Users are invited to submit suggestions for useful websites to complement licensed databases. Among other promotion efforts, the ELRC sends every student a welcome letter with information about accessing the library. The ELRC staff is dedicated to contributing to Northcentral University’s efforts to put students first and provide exemplary online student support. I. Frank.

Northern Arizona University

Adams, Tina M. and R. Sean Evans. “Educating the Educators: Outreach to the College of Education Distance Faculty and Native American Students.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 1-12. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 3-18. Available online. Paper: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rse/OffCampusLibraryServicesPaper1.htm. Power Point Presentation: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rse/Educating_the_Educators_files/frame.htm.
The administration at Northern Arizona University’s Cline Library made organizational changes in 2000 to enhance support to off-campus students, especially their large Native American population. The changes integrated services for distance students into existing library departments instead of being handled as a special service. Some of the changes included using web-based document delivery forms, electronic delivery for articles and Ask-A-Librarian rapid response e-mail reference. Although these services helped all off-campus students, the instruction classes have been tailored to suit the learning styles, cultural background, curriculum, and other needs of the Native American students. In addition, the Library has worked actively with the College of Education, a major provider of distance education offered by the University, to increase awareness of the Library’s services to off-campus students by offering joint workshops to all full- and part-time faculty. These successful workshops were funded by a grant which covered all the expenses incurred by attendance. E. Onega.

Northwest Vista College (Texas)

Reeves, Linda A. “Starting Small: Setting Up Off-Campus Library Services with Limited Resources” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 265-271. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 355-364.
The author examines recent trends in the growth of distance education in general, and then compares these national trends to her own institution (Northwest Vista College in Texas). Brief summaries of several services offered by the NVC library are given, including providing Access to Materials (predominantly online), Reference Service (via email and Elluminate vClass for virtual reference), Library Instruction (web-based tutorials in HTML), and Targeted Marketing. The focus is on how these services can be delivered by a library with a small budget and a small staff. The conclusion is that quality library services can indeed be offered to distance students 24 hours per day even by a small library with a small budget. P. Pival.

Nova Southeastern University (Florida)

Chakraborty, Mou and Shelley Victor. “Do’s and Don’ts of Simultaneous Instruction to the On-Campus and Distance Students via Videoconferencing.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 73-84. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 97-112.
This practical article discusses the evolution of library instruction for distance students in courses offered by the Speech-Language Pathology and Communication Disorders Department at Nova Southeastern University (NSU). The university started offering distance education through compressed video in 1994 and now has an extensive videoconferencing network: about 60 rooms on the network, both at the main campus and various off-campus locations. One of the NSU librarians traditionally offered 1 _ hour bibliographic instruction (BI) sessions to students taking classes offered by this department. She continued this collaboration by adapting her BI program to fit the needs of the students and the instructor’s course requirements in two ways. First, the course was being offered in person at the main campus and through videoconferencing at some of the off-site locations. She used videoconferencing software and hardware to present to the off-campus students simultaneously with the on-campus students. She also expanded her BI session into a three-part class, which incorporated comments she had received from previous students and appropriate assignments. She shares some of the challenges she faced with this teaching format, along with recommendations and solutions. E. Onega.

Chakraborty, Mou and Johanna Tuñón. “Going the Distance: Solutions and Issues of Providing International Students with Library Services.” Paper presented at the AAOU Pre-Conference Seminar on “Outreach Library Services for Distance Learners,” February 20, 2002, New Delhi, India. Online. Available: http://www.ignou.ac.in/aaou-pre/Chakraborty.htm
For over thirty years the Library at Nova Southeastern University (NSU) has offered library services to students located around the world. Along with a description of services, problems, solutions and issues are also presented. In particular, the authors’ experience with various document delivery models is described. These delivery models include: access to online full-text databases, the scanning of articles, building local research resources, and negotiating formal agreements with local libraries. The pros and cons of each model are presented. Furthermore, the provision of reference and instruction is discussed with an emphasis on the cultural and political sensibilities that colour students’ perceptions of library services. Offering library services in the languages of instruction is also briefly mentioned. J. Wheeler.

Chakraborty, Mou and Johanna Tuñón. “Taking the Distance Out of Library Services Offered to International Graduate Students: Considerations, Challenges, and Concerns.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 131-139. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 163-176.
Nova Southeastern University is offering an increasing number of programs globally, challenging the NSU libraries to provide equal or equivalent services to all its students: those enrolled in the international programs, those students who attend classes at the main campus, and distance students in the United States. While trying to offer support services to its international students, the NSU libraries have encountered many problems and tried a number of solutions that are discussed. The telecommunications infrastructure in some countries is not reliable or high-speed, so access to online databases and electronic books is only a partial solution. There are document delivery problems whether the documents are delivered electronically or through the mail. Agreements with local academic libraries have generally not been an option, so NSU set up branch libraries at several of their international sites but these have not been successful solutions either. Trying to provide reference services and bibliographic instruction has brought its own set of problems. Language barriers and cultural expectations are also ongoing issues. A. Lawrence.

MacFarland, Thomas W. Fall Term 1999 Nova Southeastern University Students Respond to a Broad-Based Satisfaction Survey: A Comparison of Campus-Based Students and Distance Education Students. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova Southeastern University, 2001. 69 pp. ERIC ED 453 732.
As a part of its reaccreditation process, Nova Southeastern University conducted a broad-based student satisfaction survey. The collected data was divided into two categories according to whether the responding students were campus-based or distance education. Seventeen tables are presented in this report. Some of these tables give characteristics of the student responders themselves, such as gender, race, age, and reasons for attending NSU. The remaining tables compare the responses of the two categories of students to questions about the University, the faculty, academic programs, and available services. Overall the results were positive, but there was some disparity between the two groups of students in their frequency and level of use of library services and in their level of satisfaction with library issues such as training and access to information. A. Lawrence.

Ramirez, Laura L. and Johanna Tuñón. “Considerations, Challenges, and Concerns for Providing Library Services to Nova Southeastern University’s Distance Students in Latin American and the Caribbean.” In Models of Cooperation in U.S., Latin American and Caribbean Libraries: The First IFLA/SEFLIN International Summit on Library Cooperation in the Americas, edited by Bruce Edward Massis. IFLA Publication 105. Munich: Saur, 2003, 61-66.
Nova Southeastern University, located at Fort Lauderdale, Florida serves international students based in the Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Venezuela. The students have access to the on-campus facility, formalized arrangements with local and branch library facilities, traditional and electronic document delivery services, and access to online databases. Significant drawbacks that international students face include limited depth in library collections to support graduate level work, document delivery delays, and lack of full-text coverage in electronic databases for certain disciplines, technological barriers, language barriers or cultural differences, and limited opportunities for training through bibliographic instruction. Technology has enabled easier access to electronic materials, online tutorials, and e-mail reference assistance; however, improvements must be made to accommodate international distance students with equal library resources. M. Thomas.

Tuñón, Johanna. “The Impact of Accreditation and Distance Education on Information Literacy.” Florida Libraries 46, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 11-14.
Accreditation standards provide impetus for developing and integrating information literacy instruction into the curriculum. The author discusses the effects of the new Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) standards on library instruction at Nova Southeastern University (NSU). At NSU, the library’s distance education unit took over responsibility for library instruction, both on and off campus, resulting in a greater array of instructional options for all students. The author discusses various approaches to instruction, such as one-shot instruction sessions, for-credit courses, and integration of library skills into required courses, emphasizing that there is no single optimal solution. Rather, the nature of individual institutions, programs, departments and libraries will determine the most effective method of offering library instruction. Finally, the author discusses the importance of assessment in meeting new accreditation standards. It is no longer enough to simply offer library instruction; institutions must be able to demonstrate that students are actually learning. J. Markgraf.

Tuñón, Johanna. “Creating a Research Literacy Course for Education Doctoral Students: Design Issues and Political Realities of Developing Online and Face-to-Face Instruction.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 397-405. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2003): 515-527.
In response to a recommendation received during its reaccreditation process, Nova Southeastern University mandated that library training be provided to all its distance students. Students in NSU’s Programs for Higher Education (PHE) were targeted for training using a three-pronged approach that included a one-credit elective course called Information Literacy Skills for Doctoral Students in Education. The PHE administration specified that the course be offered through WebCT. The design and planning process for the course is discussed. The NSU libraries had web-based training materials that already existed, so it was decided to use these as the foundation for the course. The course content was organized, performance-based assignments were created, and the course was implemented in January of 2001. Problems that arose during the first term that the course was taught let to modifications being made for the second term. The course was redesigned to be taught face-to-face at a summer institute for PHE students. The strengths and weaknesses of each method of delivery are discussed. It is also pointed out that academic politics play an important part in instructional design, and librarians must be willing to compromise if necessary to make library training fit into that design. A. Lawrence.

Tuñón, Johanna. Integrating Bibliographic Instruction for Distance Education Doctoral Students into the Child and Youth Studies Program at Nova Southeastern University. Ed.D. practicum report, Nova Southeastern University, 1999. ERIC ED 440 639.
Nova Southeastern University offers a Child and Youth Studies (CYS) graduate degree program for doctoral students. A program of library instruction was developed and was integrated into the curriculum so that these distance education students would be able to use the available online resources to do the research required of them. Some of the challenges to be faced included: (1) students’ varying computer and library skills, (2) library understaffing, (3) the wide range of physical facilities for the off-campus classes, and (4) the limited amount of class time allotted to the librarians for instruction. A variety of methods were employed to get the doctoral students the library training they needed. In collaboration with the faculty, face-to-face instruction was given to the students during the orientation at the beginning of their program. Follow-up training was given at the various off-campus sites when the students were starting to do their research. Individualized help was also available through NSU’s toll-free number and email. The librarians at Einstein Library worked as a team to develop web pages that gave instruction ranging from the basics of library research to more advanced research skills. To make sure that the students were learning what they needed to know, three assignments were given. When all the training sessions were completed, user satisfaction surveys were conducted. Appendices at the end of this report include the user evaluation, a listing of the web help pages that were created, PowerPoint slides from the bibliographic instruction presentations, the library assignments, and sample handouts. A. Lawrence.

Tuñón, Johanna and Paul R. Pival. “Reaccreditation at Nova Southeastern University: How Reaccreditation Can Create Opportunities for Improving Library Services to Distance Students.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 273-282. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 409-424.
When Nova Southeastern University went through the reaccreditation process in the 1990s, about one half of its 16,829 students were enrolled in its distance programs. When the University’s self-study began in 1992, the Einstein Library was offering a number of support services to distance students, but there were areas where improvement was needed. One problem was the lack of retrospective depth of the library’s collection, necessary to support doctoral level programs. Other problems included turn-around time for document delivery, the allocating of funds for distance services, bibliographic instruction, adequate staffing, and availability of resources for students at international sites. Some of these problems were easily solved, but others were more challenging. The reaccreditation process made the University’s administration examine and address these problems. From the time that the University began preparing for reaccreditation in 1992 until the process was completely finished in 1999, the Einstein Library’s professional and clerical staffs more than doubled, the book collection almost tripled, and the budget for online resources increased by $500,000. After reaccreditation was granted, several follow-up recommendations were made which also involved and benefited the NSU Libraries. A. Lawrence.

Ohio State University

Kupferberg, Natalie and Barabara Skunza. “The First Non-Traditional Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates: Their Perceptions of Library Services.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 2, no. 1 (2005): 27-39.
This study examines the usefulness and usage of library services for the Ohio State University’s first online degree program, a “non-traditional” Doctorate of Pharmacy. In 2001, the Biological Sciences/Pharmacy Library developed new services for students enrolled in this program, including document delivery, a dedicated Web page, and online access to databases, reserve readings, and full-text publications. In 2004, six of the first 14 graduates of the program were interviewed, and their responses are discussed. The library services most used by the students were online databases and full-text electronic collections. The students found little need to use other libraries. A first-year course in literature evaluation enhanced student searching and evaluation skills. All students found the dedicated library Web site, the library orientation, and the email reference service to be helpful. Every respondent indicated it would have been nearly impossible to complete the program without online access to library services. The most common suggestion for enhancing service involved improving the usability of the proxy server. J. Brandt.

Kupferberg, Natalie. “Going Virtual: A Non-traditional Approach to a Pharmacy Degree.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 341-349. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 437-449.
When Ohio State University’s College of Pharmacy decided to offer a full Doctorate of Pharmacy degree through distance education, it fell to the staff of the Biological Sciences/Pharmacy Library (BPL) to set up the needed policies and procedures for library support services. The BPL staff worked closely with the faculty who were a part of the Pharmacy College team. To help support the program, the library purchased MD-Consult and Micromedex to give the students access to drug databases and to the full text of reference books and medical journals. It was decided to use Prospero for direct document delivery to students’ computers. An agreement was made with the interlibrary loan department that the BPL staff would mail books directly to the students’ homes. Since the distance students were actually getting more services than the on-campus students, it was decided that the web page explaining and linking to these services would be accessed through WebCT. A survey conducted at the end of the first course showed general user satisfaction, but some dissatisfaction with the number of technical problems due to the University’s Proxy server. Tips are given for librarians who are facing a similar opportunity. A. Lawrence.

O’Hanlon, Nancy. Development, Delivery, and Outcomes of a Distance Course for New College Students.” Library Trends 50, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 8-27.
In 1999, a faculty Committee on Student Computing Competencies at Ohio State University (OSU) developed a list of recommended computer and research competencies for undergraduate students. In response to a further recommendation of this committee, the University Libraries partnered with OSU’s University College, the unit with the majority of freshmen, to develop a one-credit distance course called Internet Tools and Research Techniques. The content of the course was based on existing interactive web-based tutorials. The course lasts for four weeks and does not begin until four weeks into the academic quarter. There are eighteen required assignments that must be completed during that period. Some tables included in the article show student survey results for three quarters, fall 1999 through spring 2000. The survey results indicate information such as the students’ reasons for taking the course, their previous computing experience, and the number of hours per day that they spend on the computer. Other tables analyze student performance and report the results of course evaluations. Challenges experienced during the first quarter led to changes being made in succeeding quarters to improve the course. For example, in Fall 1999, the Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading system was used, but it was found that some students stopped completing assignments when they had earned enough points to get a Satisfactory. After that, a regular A-E grading system was used. From the beginning, however, evaluations indicated that student expectations for the course were being met. A. Lawrence.

Rodman, Ruey L. “Cost Analysis and Student Survey Results of Library Support for Distance Education.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 91, no. 1 (January 2003): 72-78.
In 2001, the Prior Health Sciences Library at the Ohio State University (OSU) provided support for a pilot program of distance-education courses, including the development of a library WebCT presence. Costs to the library to support this program are calculated by analyzing staff time devoted to general librarian activities (such as orientation, training, and web development), e-mail reference service, document delivery, and electronic reserves. Total costs for three courses with twenty students were $1,876.24, yielding an average of $625.41 per course and $93.81 per student. The results of a six-question student evaluation are described, covering reported problems, the library’s WebCT presence, orientation sessions, and specific library services. J. Brandt.

Rodman, Ruey L. “The S.A.G.E. Project: A Model for Library Support of Distance Education.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 6, no. 2 (2001): 35-46.
The Office of Geriatric and Gerontology (OGG) at the Ohio State University collaborated with the Prior Health Sciences Library (PHSL) to provide library services to their distance students in the Series in Applied Gerontology Education (S.A.G. E.) courses. WebCT was the selected courseware and the library icon on the main page linked to the following resources and services: document delivery, e-reserves, Ask-a-Health Sciences-librarian, access to PHSL, evaluating websites and a list of web resources. Having a significant role in this collaborative project, the librarian informed the team instructor of virtual library resources and services, created library specific WebPages within WebCT, and instructed the students on using the electronic databases, online catalog, and evaluating websites. The librarian was also involved during the orientation where the distance students coming to campus, had an hour-long BI session. The initial analysis of the S.A.G.E. project revealed that document delivery was the most popular service. Other lesser-used services were e-reserves and Ask-a-Health Sciences Librarian that were already established services. In spite of some maintenance issues (e.g. adding individual patron records, maintaining the library web page within WebCT), the model proved to be successful. Based on this success, the author recommended more research on how libraries could effectively use course authoring software programs. M. Chakraborty.

Oklahoma State University

Prestamo, Anne. “If We Build It, Will They Come?” In National Online Meeting Proceedings – 2000: Proceedings of the 21st National Online Meeting, New York, May 16-18, 2000, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2000, 313-324.
The Edmon Low Library at Oklahoma State University created its Digital Library Services Unit (DLS) in 1999. The unit’s mission and goals were soon established, and it was determined that the unit would act as a coordinator for services provided by other existing library departments. Policies were developed for services such as document delivery and reference. Web pages were created with links to resources, explanations of available services, and a library registration form. To help users determine what periodicals could be accessed through the library, DLS created the Full-Text Periodical Titles & Coverage List. Marketing activities have included distributing informational packets, making presentations to various groups, and establishing lines of communication with program coordinators and faculty. Usage of the library’s web pages is documented, and the usage statistics for the DSL web sites during the fall 1999 Semester are given. Plans for the future include promoting netLibrary, adding two additional full-text databases, beta-testing web-conferencing software, and expanding electronic reserves. A. Lawrence.

Old Dominion University (Virginia)

Wakaruk, Amanda. “Creating a Distance Education Tool-Set for Course Based Business Information Instruction.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 131-140, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 131-140.
There are many ways that modern technology can be used to help deliver instruction to students. Three methods of delivery described in this article are videoconferencing, course-based HTML research guides, and web-based tutorials. The videoconferencing takes place from a classroom on campus both to off-campus classrooms by satellite and to students’ personal computers over the Internet simultaneously. Students may also attend the sessions in person if they choose. The sessions are interactive through audio transmission from the off-campus sites and through Internet Chat Relay for the Internet students. Many helpful pointers are given for anyone interested in exploring this type of instruction. A second delivery method is the creation of research guides in HTML format that can be made available to students over the Internet and can be customized for particular courses and/or specific groups of students. New guides can be created fairly easily using an HTML template and a standard page layout. Web-based tutorials are a third tool for teaching students. The tutorials can be divided into modules and can cover basic research procedures or they can be subject, course, or resource specific. The three delivery methods described can be used to complement each other and can give students different opportunities for independent learning. A. Lawrence.

Pace University (New York)

Philbert, Medaline. “Bridging the Distance: Pace University Library and Remote Users.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 87-98, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 87-98.
Library services provided to distance learning students in two programs of study at Pace University are the focus of this article. The two online programs are the e.MBA (Executive MBA) and the National Coalition for Telecommunications Education and Learning. While the same services that are available to on-campus students are also available to distance students, some adjustments to these services needed to be made to meet the needs of the distance students. For example, web pages were created that were specifically designed to help distance students in these programs access the information they needed when they needed it. Interlibrary loan services were adjusted to allow distance students to receive materials at their home addresses as well as by fax and by email. The library also subsidizes the cost of document delivery services by SUMO Uncover for these students. Reference assistance is available through the use of a toll-free telephone number, an online form for emailing questions to the library, and online research guides. The procedures involved in remote access for students and the ways the library solved remote access problems are also discussed. A. Lawrence.

Penn State University

Moyo, Lesley Mutinta and Ellysa Stern Cahoy. “Meeting the Needs of Remote Library Users.” Library Management 24, no. 6/7 (2003): 281-290.
Penn State World Campus students were surveyed to discover their attitudes on the quality and use of available library resources and services. Services include one-to-one reference service that includes the capability of co-browsing. The library has provided research tutorials. While students were generally pleased, they did not always utilize the libraries resources as fully as possible. For example, interlibrary loan use was used by only 16% of those surveyed. Survey results indicate that students are interested in access to more full-text resources along with speedy document delivery for materials not online full-text. Students appreciated point-of-need assistance, including telephone and virtual reference and instructional materials. Students also noted their use of local libraries for both resources and services, and also as a source of quiet study space. I. Frank.

Robinson, Ashley and Daniel C. Mack. “Library Service to Student Athletes: Peripatetic Distance Learners.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 2 (2004): 5-13.
Due to constant travel and remote training facilities, student athletes share many characteristics with distance learners. Librarians at Penn State University developed a pilot program to help meet athletes’ information needs, utilizing materials that are essentially geared for distance learners. Coordinating with the academic support center for student athletes, orientation sessions and a dedicated web page were used to introduce students to library services and specific librarians. An evaluation of the program discusses the role of student reluctance, technology, personal communication and mentoring in outreach programs. While personal contact, telephone, and email were listed as important means for communicating with students, instant messaging was found to be the most effective communication medium. Drawing upon this experience, the authors assert librarians need to understand how students are using new technologies and must use innovative technological solutions to reach distant students. J Brandt.

Plattsburgh State University (New York)

Heller-Ross, Holly. “Assessing Outcomes with Nursing Research Assignments and Citation Analysis of Student Bibliographies.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 77 (2002): 121-140, and Distance Learning: Information Access and Services for Virtual Users, edited by Hemalata Iyer. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 121-140.
Plattsburgh State University of New York offers an RN-BSN degree for nurses through a distance education program called the Telenursing Program. Citation analysis was chosen as the method to determine the use of library resources by the students enrolled in that program. A review of the literature about citation analysis was conducted and the requirements for library services for distance education students set by various accrediting bodies were examined. Students enrolled in the Telenursing Program voluntarily participated in the citation analysis study by allowing the bibliographies and works cited sections of their research assignments to be analyzed. The information from these documents was entered into a database and statistics were tabulated for the number of different resources used, the currency of the resources used, and the type of resources (books, journals, media, Web resources) chosen by the students. Nursing course assignments were examined to determine the research requirements and expectations of the faculty assigning the research projects. The statistics compiled on the use of published literature by the nursing students indicated only a slight difference in use for on-campus and off-campus students. The study also showed that the type of assignment and the assignment research requirements influenced the students’ use of resources more than differences in on-campus or off-campus access to resources. Tables and charts with statistical data are included with the article. S. Heidenreich.

Regent University (Virginia)

Lee, Marta. “Red, White, and Blues: Library Services to a Satelite Campus.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 3 (2004): 65-78.
In response to the creation of a new satellite campus, Regent University developed new library services for students in the Washington, DC, area. Initially, the library served these students using programs originally developed for online students, including document delivery, a toll-free reference phone number, and purchasing borrowing cards for local libraries. The author discusses the establishment of a permanent Library Resources Room on the satellite campus, addressing staffing, security, and collection development issues. Procedures for creating a reserve collection, developed in response to an accreditation report, are also described. To evaluate the program, a survey was distributed to students and faculty in 2003. The results describe the level of usage of library services and also identify areas needing improvement, including user training, more assistance from librarians, and advertising. The survey questions and results are included in an appendix. J Brandt.

Regis University (Colorado)

Riedel, Tom. “Ahead of the Game: Using Communications Software and Push Technology to Raise Student Awareness of Library Resources.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 283-294. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 375-390.
In January 2000, Regis University, along with two other academic institutions and a software company, became involved in a Learning Anytime Anywhere Partnership project to increase usage on online technologies to improve education. Regis University librarians concentrated on a system to automatically reach students as soon as they registered at the university, contacting the students via email with their student ID number, suggestions for library resources based of field of study, and instructions on how to apply for a library card for remote access. Based on the initial trial period and follow up survey, the messages are a success, although the timing for sending out messages may need to be modified. Sample messages and survey questions are included. C. Biles.

Riedel, Tom. “Added Value, Multiple Choices: Librarian /Faculty Collaboration in Online Course Development.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 369-375. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 477-487.
The number of students enrolled in online courses at Regis University has increased dramatically in recent years. More than one fourth of the credit hours of Regis’ School for Professional Studies (SPS) are now delivered online. A growing concern for the libraries was whether or not these students were aware of the library services available to them and how to use these resources. In fact, the faculty was found to be giving misinformation to the students. As a possible solution to this problem, a series of web-based lists of library resources in a variety of subject areas were created. The faculty were informed about these lists and encouraged to link the appropriate ones to their online courses. The author then offered to work with the course design teams on online course development. This collaboration generally worked very well, but at times both faculty and library expectations were unrealistic. A description is given of the design of three courses to illustrate how the partnership between faculty and librarians incorporated the use of the libraries’ resources into the courses. A. Lawrence.

Rio Salado College (Arizona)

Davis, Hazel M. “Information Literacy Modules as an Integral Component of a K-12 Teacher Preparation Program: A Librarian/Faculty Partnership.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 165-171. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 207-216.
Since its founding in 1978, Rio Salado College has been a nontraditional institution without a physical campus, providing its educational services through print, video, television, CD-ROM, face-to-face instruction in places like schools or shopping malls, and online. There are 26 permanent faculty members and over 700 adjunct faculty. Most of the permanent faculty act as department heads, all of whom are housed in the same building. There is close communication between these faculty, and they often work together in interdisciplinary teams. An example of this collaboration can be seen in a set of information literacy modules that was developed for a post baccalaureate teacher preparation program offered completely online. The program is designed for working adults who have already earned a four-year degree and now want to enter the teaching profession. There are three versions of the teacher preparation program with five courses that are common to all three. An information literacy module was created for each of the five core courses, and a sixth module was created for the Secondary Education students only. Different formats are used for the modules for variety, but each one is an integral part of the course content. The modules cover such topics as online catalogs and e-books, features of electronic databases, newspaper databases, and plagiarism. Future plans are to adapt the modules for courses in other disciplines. A. Lawrence.

Davis, Hazel M. “Distance Learning Students and Library Services: Issues, Solutions and the Rio Salado College Model.” Community & Junior College Libraries 9, no. 2 (2000): 3-13.
Rio Salado College was founded in 1978 as a nontraditional college with no physical campus, although a limited number of classes are now offered in the building where the college is headquartered. The library director is one of the 18 full-time faculty department heads. At first, the college’s library resources consisted of a small collection of books and videos, mainly intended for faculty and staff support. The students were expected to use the resources of other colleges for their library needs. In the last few years, however, the philosophy has changed and the college has accepted responsibility for library services for its students. When the library created its first web page in 1996, there were links to broad subject categories of selected web sites. Since then, services have expanded to include reference help through an e-mail link and an electronic library of online full-text databases. The library director is a part of the development team for new courses, consulting with faculty chairs regarding assignments and research needs and suggesting resources to support these needs. The library director also runs the copyright department that serves an important function in distance education. A. Lawrence.

Rochester Institute of Technology (New York)

Buehler, Marianne A. “Where is the Library in Course Management Software?” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 55-62. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 75-84.
The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) uses two different course management software (CMS) products, FirstClass and Prometheus, for its online courses. FirstClass is used only for online classes taken by distance learners and Prometheus is used for some online courses, blended courses, and on-campus courses. Both CMS products are used behind the scenes and locally named myCourses. The RIT library actively works with the faculty to create links and pathfinders specific to the courses being taught. The library also provides an orientation class for faculty to acquaint them with the services offered by the library. These services include providing links and resources specifically selected for the syllabus, outline of assignments, projects and papers, and lectures of a course, along with appropriate e-reserves. Since most CMS packages do not provide easy linking to library resources by using an icon or an incorporated link to the library, the author recommends working with our colleagues at universities and colleges to encourage courseware companies to add prominent library linking to their software. E. Onega.

Buehler, Marianne, Elizabeth Dopp, Kerry A. Hughes, and Jen Thompson. “It Takes a Library to Support Distance Learners.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 5, no. 3 (2001): 5-24.
Distance learners at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) are scattered over 45 states and many countries. Both students and faculty depend almost exclusively on the Internet for their communications. Library resources and services must be available to these students and faculty without regard to time zones or personal schedules. To accomplish this feat, the library uses many types of technology to offer vital services and resources and also to make a continuous effort to educate users on what is available to them. The FirstClass software used by RIT features a bulletin board, online chats, and email. Through the bulletin board segment of the software, the library has a series of brief email messages, each one covering a topic. Users can invite the Distance Learning Librarian to chat and receive immediate online help. Electronic reserves have presented the library with several challenges, such as large numbers of materials with multiple pages that caused download problems for students. Interlibrary loan services work very well through the use of ILLiad and Ariel software and the FedEx delivery service. Other services and resources provided by the library include over 150 electronic databases, several collections of digital images, electronic books, instruction tutorials, course-specific guides to resources, video/audio streamed instruction, and Library News Flash. Library News Flash allows students to subscribe to one or more biweekly mailing list listservs that the library uses to keep students updated on what the library offers. Since it is also crucial for the faculty to be aware of the services and resources available to their students, the Distance Learning Librarian works with them in various ways that are described. Assessment is conducted every mid-quarter through an email survey, resulting in a continuous process of making improvements and creating new services. A. Lawrence.

Rollins College (Florida)

Zhang, Wenxian. “Developing Web-Enhanced Learning for Information Literacy.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 41, no. 4 (Summer 2002): 356-363.
The author discusses the efforts of the Olin Library at Rollins College to incorporate WebCT in its information literacy course, in partnership with the College’s Department of Information Technology. The instructor built the course, “Introduction to Information Fluency – Information Research, Evaluation, and Communication,” on a plan designed by Associated Colleges of the South (ACS). Rollins College is a member of the ACS consortium, along with fourteen other liberal arts institutions. The article includes the specifics of the pedagogy, organization, communication, and assessment of the course, which would be useful to someone planning to teach an online course. E. Onega.

Rutgers University (New Jersey)

Ren, Wen-Hua. “Library Services to Distance Learners Across the Pacific.” In National Online Meeting Proceedings – 2000: Proceedings of the 21st National Online Meeting, New York, May 16-18, 2000, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2000, 353-358.
The Rutgers Graduate School of Management offers an International Executive MBA (IEMBA) program to students in China and Singapore, and the John Cotton Dana Library on the Rutgers-Newark campus provides library resources and services to these students. In 1999, student needs were assessed through an emailed survey questionnaire, and the results have been used to provide needed services. A web page created especially for students in the IEMBA program gives information on available student services and gives links to online resources, reference service, and a collection of library research guides specifically for business courses. Since the courses in the IEMBA program are short and intensive, electronic document delivery has replaced the traditional postal delivery for these international students, and reserve materials submitted to the library by the professors are also available electronically. Efforts are being made to partner with local university and research libraries, but one of the biggest challenges is providing library instruction. Two alternatives for instruction that are being considered are videoconferencing and delivering mini-email sessions. Present plans are to conduct periodic needs assessments and to continue to improve these inter-continental library services. A. Lawrence.

St. Edward’s University (Texas)

Brownlee, Dianne and Frances Ebbers. “Extending Library Boundaries Without Losing the Personal Touch.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 43-47. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 67-73.
St. Edward’s University is a small Catholic-affiliated liberal arts university whose library has the reputation of giving a high level of customer service to its users. Along with the university’s commitment to double the number of its non-traditional students came the need for the library to expand its services. In 1992, the library’s catalog went online and the next year UMI’s ABI/Inform and Periodical Abstracts were made available. Since then, the web-based resources offered have continued to increase. During this time, the library staff has continued to make an effort to maintain a close liaison with the students. Personal contact is made with the students at on- and off-site orientations and library instruction sessions. Students who request materials from the library or through interlibrary loan are personally contacted with an anticipated delivery date, due date information, and options for returning the materials. Partnerships have been formed with libraries at the off-campus sites in an effort to give the best service possible to distance students. As the university’s off-campus programs continue to grow, the library continues to take a proactive approach to library services. The willingness of the staff to change their roles and to take on additional responsibilities has been vital. A. Lawrence.

Seton Hall University (New Jersey)

Kaufmann, Frances G. “Collaborating to Create Customized Library Services for Distance Education Students.” Technical Services Quarterly 21, no. 2 (2003): 51-62.
The evolution of library services for distance education students at Seton Hall University is described. The author explains how–through the collaboration of librarians, technology staff, faculty, and administrators–a rich array of library services supporting distance learners was developed at minimal cost. The services began modestly, in response to the needs of students in a distance education nursing program. A librarian was designated as the distance learning liaison. A customized distance education library web page for the nursing program was developed, and it served as a model for customized websites developed for other Seton Hall distance education programs. In addition to the customized websites, library distance education services included expanded library orientation sessions, research assistance via phone and email, promotion of existing online library services and additions to the online full text collections. J. Markgraf.

Shenandoah University (Virginia)

Green, Rosemary and Mary Bowser. “Managing Thesis Anxiety: A Faculty-Librarian Partnership to Guide Off-Campus Graduate Education Students Through the Thesis Process.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 265-275. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 341-354.
The Division of Education of the School of Arts and Sciences at Shenandoah University offers a complete Master of Science in Education program at off-campus sites. Nearly two-thirds of its graduate students are enrolled in this distance program. When these students reach the time in the program when they must complete their thesis requirements, it is possible for them to go through the entire thesis process without interaction with faculty advisors or with their peers. In 1999, a graduate education professor and a graduate instruction librarian formed a team and began collaborating on the four courses that make up the thesis research and composition process. In the fall 2001 term, a pilot study was undertaken to examine the effects of this collaboration on the thesis process. The study examined the effect of the faculty-librarian collaboration in two areas: 1) student anxiety during the literature review process, and 2) the quality of the final literature reviews authored. Although the sample in the study was too small for the results to be conclusive, several trends have been identified that will be tested in the future. It appears that student anxiety during the early phases of the thesis process is unaffected but that the faculty-librarian collaboration acts as an intervention so that the later stages of the process are less anxious for the students. The attention that the students receive in the collaboration effort makes them feel less isolated, and regular and timely feedback adds to their confidence. The survey questions that were used in the pilot study are included in an appendix. A. Lawrence.

Slippery Rock University (Pennsylvania)

Hoffmann, Lynn. “Collaborate, Communicate, Celebrate: Successful Delivery of Library Services for the Distance Learner.” Paper presented at Distance Learning 2003: The 19th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 13-15, 2003, Madison Wisconsin. Available online (in pdf format)
Problems accessing library services encountered by nontraditional and distance education students in the Nursing program at Slippery Rock University prompted collaboration between librarians and instructional faculty. Regular meetings between librarians and Nursing faculty were established through which problems with traditional delivery systems were identified and addressed. Collaborative efforts resulted in improved user authentication, increased online nursing journal and book collections, augmented technical support, and expanded levels of reference and instruction services provided online and via fax and toll-free phone. Ongoing communication between librarians and faculty is emphasized as crucial in identifying problems and continually improving library services to distance learners. J. Markgraf.

Nicholas, Martina and Melba Tomeo. “Can You Hear Me Now? Communicating Library Services to Distance Education Students and Faculty.” Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 8, no.2 (Summer 2005). Online. Available: http://www.westga.edu/%7Edistance/ojdla/summer82/nicholas82.htm
When a LibQual survey indicated that many students were unaware of the library’s remote resources and services, Slippery Rock University’s Bailey Library undertook a project to determine best practices for presenting information for remote users on library websites. They studied the websites of 100 institutions in order to determine library contact information including evidence of a distance learning librarian, information on remote access to databases and other e-resources, interlibrary loan, course-specific pathfinders, and information for “distance education faculty.” They also developed a list of questions that users might ask such as “Who can I contact with a reference question?” Findings are presented looking at factors such as size of the collection. For example, they discovered that libraries with a distance education enrollment of 5,001-10,000+ offered the most database tutorials (29%) and course specific pathfinders (42%). They were also likely to designate a distance learning librarian (14%). The authors conclude by suggesting that libraries should provide a distance education or off-campus gateway readily available from the library homepage. I. Frank.

South Dakota State University

Burggraff, Denise and Mary Kraljic. “Collaboration for Program Enrichment: Exploring JSTOR and Nursing.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 69-75. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 93-100.
The library at South Dakota State University (SDSU) has a close working relationship with the College of Nursing. In 2001, the university received a Project JSTOR Bush and Mellon Foundation grant to be used to enhance the Registered Nurse Upward Mobility Program through combining technological and human components of library services. Nursing faculty, the Distance and Interlibrary Loan Librarian, and the Instructional Designer from SDSU’s Information Technologies Center are working together to meet the goals for the grant. The activity plan and timeline that were formulated for the project are shown in an appendix. To accomplish the goals, the project faculty have had to become familiar with JSTOR and its potential, and the librarian has had to become familiar with the RN Upward Mobility Program and its requirements. Learning experiences using JSTOR and other electronic journal resources have been planned for all six courses in the RN program. In an information literacy assessment pre-test given in the first course of the program, students were weakest in the areas of accessing information effectively and efficiently. This project is still ongoing. A. Lawrence.

Southeast Missouri State University

Bibb, David Darryl. “Distance Center Students Deserve Main Campus Resources.” Collection Building 22, no. 1 (2003): 5-9.
A description is provided of Southeast Missouri State University’s efforts to provide its distance students with equivalent library services. The university’s library developed a four-fold approach: provide online databases; use ILL to delivery materials free of charge to DE students; recycle reference materials with useful information to distance centers; and purchase a new, core collection of reference materials to be available at the distance centers. Most of the databases are subscription databases made available to off-campus students by way of a proxy server, but the library has also provided links to open access online indexes and databases. ILL provides free mailing of books and journals articles to distance students. The first 30 pages of lengthier items, such as ERIC documents, are provided free of charge with a charge of 10 cents for each additional page. The library felt it important to provide print materials so as not to perpetuate the belief that all information can be found on the Internet. Titles of recycled reference materials and those in the purchased core reference collection for distance centers are included in the article. P. Ortega.

Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

Logue, Susan and Barbara Preece. “Instructional Support in the Changing Library Environment.” Technical Services Quarterly 17, no. 1 (1999): 13-22.
As of 1999, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale had taken significant and innovative steps to meet the changing needs of their library users. These efforts were facilitated largely through interdepartmental partnerships and reassignment of personnel into shared positions between two departments: Morris Library and Instructional Support Services (ISS). An Assistant Instructional Support Services Librarian was hired to serve as the library’s web administrator and to develop web and multi-media projects for the library and for university courses. Also, two librarians were cross-appointed in ISS and the library to review web sites and to develop access to those sites to support distant users. Further partnerships resulted in the development of online ILL request forms, increased access to electronic journals and indexes through creative computer programming (in the absence of a proxy server), and the development of a “Pathfinder” website with links to electronic sources and call number/location information for print materials, and the creation of an electronic reserve service. P. Ortega.

Logue, Susan and Barbara Preece. “Library Services to Support Remote Students.” Resource Sharing & Information Networks 14, no. 1 (1999): 41-50.
The library at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, has sought to meet the changing information needs of distance education by developing partnerships between Instructional Support Services (ISS), which has traditionally provided instructional and technology support for distance faculty, and reference librarians, who have provided reference support to remote students. In 1995, an assistant ISS librarian position was created which was responsible for the library’s Web site, for daily operations of ISS, and for working with faculty to develop multimedia and web materials for classes. Also, two reference librarians work equally in ISS and in the library’s Public and Collection Development Services in order to enhance reference services. This partnering resulted in a number of finished projects, which include enhanced library web site development, a “Pathfinder Web Site,” streamlining the patron authentication process, and simplifying the process of creating and maintaining e-reserves. P. Ortega.

South Alabama Medical Network Digital Library

Li, Jie, Robert A. Runderson, Judy F.Burnham, Geneva Bush Staggs, Justin C. Robertson, & Thomas L. Williams. “Delivering distance training to rural health care professionals.” Medical reference services quarterly 24, no. 1 (2005): 41-54.
This case study, discusses the South Alabama Medical Network Digital Library (SAMNet) project, which received an Internet Access to Digital Libraries (IADL) grant from the National Library of Medicine to provide rural health care professionals from nine southern Alabama counties access to much needed information resources, library services and training on locating relevant information. During the project, a digital library was created to allow access to both free and subscription core resources, on-site training was offered at each of the sites, and training modules were developed using Producer, a freely available program that can be added onto PowerPoint 2002 or above. The authors discuss the challenges that they faced in providing training to staff at the rural sites, and discuss the rationale behind the decision to choose Producer to create the modules, This article, written by practitioners in the field, provides strategies for delivering services to remote users in less than ideal conditions, and makes a valuable contribution to the body of research on distance library services. E. Fabbro

Southeastern Louisiana University

Guillot, Ladonna and Beth Stahr. “A Tale of Two Campuses: Providing Virtual Reference to Distance Nursing Students.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 105-114. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 139-152.
Student enrollment at Southeastern Louisiana University (Southeastern) doubled during the twenty years between 1975 and 1995, which prompted the University to include distance learning opportunities for its non-traditional and part-time students. The Library has supported Southeastern’s educational mission by offering bibliographic instruction as a one credit class and course-specific instruction at the request of instructors. To make bibliographic instruction available to distance learners, the distance education librarian, housed at the main library, developed a pilot project with the Health Sciences Librarian, located at one of the remote campuses, to offer instruction to nursing students using the LSSI software, now Tutor.com. The Library had been using LSSI software for online reference up until this pilot project was implemented. The two librarians wanted to enhance the online reference service by making it discipline specific; instructional; by appointment; collaborative among faculty, students, and librarians; and a value-added service for distance learners. The article discusses specific challenges that the librarians and students faced in the first semester of implementation. The service was well-received, but expensive in terms of time, money and personnel. E. Onega.

Springfield College (Massachusetts)

Casey, Anne Marie, Sheri Sochrin, and Stephanie Fazenbaker Race. “Fair is Fair, or is It? Library Services to Distance Learners.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 119-129. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 147-161.
Different types of institutions take different approaches to providing services to distance learners, depending on their resources. The methods used by three different institutions are examined. The first institution discussed is the Florida Distance Learning Reference & Referral Center (RRC), a state-sponsored center created to provide reference and instruction to distance learners at ten universities and twenty-eight community colleges. Although the RRC closed at the end of 2001, it was recognized nationally for its successes during its operation. The second institution discussed is Central Michigan University (CMU), a doctoral/research university with distance students around the world. Some of the challenges at CMU have been student difficulties with the proxy server, teaching the students about library services, and providing reference assistance during the hours needed because of differing time zones. Springfield College, a small private college, is the third institution discussed. To offer remote access services to distance learners, Springfield College’s Babson Library has reorganized many of its services and created new ones. A weak point is that of providing library instruction to the remote students. Since traveling to all remote campuses is an impossibility, alternatives such as videos, phone instruction, and the courseware program Manhatten have been explored. The library is hoping to use videoconferencing for instruction when the college’s videoconferencing facilities are completed. A. Lawrence.

Sochrin, Sheri. “Learning to Teach in a New Medium: Adapting Library Instruction to a Videoconferencing Environment.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 321-330. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 429-442.
With nine remote campuses in eight states, Springfield College librarians faced challenges in providing library instruction to users located away from the main campus. After exploring a variety of remote instruction services, they opted for live videoconferencing as the best compromise, offering both personal interaction and live access to electronic resources. All courses offered at the remote campuses fell under one program, and the library targeted the first required class as the optimal way to make contact with the students. The instruction sessions were well received, but the librarians had to adapt traditional teaching styles to meet the limitations of the system. The largest problem the library faced was new equipment and lack of training and experience on the part of all users, compounded by lack of technical support during class hours. Other problems include time lags, the inability to see well enough to read facial cues, and classrooms not shaped optimally for videoconferencing. C. Biles.

Stephen F. Austin State University (Texas)

McDonald, Randy and Marthea Turnage. “Making the Connection: Library Services for Distance Education and Off-Campus Students.” Texas Library Journal 79, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 50-53.
As well as offering traditional services to the Stephen F. Austin State University’s distance learners, the Ralph W. Steen Library offers a range of electronic services such as desktop delivery of interlibrary loans and Web access to bibliographic databases. The Library provides delivery of reserve material to cooperating libraries and participates in workshops for faculty who are developing online courses. This provides an opportunity to market the Library’s services and resources including information on reserves, interlibrary loan, document delivery, information literacy, etc. The Library also offers technical support to students using WebCT. To streamline services, the University deployed Campus Pipeline software to provide a portal with a single logon for students. The portal provides access to courses and the library resources. The Library is experimenting with a chat service that is integrated into the portal in order to provide additional avenues for support. I. Frank.

Temple University (Pennsylvania)

Meola, Marc and Sam Stormont. “Real-Time Reference Service for the Remote User: From the Telephone and Electronic Mail to Internet Chat, Instant Messaging, and Collaborative Software.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 67/68 (1999): 29-40, and Library Outreach, Partnerships, and Distance Education: Reference Librarians at the Gateway, edited by Wendi Arant and Pixey Anne Mosley. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 29-40.
The most traditional way to provide reference service to remote users has been the telephone. Electronic mail is also commonplace as a method for giving reference service but has the disadvantage of not being in real time. In 1998, Temple University Libraries began plans for an Internet chat reference service. Criteria were set and TalkBack, a paging program, was selected as the software that would be used. The Libraries had a link to TalkBack on the home page, and the software was installed on a computer at the reference desk. Usage of TalkBack during the first six weeks exceeded usage of the traditional email. Later when the Temple University Attention to Teaching and Teaching Improvement Center conducted on-campus workshops demonstrating various software, the authors saw the possibility of applying some of the demonstrated software to reference service. Currently, the library is preparing to use Microsoft’s NetMeeting software which features chat, whiteboard, application sharing, file sharing, and audio and video sharing. The ways that these features can be applied to reference service are explained. A. Lawrence.

Texas A&M University

Tipton, Carol J. “Graduate Students’ Perceptions of Library Support Services for Distance Learners: A University System-Wide Study.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 261-271. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 393-408.
The Texas A&M University System is connected by a statewide network called the Trans-Texas Video Conference Network (TTVN). University telecourses are offered through TTVN, but each student in these courses is enrolled through one of the universities in the system. The libraries at each university are primarily responsible for library support for their own distance students. The libraries within the system, as well as a few other libraries, also participate in the TexShare program, a cooperative program that provides statewide licensing of databases, access to library collections, assistance in document delivery, and additional electronic resources. In 1999, a study was conducted to determine how well the libraries throughout the Texas A&M University System were serving the information needs of distance learning graduate students, how aware of available services the distance graduate students were, and how well the distance graduate students perceived that their needs were being met. One hundred thirty-three graduate students participated in the study. A survey questionnaire was administered to the students, asking them about their library use, their satisfaction with library services, computer and Internet access, and demographic information. The survey questions and the results are included in an appendix to the article. Among other things, findings indicate that students are not using available resources to their full potential, and there appears to be a need for more instruction. A. Lawrence.

Texas A&M University-College Station

Liu, Zao and Zheng Ye (Lan) Yang,. “Factors Influencing Distance-Education Graduate Students’ Use of Information Sources: A User Study.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 30, no. 1 (January 2004): 24-35.
This study, conducted at Texas A&M University (TAMU) at College Station, found, not surprisingly, that graduate distance education students preferred information sources that are fast and easy to use. Internet and electronic library resources were preferred to traditional library resources by most respondents. The study went on to look at specific factors influencing use preferences. Among the findings was a strong correlation between a student’s field of study, self-reported level of motivation and information source preference. Humanities and social sciences majors at TAMU were more likely than science and engineering and business and economics majors to choose the library as their primary information source. Similarly, humanities and social sciences majors rated themselves as more intrinsically motivated than did students in the other majors. The authors point to the importance of improving timeliness and ease of access in providing services to distance education students. Detailed statistics and a copy of the questionnaire are included. J. Markgraf.

Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi

Landry-Hyde, Denise. “Outreach at a Public, Academic, Regional Library – Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 67/68 (1999): 289-298, and Library Outreach, Partnerships, and Distance Education: Reference Librarians at the Gateway, edited by Wendi Arant and Pixey Anne Mosley. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 289-298.
Outreach efforts by the Bell Library at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (A&M-CC) have led to a broader range of resources being available for all its students. The library is a founding member of a consortium of area college/university libraries and hospital libraries, opening up valuable hospital library resources to students and faculty. In addition, Bell Library is paid to run the library operations at a local children’s hospital, and the holdings of both libraries are in the university’s online catalog. When a local art museum became a partner with A&M-CC, its specialized collection was added to the library’s online catalog. Community outreach has resulted in a joint venture with the local public library involving current bestsellers and with the local chapter of the American Association of University Women involving their archives. Extending its outreach beyond the state’s borders, the Bell Library has an agreement with the library of the Instituto Technologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey in Mexico. The two libraries share access to their online catalogs, provide reciprocal interlibrary loan services, and even make staff exchanges. The Bell Library also played a role in recovering the manuscripts of a South Texas Mexican-American writer. All these outreach efforts have made it possible for the library to offer a more diverse collection to its users. A. Lawrence.

Texas Tech University

Hufford, Jon R. “Library Support for Distance Learners: What Faculty Think.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 3 (2004): 3-28.
In 2001, the Texas Tech University Library surveyed distance learning instructors regarding the last televised or off-campus course they taught. Faculty perceptions of off-campus library services were analyzed by examining twenty-two responses from instructors of graduate and upper-division courses in seven disciplines. Issues discussed include the presence and type of assignments requiring library sources, the role of instructors in informing students about lib-rary sources, and librarian-faculty interaction in course development. Faculty expectations were measured for library services, online access to resources, and student skills. A majority of faculty expected students to use “outside” information sources such as the Internet, periodical articles, books, and electronic journals for their classes. A small but significant number of faculty reported forgoing class assignments (23%) or modifying course content (18%) due to the lack of easily accessible library resources. The survey instrument, consisting of multiple-choice questions and a Likert-scale measure of expectations, is included. J Brandt.

Hufford, Jon R. “User Instruction for Distance Students: Texas Tech University System’s Main Campus Library Reaches Out to Students at Satellite Campuses.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 115-123. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 153-165.
Texas Tech University (TTU) used the SACS accreditation process as a time to examine library services for distance learning students at its newly created off-campus sites. The Director of TTU – Hill Country oversees the operations of the three new education centers. She turned to the Library Director for help in assessing library services for distance students and the Library Director, in turn, asked two librarians to visit all three Hill Country sites and evaluate library services and resources. The recommendations that came out of the report were to hire a full-time librarian to provide instruction, reference and collection development for Hill Country students; create a small print reference and reserve collection at each site; and encourage all students to take an introduction to library research class. The recommendation that was immediately acted on was offering a modified version of the existing library research course to distance students. The course was originally taught face-to-face in three sections per semester. The librarians thought that transforming it to be an online class using WebCT would make it more amenable to the Hill Country students. Students at the main campus could also take the class and did in much larger numbers than the distance students. This is attributed to a successful marketing campaign at the main campus and that the Hill Country sites are still new and have low student enrollment. E. Onega.

Hufford, Jon R. “Planning for Distance Learning: Support Services and the Library’s Role.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 175-180. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 259-266.
Texas Tech University began planning its distance learning program in 1996. A description is given of the methods and procedures that are being used to accomplish this goal. When plans are being made for distance learning, the area most often neglected is student support services _ registration, academic counseling, financial aid, bookstore services, timely receipt of instructor materials, access to library and research materials, etc. Texas Tech decided early on to make student support services for distance learners a priority, and its Student Services and Course Management Working Committee was formed in 1998 for that purpose. Since the library has a major role in providing student support services, library services currently being offered and those planned for the future are examined. It is primarily through the Libraries’ web site that library services are provided. Web-based electronic resources that require user validation/IP addresses are accessed using Point-to-point Protocol (PPP) accounts provided by the University’s Academic Computing Service. Telnet access is also available. Plans are to have a proxy server for the Libraries that will bypass the need for a PPP account. Besides offering email reference assistance, electronic reserves, subject links to Internet resources, an online tutorial, and full-text resources through the web site, the Libraries also provide customized library instruction, an 888 toll-free phone number, and express delivery of library materials. Desktop delivery of articles, remote book renewal, and accessing personal borrowing information are among the services planned for the future. A. Lawrence.

Hufford, Jon R. “The University Library’s Role in Planning a Successful Distance Learning Program.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 193-203, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 193-203.
Texas Tech University’s planning for its distance learning program began with a vision statement developed by a committee made up of people from various departments throughout the campus. The committee envisioned that, by the early part of the twenty-first century, Texas Tech should become a national leader in higher education through distance learning. On the recommendation of the committee, a permanent administrative unit was created to be responsible for insuring the university’s ability to achieve this leadership position. Since then, several committees have been formed to do the strategic planning that the university feels is necessary. It was decided at the beginning that the distance students must be offered the same quality service that on-campus students receive. Library services that are in the planning stages are a distance learners’ web page, an 800 phone number, customized library instruction, and express delivery of library materials. A library card that is electronically transmitted to students is also planned. A library team will be established to coordinate distance services and respond to future needs. A. Lawrence.

Thomas Jefferson University (Pennsylvania)

Frisby, Anthony J. and Susan S. Jones. “The Initiation of Distance Learning at Thomas Jefferson University: The Library as Integral Partner.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 19, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 19-37.
At Thomas Jefferson University, Scott Memorial Library is just one of four parts of the Academic Information Service and Research (AISR) division which coordinates information and knowledge management for the university. The other three parts of AISR – Education Services, Medical Media Services, and the Office of Academic Computing – provide some services which, at other universities, are considered library services. For example, Education Services provides information literacy instruction and marketing services, and the Office of Academic Computing provides database administration and technical support for all the library systems. Because these four parts of AISR are so closely interrelated, the librarians and library staff sometimes are involved in projects that are not traditionally those of the library. In late 1997, the educational services librarian became a member of the development team formed to design the university’s first full-credit distance learning course. The major facets of the development of the course are described. Nine months later, in the fall of 1998, the Nursing Department offered the web-based course for the first time. Seven figures and three tables included in the article show the primary responsibilities of the team members, the number of hours that were devoted to the course’s development, instructional strategies, the report for monitoring student progress, and other information that was gathered. Descriptions are given of the roles that librarians and library staff played in the planning, implementation, and ongoing support for the course and its students and faculty. Changes that have been made and future plans are also discussed. A. Lawrence.

Thunderbird: The American Graduate School of International Management

Hammond, Carol, Wes Edens, Ann Tolzman, and Catharine Cebrowski. “An International Information Gateway: Thunderbird’s Intranet for Teaching, Learning, and Research.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 17 (2000): 67-92.
Graduates of Thunderbird, The American Graduate School of International Management, can speak different languages, understand the customs and cultures of different countries, and have international business skills. Since technology is an essential part of the business world, students are expected to be proficient in the use of various software, hardware, networks, and systems. Thunderbird offers a distance education degree program to students in Mexico and Peru and offers many other opportunities for studying abroad virtually anywhere in the world. The International Business Information Centre (IBIC), Thunderbird’s library on the home campus at Glendale, Arizona, offers a large variety of services that are described. To support the school’s graduate program, the IBIC makes its resources available to students through My Thunderbird (MTB), a secure web-based intranet that provides features and information based on the security permissions of the user. At first, IBIC was using My Thunderbird only as a gateway to the IBIC catalog, but it is now being used for much more. The IBIC staff has converted all the library’s paper forms to electronic ones, so students can now request interlibrary loans and appeal library fines online (Appendices I and II). Rather than providing remote access through a proxy server, IBIC uses a method involving referral URL which is explained. Using ProQuest SiteBuilder, faculty and librarians can do searches on a topic and create an HTML link to the search results, then put the link on the course web page for the students. Faculty enthusiasm for this service has created unprecedented interest in the library. The Information Game (Appendix III), designed by IBIC as a bibliographic instruction tool especially for new students, is on My Thunderbird. IBIC also provides the Global Gateway database to the international business community at large. IBIC’s virtual library provides impressive support for its users. A. Lawrence.

Ulster County Community College (New York)

Walsh, Robin. “Information Literacy at Ulster County Community College: Going the Distance.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 77 (2002): 89-105, and Distance Learning: Information Access and Services for Virtual Users, edited by Hemalata Iyer. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 89-105.
This article chronicles the genesis and evolution of an information literacy course at Ulster County Community College (UCCC) in New York. The course originally began with an information literacy initiative in 1992. Both librarians and teaching faculty worked collaboratively on the curriculum, content, and teaching. The class was eventually offered online in the fall 1997. Concurrently with the events at UCCC, the SUNY Office of Library and Information Services (OLIS) provided funding to create an online literacy course, which would be made available to all SUNY institutions. The UCCC course was redesigned and became the template for the online information literacy class, which SUNY institutions could download in July 2000. The course contains an introduction (The Information Age) and four modules: Searching Databases, Searching for Library Materials, Searching for Reference Sources – Print and Electronic, and Searching the Internet. The UCCC librarians continue to update the course and incorporate new technologies into the course. E. Onega.

United States Open University

Bremner, Alison. “Letters from America: Developing a Virtual Library for the USA.” Impact: The Journal of the Career Development Group 4, no. 6 (November/December 2001): 113-114.
The development of a completely virtual library for the United States Open University (USOU) is discussed. The author is a former librarian with the United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) which, in late 2000, was offered the contract to provide library services for the US Open University. Planning began based on services offered by the UKOU, using also ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. In addition, planners examined services offered at other institutions with distance learners. Initial steps included developing a web site, then locating online resources to be offered by the library. OCLC First Search, EBSCO Academic Search Elite and Business Source Elite, and NetLibrary were selected as initial online collections to support the university’s courses. A major consideration in the planning was to ensure that the university and its library met national and regional accreditation requirements. The importance of planning an evaluation of the service is stressed, as well as the importance of not underestimating costs in personnel and resources for a virtual library. P. Ortega.

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Higginbottom, Patricia and Edward P. Harris III. “The Virtual Desktop: The Remote Access Solution.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 20, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 1-8.
Lister Hill Library of the Health Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham has created a way for its users to access databases and educational software from remote locations. Although it was initially a labor intensive and costly venture, the results have proven worthwhile. Now in addition to access to electronic databases, remote users also have access to CD-ROM based programs formally available only in the library. The CD-ROM based programs have been made available through the use of a Linux front end and Citrix MetaFrame server which authenticates the user and allows remote access. A Virtual Desktop provides users with an initial screen showing icons and links to all the electronic resources. An authentication process for remote users was developed using the university’s databases of students and employees. All licensing agreements with electronic resource vendors were reviewed to insure none were being violated by the new Virtual Desktop system. Use statistics are collected by the authentication server and may be reviewed at any time. A brief discussion of the implementation process used, along with some of the problems encountered, is given. S. Heidenreich.

University of Illinois at Chicago

Koenig, Melissa H. and Martin J. Brennan. “All Aboard the eTrain: Developing and Designing Online Library Instruction Modules.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 331-339. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2003): 425-435.
With the dramatic increase of students’ use of the Internet for research, the authors emphasize the need for increasing visibility of library online resources and services. Coupled with the proliferation of these online resources, librarians must develop effective methods of online instruction. The University of Illinois at Chicago began developing and testing online tutorials in 1999 and discovered that students who took online tutorials actually performed better in post-tests than students who had taken traditional on-campus workshops. P. Ortega.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Cole, Timothy W., Robert S. Allen, and John G. Schmitz. “Building an Outreach Digital Library Collection.” Illinois Libraries 82, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 239-250.
A detailed look at the issues related to converting print materials into an organized, indexed, and searchable collection of digital text resources is examined. The authors outline a project initiated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) to create a prototype online information system from print sources published by the UIUC College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES). The project involved identifying materials that are used in conjunction with outreach programs and appropriate for this format, taking into account intellectual property issues. Indexing and full text searching were also included in the project. Tables are included in the article to demonstrate which metadata elements were used as well as ISO 23083 Book and Article Tags Indexed. The authors note the difficulty in balancing the labor-intensiveness and cost of constructing an indexed, searchable library with the volume with which relevant online information is being produced. Standards and best practices must continue to be developed for metadata creation and markup schemata in order to ensure greater functionality and ease of use for end-users of digital libraries. P. Ortega.

Kibbee, Jo and Lynn Wiley. “Take Us With You!: Delivering Library Resources and Services to Users in the Field.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 62-72.
An overview is presented of an innovative program to provide seamless access to library resources and services to university affiliates who are off campus but not in an established distance learning program. These off-campus users include such users as individuals conducting fieldwork, study abroad participants, faculty on sabbatical leave, and others. Begun through an externally funded grant, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) began this “Take Us With You” project in collaboration with other campus agencies. This outreach project attempted a two tiered approach to provide full information to these potential users about available library resources and services, help with technical issues, using other libraries, campus information, etc. Through partnerships with UIUC International Programs and Studies, with campus agencies that support computer use, and other university offices, the library participated in orientation for study-abroad students and emailed faculty about to begin sabbatical with information on the project. Then, a web page was created to provide the same type information as a point of need resource for those already off-campus. P. Ortega.

Searing, Susan E. “All in the Family: Library Services for LIS Online Education.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 295-304. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 391-405.
Online distance education is an increasingly common method of educating of new librarians, but librarianship offers special challenges in distance education. The information literacy requirements of the curriculum, the need to understand the physical library, and the need to experience the ideals of the profession through interaction with professionals all require greater access to library resources than is the norm among distance education courses. Additionally, the students require access to profession specific literature rarely held by local university and public libraries. The author provides details about the services offered to LIS students enrolled in the LEEP program at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and observations on usage and appreciation of those services. C. Biles.

University of Iowa

Dew, Stephen H. “Documenting Priorities, Progress, and Potential: Planning Library Services for Distance Education.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 173-191. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 217-242.
This is an outline of the plan developed for distance education library services at the University of Iowa. Upon his appointment as the first Coordinator of Library Services for Distance Education, the author researched and wrote this plan. The article discusses his research leading to the plan and its eleven sections, which include objectives, library services (including development of a DE Library Services website), document delivery, user education, reference assistance and consultation, and review and evaluation, among others. The author stresses the importance of frequent revisions to the plan as resources, services and programs change. P. Ortega.

Dew, Stephen H. “Knowing Your Users and What They Want: Surveying Off-Campus Students About Library Services.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 119-132. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 177-193.
The author discusses the issues confronted by the University of Iowa Libraries when a survey was mailed to its off-campus students. In 1998, the UI modified and updated a previous study developed by another library 1992. After pretesting, it was further revised, then received clearance from the university’s Human Subjects Office. It was mailed to a large random sampling of off-campus students with a 38.5 percent response rate. The article discusses the survey results and the library services that were initiated because of the survey. Appendices include the survey and its compiled results, its cover letter, and the handout on library services given to off-campus students. P. Ortega.

McLean, Evadne and Stephen H. Dew. “Assessing the Library Needs and Preferences of Off-Campus Students: Surveying Distance Education Students, from the Midwest to the West Indies.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 197-226. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 265-302.
The authors of this paper begin with a review of the literature of assessing library needs of distance students, and then compare the experiences of creating user surveys for students at each of their institutions – U of Iowa (UI) and U of the West Indies (UWI). The U of Iowa conducted surveys in 1998-99 and again in 2003. The latter survey receives much greater coverage here. UI plans to conduct another survey in 2004 to remedy some of the shortcomings of the first two surveys. The UWI survey was conducted in late 2000 as an attempt to learn more about the student population served by the Distance Librarian. Several changes and new services were implemented at UWI as a result of responses to the survey. The paper closes with a comparison of the findings from each of the institution’s surveys. The surveys questions and results for each institution are included as appendices. P. Pival.

University of Kansas

Burich, Nancy J. “Providing Leadership for Change in Distance Learning .” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 2 (2004): 31-41.
Because of its reliance on quickly evolving technology, distance learning has accommodated change at a much more rapid pace than is typical in the academy. Required to respond to swift changes in their environment, distance learning librarians are in a position to help lead their libraries and institutions adapt to fundamental changes in higher education. After discussing general definitions and qualities of leaders, the author describes how developing library services for distance learners led to leadership roles at the University of Kansas. Recognizing problems that need to be addressed, taking time to research potential solutions, and devoting energy to implement strategies were highlighted as significant activities for a potential leader. Leadership strategies are highlighted in descriptions of several projects undertaken by the author, including acquiring collections for distance learners, developing electronic reserves, and expanding electronic reference services. In order to help others develop a process and strategy to implement new ideas, the author provides an annotated checklist for initiating and leading change. J Brandt.

Burich, Nancy J. “Blackboard and XanEdu: A New Model for an Old Service.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 77-92. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 101-116.
A pilot project with a university library providing digital course packs for one summer class yielded valuable information on the desirability and limitations of such a service. Conducted during summer semester, 2001, at the University of Kansas, this trial project raised vital questions regarding copyright, fair use, use of materials already acquired by the university with no additional charge to students, creation of templates for faculty to create their own course packs, cost of the service, and alternative models. The university contracted with XanEdu and Blackboard to provide this service. However, the success of the trial and the labor-intensiveness of the service created a demand beyond the resources of the library. Thus, the library has created guides to assist faculty in assembling e-reserve collections on their own and the university is continuing searching for new models to deliver this service. The article includes six appendices: the contract with XanEdu, faculty evaluation of the coursepacks, copyright fees, final report of the trial, lessons learned, and impact of Fair Use guidelines on e-reserves. P. Ortega.

Stratton, John M. “An Information Access Model at a Distant Branch Library.” Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 1 (2004): 79-98.
The Regents Center Library (RCL) at the University of Kansas Edwards Campus (KUEC) is a distant branch library that serves the needs of a population of adult students, most of whom are enrolled in graduate programs. The author describes an information access plan developed for the RCL. The University of Kansas libraries have been moving to a collaborative model of collection development, with the RCL included as a partner in the collaboration. The term “information access plan” accurately reflects the RCL’s emphasis on access over ownership of materials. He places this plan into the larger context of the challenges that are faced by branch libraries in general, particularly those that do not have a specialized collection or function and are located at a distance from the main library of the university. This article includes a literature review highlighting the most important literature from the past 35 years covering the topic of branch library administration. The author discusses the most significant factors affecting the development of the plan, including the RCL’s distance from the main campus, the nature of the programs offered at the KUEC, the evolving definition of distance learners, and the broader planning processes that the University of Kansas. He outlines the potential uses of the plan, and states that trends in the literature indicate that this type of information access plan will fit in will with significant changes in the ways that academic libraries provide information access to their constituents. J. Marshall.

University of Kentucky

Baird, Constance M. and Pat Wilson. “Distance Learning Librarian: Essential Team Member in Distance Learning Design.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 35-40. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 49-57.
In an effort to provide all distance learning services under one administrative roof, the University of Kentucky created the Distance Learning Technology Center (DLTC) in 1998 and housed it in the university library. The DLTC has four units: Distance Learning Library Services (DLLS), Distance Learning Programs (DLP), Distance Learning Networks (DLN) and Media Design and Production (MDP). The librarian in charge of DLLS serves also as a director of the DLTC, thus facilitating collaboration between the library and the other three principal DL units. This working relationship has aided in providing transparent, equivalent services for DL students. The result has been collaborative projects which included subject-specific e-modules embedded in online courses; the use of interactive video technology to deliver bibliographic sessions; onsite BI sessions by the DL librarian; and print and electronic brochures marketing library services to students and faculty. Directors of the four units have carried this collaboration on up to the international level. P. Ortega.

Lillard, Linda L., Pat Wilson, and Constance M. Baird. “Progressive Partnering: Expanding Student and Faculty Access to Information Services.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 169-180. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 227-242.
Throughout 2003, a pilot project with a distance learning team consisting of a teaching faculty member, a distance learning librarian (DLL), and a distance learning administrator was run at the University of Kentucky. The DLL was given co-instructor privileges for several courses in the BlackBoard course management system, allowing her to be in much closer contact with both the faculty and the distance students than would otherwise have been the case. The DLL incorporated an information literacy module within the course, and several screenshots of this implementation are included. A survey was conducted at the end of each semester to record student reactions to the librarian consultation assignment. The results of the survey indicate that students appreciated the inclusion of the DLL in their courses. The project was considered a success, but some cautionary notes about workload in particular are expressed. P. Pival.

Wilson, Pat. “The Ins and Outs of Providing Electronic Reserves for Distance Learning Classes.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 413-422. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 537-548.
By fall 2000, the Distance Learning Library Services (DLLS) at the University of Kentucky made available their first electronic reserves. As one of four units within the university’s Distance Learning Technology Center, DLLS also is part of the library’s Access Services Team. The service began by first setting up an account with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) and then establishing policies and procedures for the service. Marketing via a brochure to DL faculty followed. The authors detail challenges encountered and solved in the service, such as budgeting, working with consortiums, functional web forms and links, and maintenance of both a reserves and a rightsholder database. P. Ortega.

University of Louisville (Kentucky)

Rader, Hannelore B. “A New Academic Library Model: Partnerships for Learning and Teaching.” College & Research Libraries News 62, no. 4 (April 2001): 393-396.
In light of the rapidly increasing information environment of the 21st century, libraries and librarians face the challenge of remaining relevant. The author details how the library at the University of Louisville met this challenge through successful partnerships with both on-campus groups as well as off-campus organizations. Through programs supporting information literacy, distance education faculty and students, faculty development, campus wide educational outcomes assessment and other programs, the library has strengthened partnerships with faculty. The Health Sciences Library has built strong partnerships with other constituents, such as area hospitals, to share resources and training. The library has also formed partnerships with student groups, local businesses (to provide contractual information services for them), and with public, school, and statewide libraries. The result of this wide variety of collaborative projects has been to increase the visibility of the library on-campus and in the community and to remain a viable, significant contributor to both. P. Ortega.

University of Maine System

Lowe, Susan and Joyce Rumery. “Services to Distance Learners: Planning for E-Reserves and Copyright.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 213-220. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 319-330.
The authors discuss the e-reserves services initiated by the University of Maine System in response to requests by faculty in support of their coursework. In 1998, two task forces were created to deal with copyright concerns and to implement an electronic reserves system, each of which had direct impact on the other. One source of background information that the task forces used was Columbia University’s “Electronic Reserves Clearinghouse” website which aided them in formulating specific questions to be addressed. The committees made recommendations based on feedback to these questions from library administration and staff, and the e-reserves system was implemented. Problems encountered with the system are discussed. The authors emphasize the importance of constant re-evaluation of an e-reserves system, especially in relation to issues of patron accessibility, the need for better hardware and software, and the lack of legislative guidance in the realm of copyright law, distance education, and electronic resources. P. Ortega.

University of Maryland University College

Kelley, Kimberly B. and Gloria J. Orr. “Trends in Distant Student Use of Electronic Resources: A Survey.” College & Research Libraries 64, no. 3 (May 2003): 176-191.
The results of a University of Maryland University College (UMUC) survey of student library use and satisfactions are presented. Because UMUC’s students take the majority of their classes online as opposed to in a traditional face-to-face classroom, the survey results elucidate library use by distance learners. The findings confirm other studies and observations suggesting that students prefer using online resources to physical library buildings and collections. In exploring eight research questions about library and web usage, the authors found that students ranked full-text library databases and off-campus access to the library catalog as the most useful library services provided. Respondents also indicated a preference for web-based delivery of library instruction over other methods of instruction, and found web-based information about library services more useful than other formats. Other questions revealed that access to more full-text information would compel students to use library services more often and that the students in this study reflect national trends in exhibiting an increased reliance on the free Web resources. The results of this survey are compared to results of a similar survey conducted five years earlier. J. Markgraf.

University of Massachusetts

Ferguson, Jessame, Joel Fowler, Marilyn Hanley, and Jay Schafer. “Building a Digital Library in Support of Distance Learning.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 249-258. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2003): 317-331.
The authors relate the detailed collaboration which occurred among the administrators and staff of the five University of Massachusetts campuses and their libraries in order to create the UMass Digital Library for that university’s distance education students and faculty. Representatives from each campus library served on five task forces whose charges included: joint purchase of resources for collection development, creation of live online reference service, creation of online help guides, development of standards and equipment purchase for digitization of special collections, and website creation and development. The article gives a detailed account of the process that was followed to fulfill each charge. Special attention is also given to the technical aspects of the project. P. Ortega.

University of Massachusetts-Amherst

Algenio, Emilie R. “The Virtual Reserve Room: Extending Library Services Off-Campus.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 11-18. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 15-25.
The development of an electronic reserves program shared by four department libraries at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst is described. Before the service was implemented, detailed planning resulted in a timeline for the first year of the service, specific equipment to be chosen, a copyright policy, and staffing levels and training. The e-reserves service was introduced in seven carefully selected courses with in-class student surveys aiding in quality control. In all, the pilot progressed through three phases, with the service being adjusted according to challenges and issues confronted. The author offers both lessons learned from this project and advice to other institutions undertaking similar endeavors, including issues such as copyright, funding, staffing, service guidelines, and help for students. The author also lists suggestions for future developments in electronic reserves in general and at UMass Amherst specifically. P. Ortega.

University of Michigan

Zilius, Pamela and Deborah Tenofsky. “Remote Real-Time Library Instruction via Cable Television.” Research Strategies 17, no. 2/3 (2000): 231-236.
In 1996, a pilot program was conducted at the University of Michigan to provide point of need bibliographic instruction and reference services to distant students through the university’s cable television network. The course chosen was a biology course with 70 students and that required two scholarly research papers. Librarians collaborated with the professor and the TA’s. The university IT department staff trained librarians, professor and TA’s in the necessary technology. At the start of the class, students and TA’s were surveyed on their knowledge of library resources. Next, students were required to attend an in-house library session for an introduction to biology resources. After a test period of the technology, a librarian, aided by a computer, a camera, and a visualizer, staffed the cable station during selected lectures and discussion sections to answer any reference/research questions the students had. A posttest was administered to students and TA’s which showed increased understanding of most resources. While reaction from students was favorable, the actual level of questions asked in class was low. This was linked to discomfort of all involved with the technology and with appearing on television. Students also commented that the service would be more useful if they had this kind of access with librarians from home. P. Ortega.

University of Mississippi

Martin, Maria Mathilde. “Adapting Reference for a Unique Group of Distance Learners: Serving the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 4 (2004): 59-66.
After acquiring the library collection of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the University of Mississippi J.D. Williams Library developed reference service for institute members located around the nation and oversees. The library initially incorporated service for AICPA patrons into the reference department, with the accounting librarian and newly-hired doctoral accounting students conducting much of the work. The author describes the role of the reference desk, telephone queries, submissions via fax and email, the development of web pages, and the hiring of additional student staff in meeting the demands of a new, remote clientele. Providing service affected library departments beyond reference, especially Interlibrary Loan, Circulation and Technical Services. Answering AICPA questions included the use of fee-based services and the development of a specialized collection, and eventually the establishment of an office separate from the Reference Department. J. Brandt.

University of Montana

Samson, Sue, Kim Granath, and Erling Oelz. “Bridging Distance and Information.” PNLA Quarterly 63, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 23-25.
In 1999, Mansfield Library at the University of Montana embarked on a pro-active partnering with that university’s Continuing Education’s Distance Education Program to expand usage of library resources and improve document delivery services to distant learners. Collaboration and improved communication with the teaching faculty was considered to be a key element in this initiative. During the initial semester, a printed guide describing how to communicate electronically with the library was given to students in selected classes. Some of the students also attended an on-campus orientation. With that information, the students learned how to access electronic resources and how to initiate document delivery at their computers from the library to their fax machines. Statistics were compiled on materials delivered to students through U.S. mail, fax, and ILL. Questionnaires that were sent at the end of the semester to the participants indicated high levels of satisfaction among students, faculty, and library personnel. From these positive responses, the service was expanded to all distant education classes the following semester. The authors concluded that among the positive results of this active collaboration was the strengthening of the library’s request for distant education funding in support of distance learners. P. Ortega.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adams, Kate E. and Mary Cassner. “Marketing Library Resources and Services to Distance Faculty.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 1-12. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 5-22.
An important aspect of an academic library’s marketing plan to off-campus students and faculty can be an assessment of that faculty’s needs. The authors used a survey of all distance teaching faculty at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) to formulate that library’s marketing plan and to inform faculty of the library’s resources and services. This article outlines their literature review, research method and results. The survey elicited generally favorable comments from faculty regarding the library’s resources and services along with suggestions for improvement, such as problems with the proxy server and databases that are less than user friendly. It also generated comments from some faculty that they were unaware of many of the library’s services and electronic resources, thus achieving the survey’s other goal of increasing awareness of these services. The survey is included in an appendix to the article. P. Ortega.

University of Nebraska Medical Center

Shaffer, Janette, Kate Finkelstein, Nancy Woelfl, and Elizabeth Lyden. “A Systematic Approach to Assessing the Needs of Distance Faculty.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 309-319. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 413-428.
Distance education at the University of Nebraska Medical Center has grown continuously since the 1960s, but support for remote users at the library has only grown in spots in response to specific demands. In 2001 the library hired a distance services librarian and undertook self-study using focus groups and a survey of faculty course needs in order to create a written remote services plan. Three problems emerged from the results of the self-study. First, the library needed to educate faculty members about student information literacy and to provide library instruction to entire classes improve information literacy, and, second, to publicize distance education services to all users. The third problem was the lack of available electronic resources in health disciplines, which will be remediated as more sources become available. The survey and cover letter is included. C. Biles.

University of North Carolina-Greensbero

Felts, Jr., John W., “Never Having to Say You’re Sorry: An Integrated, WWW-Based Software Solution for Providing Comprehensive Access to Journal Literature.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 239-248. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 305-316.
In an effort to provide easy access to all formats of journal articles (via e-journals, print, unmediated document delivery, ILL or from collections of regional colleges), the library at the University of North Carolina – Greensboro developed its own software to achieve this goal. Named “Journal Finder,” the software initially permitted users to perform a one-option (right truncated title) search for specific journal titles. This was later expanded to allow other advanced searches. Other additions included linking journal titles among various vendored databases. This cross-linking was developed also to allow for article-level access, under OpenURL Standard. On the administrative side, additional search options were provided as well as other features including report creation. For document delivery service (and in some instances in place of ILL), the library chose Infotrieve as its provider. Microsoft’s SQL Server was eventually selected as the database server. P. Ortega.

Felts, John. “Now You Can Get There From Here: Creating an Interactive Web Application for Accessing Full-Text Journal Articles From Any Location.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 139-145. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 207-218.
The library at the University of North Carolina – Greensboro set about to provide a searchable, interactive website which would “provide reliable, user-friendly access to full-text electronic journals” for its distance education students. After identifying the technical problems of such an endeavor and then deciding on which options to employ, journal resource selection criteria were established. For example, these required that resources should be free to the user, aggregate databases must have significant full-text content, and no resources with rolling beginning dates would be included. To provide database connectivity through a web interface, Microsoft’s Active Server Pages was utilized. The author includes a detailed outline of the steps involved in the creation and implementation of the resulting database and in providing remote access to it. P. Ortega.

Reinhart, Julie, Julie Barron, Gail Dickinson, and Julia Hersberger. “Challenges, content, collaboration, and creativity with distance education resources: A case study.” College and University Media Review 10, no. 2 (2004): 43-62.
This article presents a case study of a collaborative effort of faculty, students, and staff at the University of North Carolina’s Master of Library and Information Studies’ Distance Education Program to improve educational outcomes and use technological and other resources most effectively. Enrollment growth had strained the program’s budget, technical resources, and physical space. Teamwork at each stage of planning was essential in utilizing videoconferencing and computer technology effectively and efficiently. Solutions included developing “hybrid courses” that delivered content through various media, allowing courses to share technology; encouraging professors to tailor means of delivery to content; listing in-class, online, and videoconferencing times in course schedules prior to registration; including online chat sessions in courses to develop a sense of community among distance students; and asking professors to share positive experiences using new technology with their colleagues. A. White

University of North Carolina-Wilmington

Cody, Sue Ann, Dan Pfohl, and Sharon Bittner. “Establishing and Refining Electronic Course Reserves: A Case Study of a Continuous Process.” Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery and Information Supply 11, no. 3 (2001): 11-37.
The steps and process to establish and maintain an electronic course reserves service are outlined in detail by librarians from Randall Library of the University of North Carolina &endash; Wilmington. Initial development of their electronic reserves began with choosing hardware (computers and scanners) and software and developing a process from initial request from an instructor to place items on the service to removing items at the end of the semester and storing them as inactive for three years. This process included budgeting for copyright permission, developing a method of tracking each item’s processing, determining possible availability of an article already in a full text database, building bibliographic records for the e-reserve items, setting up the digitization operation, and testing each item before making it retrievable online for students and faculty. Current and potential future problems discussed are maintaining acceptable turnaround time with last minute reserve lists and from erroneous or incomplete citations from faculty. Another problem is the increasing reluctance on the part of students to access paper reserves after having experienced the convenience of electronic reserves. One of the most worrisome dilemmas is determining how to deal with future increasing costs for copyright permissions. P. Ortega.

University of North Texas

May, Frances A. “Library Services and Instruction for Online Distance Learners.” In Integrating Information Literacy into the College Experience: Papers Presented at the 30th National LOEX Library Instruction Conference, edited by Julia K. Nims, Randal Baier, Rita Bullard, and Eric Owen. Library Orientation Series, No. 34. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press, 2003, 165-168.
University of North Texas librarians collaborated with teaching faculty to provide library and information literacy skills to students enrolled in an online class, “Issues and Trends in Merchandising and Hospitality Management.” The distance students were encouraged to enhance their research skills and foster the habit of reading literature in the merchandising and hospitality industry. To help accomplish this, the librarians created a model using including the information literacy tutorial, TILT, developed by the University of Texas at Austin. In addition, subject guides, developed by departmental library liaisons offered librarian-recommended resources and detailed class pages provided course-specific pages and links to the library’s electronic resources, readily available through WebCT courseware. Student and faculty comments revealed appreciation for the tutorial and for the content included within the class pages. M. Thomas.

Thomsett-Scott, Beth. “Yeah, I Found It!: Performing Web Site Usability Testing to Ensure that Students Get the Most Out of the Distance Learning Experience.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 355-364. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 471-483.
The University of North Texas (UNT) libraries conducted a series of usability testing studies on a pool of undergraduate and graduate students to improve the usefulness of the library website. The author illustrates three techniques for usability testing with her experiences during those studies. Librarians at UNT used a combination of formal usability studies followed by an informal questionnaire, and focus groups. In all cases, the usability studies were designed to promote positive feelings in the participants, including creating a comfortable environment to promote communication and providing chocolate to cheer up participants frustrated in the formal study. The author suggests that cognitive walk-throughs, although not utilized by UNT, are another valuable tool for usability testing. C. Biles.

University of Redlands (California)

Clayton, Susan. “Your Class Meets Where? Library Instruction for Business and Education Graduate Students at Off-Campus Centers,” Reference Services Review, Vol. 32, no. 4. (2004): 388-393.
In this case study, the off-campus librarian at the Armacost Library at University of the Redlands (California) describes her library and university’s efforts at serving graduate business and education students enrolled at several affiliated off-campus centers. The university serves about 4000 adult, returning students, 1200 of whom are enrolled in the School of Business and 800 in the School of Education. Within the context of the “ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services,” a comprehensive description of services is given. The librarian focuses on collaborating with the faculty, preparing course-specific instruction sessions, and coordinating schedules, equipment, and local arrangements at several California centers approximately 90 minutes away from the main campus. Plans and recommendations for enhanced services are considered, including expanded use of Blackboard course management, the possible use of additional methods of instruction delivery, the creation of online tutorials and ways to assess the effectiveness of library instruction sessions. M. Thomas

University of South Carolina

Barron, Brette Barclay. “Distant and Distributed Learners are Two Sides of the Same Coin.” Computers in Libraries 22 no. 1 (January 2002): 24-28.
Faced with the challenge of “taking the distance out” of distance education library services, the author’s response was to put it into services for all students, including those on-campus. A discussion of various definitions of distance and distributed learning are presented, with an overview of the University of South Carolina libraries’ efforts to address the needs of both. One such effort, an online information literacy tutorial, is described. Examples of information technology applications on campus, such as online registration, the use of BlackBoard courseware, wired dorms, wireless networks, and online ordering and payment systems, that further blur the distinctions between distance and distributed learners are discussed. J. Markgraf.

University of Southern California

McCann, Linda. “Developing a Worldwide Distributed Resource to Foster Regional Studies.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 40-49.
In 1999, a collaborative project between the University of Southern California (USC) and various agencies of the city of Los Angeles and the Los Angeles City Historical Society sought to create a unique online distributed resource. Called the Los Angeles Comprehensive Bibliographic Database, the project combined two separate print bibliography volumes on the history of twentieth century Los Angeles. This article outlines the steps taken. After converting both texts into electronic format, they were merged. Then, database fields were designed, as was a web interface. Tagging the electronic text of the two bibliographies for record entry into the database came next, and the final step involved the creation of a thesaurus based on the indices of the print texts. The article includes recommendations on the design of an online database, direction of such a project, considerations about licensing and copyright, and issues on information retrieval and content standards. P. Ortega.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Casado, Margaret. “Delivering Library Services with Centra Symposium.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 101-109. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 127-135.
The author presents an overview of how she uses Centra Symposium and specifically its feature, Web Safari, in library instruction. The Symposium software is used by the University of Tennessee’s Distance Education and some of it s Independent Study units for class presentation as its course management system. Web Safari permits the distance education librarian to escort distant classes to websites. Since there is an audio component, also, students can ask questions during the “safari ” and can hear the librarian’s answers. The librarian retains control of the students’ computers during the tour. The article contains several screen shots of representative screens of Centra Symposium. P. Ortega.

Casado, Margaret. “Delivering Library Services to Remote Students.” Computers in Libraries 21, no. 4 (April 2001): 32-38.
The author outlines the history of the University of Tennessee Hodges Library’s services to remote students. From two graduate students in the early 1990s providing document delivery and telephone reference to off-campus students to 1995 when the author was hired as its first full-time distance education librarian, the library expanded its services to distance students. In this position, the author started including basic technology skills in instruction sessions with these students. Although students’ computer skills have increased dramatically in the intervening years, fax and the telephone remain as heavily used as before if not more so. The author recognizes the potential, however, for chat technology and provides it (AOL chat) in addition to email as a popular means of communication. Software is now used for co-browsing in shared database sessions, and Blackboard’s CourseInfo (adopted by the university’s evening classes both on and off campus) provides a link to certain library web pages. In addition, videoconferencing for interactive reference sessions with remote class sites is in use, but onsite bibliographic instruction is still given. Future projects and services include online tutorials, CD-ROMs to be given to students at registration, and further development of digital reference services. The author stresses, however, the importance of cooperative agreements with area libraries so that physical collections are available to remote students. P. Ortega.

University of Texas

Ardis, Susan and Jennifer Haas. “Specialized Remote User Education: Web-Based Tutorials for Engineering Graduate Students.” Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, no. 32 (Fall 2001). Online. Available: http://www.istl.org/istl/01-fall/article3.html
At the University of Texas’ McKinney Engineering Library, staff actively sought to educate graduate engineering students in obtaining highly efficient information gathering skills. Although these students are mostly quite computer literate, library staff found that they often confused web search engines with online indexes and had limited knowledge of such indexes or how to search them. It was felt that these students’ library experiences greatly influenced engineering faculty’s opinions of the library and this in turn could impact the library’s budget. It was decided to develop a web-based tutorial based on a successful hand-on class to reach as many students as possible. Although UT developed the award winning TILT, it was decided that its undergraduate liberal arts and social sciences slant would not adequately serve graduate engineering students. Microsoft FrontPage was used in developing the tutorial. In addition to material used in the hands-on class, information on finding proprietary product information and patents was included in the tutorial. Named Information Excavation, it contains three parts: Internet searching, searching UT Library resources, and tips for locating engineering resources. Graduate students evaluated the draft tutorial and their suggestions were implemented. The tutorial was heavily marketed to students and faculty, and incentives in the form of small gifts donated by businesses were given to students for completing it. P. Ortega.

University of Utah

McCloskey, Kathleen M. “Library Outreach: Addressing Utah’s ‘Digital Divide’.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 88, no. 4 (October 2000): 367-373.
Small hospitals and clinics in rural areas of Utah were experiencing a digital divide in the early 1990’s due basically to inadequate funding and lack of access to onsite training. The University of Utah’s Eccles Health Sciences Library sought to provide solutions to this problem with an active outreach program. In a collaborative project with several state health agencies and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, a full time librarian was recruited in 1992 to extend efforts already in motion. Starting with focus groups and a statewide questionnaire sent to all rural health care centers, specific needs were identified, which included local continuing education, more computer access, and current reference materials. Using a circuit rider approach, the librarian traveled to these rural areas to provide formal classes and informal training in information-access skills to health professionals. Support for interlibrary loan services for distance-learning health students was accessed and web pages were created for this. A web page was designed for medical students in residency in rural areas to submit papers, reports and exams and the library checked out laptops to these students for their use. The outreach webpage also provided a database of full-text journal articles for health professionals. Among the awards garnered for these efforts was a Presidential Citation in 1998. P. Ortega.

University of Virginia

Cooper, Jean L. “A Model for Library Support of Distance Education in the USA.” Interlending & Document Supply 28, no. 3 (2000): 123-131.
In her research, the author discovered that articles on distance education contain few references to library services to off-campus students. She found striking similarities in recommendations made in a 1931 ALA report on library services for extension students with the 1998 ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. Although great strides have been made in the US in meeting these guidelines, she finds that these efforts often fall “into the minimalist end of the spectrum.” The University of Virginia’s library fulfills ACRL guidelines for off-campus students at its seven regional centers. A faculty-level librarian serves as Coordinator of Continuing Education Library Services, a position co- funded by the library and the Division of Continuing Education. A proxy server provides off-campus access to all electronic resources. Online request forms on search pages eliminate retyping of information. Electronic delivery and UPS, FedEx, etc. are used to quickly send materials to students. By 1999, photocopied reserves were digitized and provided electronically, and duplicate copies of physical reserve collections were available at all regional centers. The librarian coordinator provides reference service through email and an 800 number as well as onsite bibliographic instruction and technical help. The coordinator also created an extensive website with library information. This position is also responsible for establishing and maintaining contacts and agreements with libraries near the regional centers. P. Ortega.

Duesing, Ann. “Community Connections in Off-Campus Outreach Services.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 213-219. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 269-278.
The author describes four programs for providing outreach health services to a community located 300 miles from the University of Virginia Health Sciences Library. This is accomplished through an outreach librarian who is based at an affiliated college library in southwestern Virginia and who also travels through this rural part of the state. The four community connection programs include a Diabetes Coalition of regional health agencies for which the Outreach Librarian helps plan an educational series, gives presentations on information services offered by the Outreach Services, and provides literature searches and document delivery services. In addition, she participates in regional health fairs, again providing information on services. Through a grant written and obtained by the Outreach Librarian, the service provided a CancerHelp Computer System to provide information on therapy options, support groups, regional hospitals, etc. She also participates in annual Regional Health Expeditions, which focuses on other health concerns, to bring this CancerHelp Computer to this medically underserved part of the state. P. Ortega.

Onega, Esther and Dave Beagle. “Distance Education Librarians: The View From Charlottesville and Blacksburg.” Virginia Libraries 47, no. 1 (January/February/March 2001): 24-25.
Two distance education librarians summarize the main aspects of their day-to-day activities including the challenges and rewards of that position. Ester Onega,
Director of Library Services, School of Continuing & Continuing Studies of the University of Virginia, stresses the importance of establishing a personal relationship with the institution’s distant students. While it is essential that librarian accurately and quickly help them with their assignments and research, the position also means that this librarian is their point of contact in many other areas of library services and problems they might have encountered there. Onega mentions also the necessary work of being an advocate on campus for off-campus students. Establishing relationships with adjunct faculty is her biggest challenge. Dave Beagle is distance education librarian at Virginia Tech. In spite of extensive efforts by that institution to create equivalent library services for off-campus students, many are still confused by the process of obtaining information and materials online. He terms the distance education librarian as their person of both first and last resort. It is the personal one-on-one contact with these students and serving as their gateway to the library and the university that provides a high level of satisfaction for him. P. Ortega.

University of West Florida-Fort Walton Beach

Gilmer, Lois. “Straddling Multiple Administrative Relationships.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 147-150. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 219-224.
The author discusses the factors necessary in providing library services in a facility serving two institutions: the University of West Florida and a local community college. While the university is in charge of the library, the community college is in charge of faculty, support staff, and the actual facility. The division of and responsibility for management, personnel, resources, services, finances, and facilities/equipment are outlined. P. Ortega.

University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Markgraf, Jill S. and Robert C. Erffmeyer. “Providing Library Service to Off-Campus Business Students: Access, Resources and Instruction.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 99-114, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 99-114.
Efforts made to provide library services to a research-intensive online business course are presented. In 2000, the University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire launched five online courses, one of which, a marketing course, relied heavily on library resources. Librarians were faced with three broad challenges: availability of resources, in particular, those reference books available only in print; access to resources and services for distance students not registered as UWEC students in the multi-institution collaborative business program, and problems with connectivity to password-protected databases; and library use instruction in an online asynchronous environment. The authors discuss how the library met these challenges through collaboration with the instructor, flexibility in meeting the unique needs of distance students, and significant modification of traditional services. P. Ortega.

Markgraf, Jill S. “Collaboration Between Distance Education Faculty and the Library: One Size Does Not Fit All.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 351-360. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 451-464.
In a comprehensive university setting without a centrally administered distance education program, librarians sought to find solutions to establish satisfactory collaboration with faculty. Without a central listing of university DE classes or faculty, the library at the Eau Claire campus of the University of Wisconsin marketed its services in published articles in campus newsletters, conducted campus workshops, collaborated with support staff, emailed notices to DE faculty from compiled lists, and distributed promotional brochures to DE students through the individual colleges and departments. The DE librarian also networked extensively with DE faculty. The actual results to these efforts, however, were disappointing. It was decided, then, to determine which needs of the faculty the library could satisfy, such as providing services which would save faculty time, give them the opportunity to publish more (through research assistance), provide technology assistance in their DE classes, provide value-added services (such as document delivery or current awareness services) and provide information literacy instruction for their students. It was determined that all these efforts were integral to building effective collaboration and led, by example, to establishing new collaborations with other faculty. It was also determined that these efforts must be on-going. P. Ortega.

Powers, Cleo J. “Developing Library Services for the Distance Education Student.” Teaching with Technology Today 7, no. 1 (September 15, 2000). Online. Available: http://www.uwsa.edu/ttt/articles/powers.htm
The authors describe how the University of Wisconsin System Libraries faced some of the challenges and service issues related to distance education to provide access to electronic databases from remote sites, bibliographic instruction, and delivery of materials to DE participants across several campuses. At UW &endash; Eau Claire, McIntyre Library staff became involved with providing services to distance learners as a result of the School of Nursing’s satellite program. As the statewide Collaborative Nursing Program (CNP) emerged, a collaborative effort between campus libraries was developed to provide equitable access to resources to students who were taking the same classes in the program, but were enrolled at different campuses (Madison, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Green Bay and Eau Claire). Based on this project, similar support has been set up to provide access to resources for students in other distance education programs. F. Devlin.

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dieterle, Ulrike. “Digital Document Delivery to the Desktop: Distance is No Longer an Issue.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 193-198. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 243-250.
The author traces the evolution of a digital only document delivery system that was planned and initiated by the Health Sciences Libraries of the University of Wisconsin – Madison. After an earlier start-up of a similar service did not meet expectations and was terminated, planning began again with a project management team and a much smaller target audience for the newly conceived service. One department (Ophthalmology), which had a widely dispersed group of potential users volunteered to participate as the test group in the 16-month long beta stage of the project. As the service and staff grew and expanded gradually to include other health sciences departments, it was refined and updated to meet project guidelines. Users submitted document delivery requests through a web form and scanned materials were delivered to the requestor’s laptop via Adobe Acrobat in PDF format. No paper delivery options were available through this service. In addition, requestors could track online the status of their request. Before the beta phase ended and the service went live, a procedures manual for staff was completed, on site demos were conducted to the targeted user groups, a web-based tutorial was developed, and two questionnaires were sent to users to elicit feedback and suggestions. P. Ortega.

Dieterle, Ulrike and Gerri Wanserski. “Distance Library Services for Doctor of
Pharmacy Students: A Case Study.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no.
1/2 (April 2005): 173-188.

Librarians at Ebling Library at the University of Wisconsin-Madison offer a blueprint for providing distance library resources and services to Doctor of Pharmacy students and clinical instructors. Changes in the Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum and state requirements for professional licensure led to tremendous increases in students and instructors needing access to library materials from remote locations. Librarians responded to these changes by developing a comprehensive field guide to assist students in maintaining access to library resources and services while completing required clerkships and offered face to face instruction sessions. The field guide is the cornerstone of success for the library’s distance services as described in the 13 elements of the field guide outlined in the case study. Other achievements include the close working relationship between the library and the School of Pharmacy, the development of a guide similar to the one distributed to students for the clinical faculty supervising the clerkships, and the assessment methods used to gauge the effectiveness of the instructional sessions and the field guide in helping students complete their academic program. Librarians at Ebling Library are using this same format to address the information and service needs of students and faculty in other disciplines. S. Baggett

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Buchanan, Elizabeth A. “Institutional Challenges in Web-Based Programs: Student Challenges and Institutional Responses.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 47-53. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 65-74.
This article uses the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee’s distance education program, Master of Library and Information Science, as an example of how institutions can serve the many needs of their distance students effectively. The author refers to research conducted to analyze the frustrations of the students in the program. The frustrations ranged from difficulties in knowing who to contact, how to register, how to solve technical difficulties, etc. Largely, these problems were the result of a lack of institutional planning; however the university addressed the students’ concerns in several ways. First it created an office for distance education students which served as a one-stop service point for all questions and difficulties. This new office also created an orientation for new distance students in a variety of formats, which gave the students an institutional identity and starting place to resolve problems. The university also created an online lounge, free of faculty visitation, so that students could have an inhibited forum for discussion and social contact. Lastly, the distance education coordinator implemented an online mentoring program, pairing new students with existing ones. Plans are underway to tailor the program by location and interests. The overall goal is to make the online education experience more meaningful and satisfactory for students and to increase retention. E. Onega.

University of Wyoming

Henning, Mary M. “Closing the Gap: Using Conferencing Software to Connect Distance Education Students and Faculty.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 157-165. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 233-246.
The author relates her experiences with the Desk Top Video Conferencing (DTVC) software, CU-SeeMe Pro. Originally participating at the University of Wyoming in a grant-funded project to provide bibliographic instruction and learning outreach in Pubmed in rural Western states, the author sought to continue use of the technology in a collaboration with the UW Medical Technology program to provide better communications and library instruction to students at distant locations around the state. The article relates in detail the many problems encountered with the technology and the remedies that the participants attempted. The author analyzes these problems in the article, and because of its functionality, effectiveness, and constantly advancing technology, concludes in favor of the benefits of DTVC. P. Ortega.

Kearley, Jamie P. and Lori Phillips. “Distilling the Information Literacy Standards: Less is More.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 321-330. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 411-424.
The authors trace the development of a multimedia Web tutorial from its inception as a text only online bibliographic instruction tool. Funded by a small university grant, librarians at the University of Wyoming decided to focus the new Web tutorial on information literacy (IL) rather than the existing bibliographic instruction tool. They examined two innovative tutorials in use at other universities and attended ACRL workshops on online tutorials and IL. Objectives were prepared which emphasized a focus on information literacy rather than bibliographic instruction and on ease of use, brevity and graphic appeal. The authors discuss the IL documents that guided the direction and content of the tutorial and the actual design process. Once the tutorial (named “TIP”) was complete, it was tested with a small group of students and changes were made based on their recommendations. The authors discuss reactions from faculty and staff when it was actually implemented. The article includes a timeline of the project and a list of references. P. Ortega.

Kearley, Jamie P. and Karen S. Lange. “Partners in Emerging Technology: Library Support for Web-Based Courses.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 181-189. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 267-280.
The authors discuss the history of the University of Wyoming (UW) libraries’ participation in the planning and oversight of that institution’s off-campus program. UW has a long history of providing off-campus education, but by 1992 an Outreach Council was established on campus to function as an advisory body and to provide direction and solutions for the existing program. The library participated in its institution-wide strategic planning initiative with representatives on three of the initiative’s five task forces. UW libraries responded to these initiatives with the creation of a virtual library environment offering resources and services to off-campus students. In promoting these, the outreach librarian is present at semester meetings with all new and existing off-campus faculty and sends out flyers about new services and features. In addition to on-site and audio and video instruction, library instruction was moved to the web in the form of a comprehensive, user-friendly, research tutorial. The authors discuss the technological problems encountered with authentication and firewalls, among other issues. The article includes a list of references. P. Ortega.

Valdosta State University (Georgia)

McPherson, Carolyn. “Not a Job, an Adventure: The Kings Bay Experience in Library Services for Distance Learning.” Georgia Library Quarterly 37, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 11-14.
The imminent closure of the Kings Bay naval base library in Georgia had a potential direct effect on the naval personnel there who were distance learning students at Valdosta State University (VSU), Georgia, and two other universities. To avoid the negative impact this could also have on accreditation and to maintain library services for the base’s university students, a “Memorandum of Understanding” was established between the Navy and VSU to share the costs of maintaining the library and providing a full time librarian. Through active partnering of the Navy, VSU, and the other two universities, the naval base library has been able to fulfill the essential services outline in the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. The author outlines how these various services were shared. She notes that, although this cooperation may appear to be unique, it is actually an example of the challenges being met through partnerships, collaboration, and shared responsibilities that often are necessary to meet the nontraditional library services of distance learning students in an era of shrinking budgets. P. Ortega.

Virginia Tech

Onega, Esther and Dave Beagle. “Distance Education Librarians: The View From Charlottesville and Blacksburg.” Virginia Libraries 47, no. 1 (January/February/March 2001): 24-25.
Two distance education librarians summarize the main aspects of their day-to-day activities including the challenges and rewards of that position. Esther Onega,
Director of Library Services, School of Continuing & Continuing Studies of the University of Virginia, stresses the importance of establishing a personal relationship with the institution’s distant students. While it is essential that librarian accurately and quickly help them with their assignments and research, the position also means that this librarian is their point of contact in many other areas of library services and problems they might have encountered there. Onega mentions also the necessary work of being an advocate on campus for off-campus students. Establishing relationships with adjunct faculty is her biggest challenge. Dave Beagle is distance education librarian at Virginia Tech. In spite of extensive efforts by that institution to create equivalent library services for off-campus students, many are still confused by the process of obtaining information and materials online. He terms the distance education librarian as their person of both first and last resort. It is the personal one-on-one contact with these students and serving as their gateway to the library and the university that provides a high level of satisfaction for him. P. Ortega.

Walden University (Indiana)

Barsun, Rita. “Computer Mediated Conferencing, E-Mail, Telephone: A Holistic Approach to Meeting Students’ Needs.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 19-27. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 31-44.
Asynchronous Computer Moderated Conferencing (CMC) was used in an online orientation for off-campus psychology Ph.D. candidates. The author as librarian was invited to participate in this orientation since the students were required to interact with the librarian. Even with its inherent weaknesses (delayed answers to messages, no visual or vocal cues), CMC nevertheless serves to promote a sense of community as well as interactive learning. The article demonstrates, however, how CMC must be used in conjunction with other means of communication to increase its effectiveness. During the semester, the librarian continued to communicate with the students, sending them (through U.S. mail) information about the library’s services and emailing them reminders about library assignments in addition to continuing with postings via CMC. If the student had a dedicated phoneline for Internet access, she also talked by telephone to help with search strategies on the computer. In addition, Walden University offers four-day intensive academic residencies twice a quarter during which the librarian presents a library orientation and meets with students. The author emphasizes that this holistic method is necessary to personalize services and assess the individual student’s needs. P. Ortega.

Washington State University

Gibson, Craig and Jane Scales. “Going the Distance (and Back Again): A Distance Education Course Comes Home.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 233-244, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 233-244.
In 1995, a collaboration between Washington State University’s Extended Degree Program and the library resulted in the creation of University 300, a one credit course designed to teach social science distance students research and Internet skills. The course experienced frequent modifications, due largely to technological developments, but the content continued to be centered around conceptual frameworks, question analysis, and critical thinking applications. By 1997, it was transformed into a General Education course that served students in the humanities, sciences and social sciences. One interesting change occurred in 1998 when the course was linked to several three-credit research-oriented on-campus courses. This brought into play new logistical issues not so pressing in the course’s distance education format, such as dealing with traditional students who tend to be less self-motivated and with general classroom dynamics. With this latest modification, however, came a combination of librarians, academic instructors, and graduate students teaching the renamed GenEd300. P. Ortega.

Gover, Harvey R. “Library Services for Overlapping Distance Learning Programs of Two Higher Education Systems in Washington State.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 20 (2003): 83-122.
Washington State is a geographically and demographically diverse state and these factors have influenced the locations of higher learning institutions around the state. Two higher education systems that offer distance education programs in the state are the Community Colleges of Spokane (CCS) and Washington State University (WSU). CCS offers its distance education programs via Internet and video taped formats, two way interactive video classes, and correspondence courses. The library services for students in these programs include a library catalog shared by two of the community colleges in the system, toll free telephone numbers, interlibrary loan services, and online reference services. WSU has a main campus in Pullman, four branch campuses, and ten Learning Centers. Distance education students attending WSU are offered web-based courses, video taped courses, courses delivered by an interactive compressed digital television network (WHETS), and face-to-face courses presented at branch campuses and learning centers. Library services for WSU distance students are provided at branch campus libraries and include a shared library catalog, electronic resources, e-mail and telephone reference service, and interlibrary loan and document delivery services. The branch libraries also maintain book and print periodical collections. Tables and figures are included in the article to enhance the narrative and provide statistical data. S. Heidenreich.

Webster University (Missouri)

Rein, Laura O. and James L. Staley. “An Integrated Approach to Providing Library Support for Extended Campuses: The Webster University Experience.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 16 (1999): 195-221.
Since the 1970’s, Webster University has maintained multiple extended campus locations across the United States including military bases and several campuses in Europe and Asia. Prior to 1995, the university provided costly duplications of core print collections from the main campus in St. Louis to these extended locations. This article details the subsequent transition to centralized, integrated library collections and services. Library collections and services were assessed and the decision made to replace outdated site core collections with small current reference collections and to provide quick document delivery from the expanded main library in St. Louis. An NSF grant purchased computer hardware and provided Internet access through a WAN. Funds that were saved by canceling site journal subscriptions were used to enhance the central library collection and to hire additional paraprofessional staff to provide document delivery. Reference services were provided by professional librarians at the main library. An online research system was designed to provide access to multiple full text databases, indexing of journals and government documents, holdings of thousands of libraries worldwide, and other resources. Training in this site was provided through printed guides and site visits by librarians. The author stresses how important strong administrative support was to the success of this transition. The article contains several in-text tables and appendices. P. Ortega.

Western Carolina University

Vihnanek, Elizabeth M. “Integrating Information Literacy into Distance Education Classes.” In Proceedings of the 7th Annual Distance Education Conference, January 25-28, 2000, Austin Texas. Center for Distance Learning Research, College of Education, Texas A&M University, 2000, 193-197.
In the mid 1990’s, development of the distance education program at Western Carolina University coincided with the library’s decision to integrate information literacy skills into library instruction. This led to the integration of these skills into distance education classes at that institution. Of the five challenges identified by the library in accomplishing this, the author discusses the first two in this article: educating faculty about information literacy skills; and incorporating information literacy skills into distance education classes. These challenges were met by assigning a “Personal Librarian” to distance education faculty and their classes; providing access to the library home page from the WCU home page; placing access to Research Tools with links to electronic sources and more (for distance learners) on the library’s top page; and providing email reference and electronic reserves as well as subsidized document delivery for some programs and classes. Among those challenges yet to be met are enhanced document delivery with greater financing for the service and the appointment of a full-time distance education librarian. P. Ortega.

Western Kentucky University

Moore, Elaine, Elisabeth Knight, and Ruth Kinnersley. “WKU Libraries’ Kentucky Virtual University Support Services.” Kentucky Libraries 65, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 31-35.
Since 1999, the Kentucky Virtual Library (KYVL) has served a dual-mission to support the Kentucky Virtual University (KYVU) and to support life-long learning for the residents of Kentucky. The article focuses on the support services provided to the Kentucky Virtual University faculty and students by the KYVL contact persons at Western Kentucky University. Support services are examined from three perspectives: (1) promotion and orientation efforts, (2) reference assistance, and (3) document delivery services. The authors also provide a brief background about the evolution of KYVL and its relationship to the Kentucky Virtual University. F. Devlin.

Western Michigan University

Behr, Michele D. “On Ramp to Research: Creation of a Multimedia Library Instruction Presentation for Off-Campus Students.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 13-20. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 19-30.
Librarians at Western Michigan University sought a way to augment their library instruction program. Although they preferred the face-to-face method, it had five major limitations that they hoped to address. The limitations included the necessity of faculty to request a library presentation and only 1.5 FTE available to teach library presentations to of 3,000 students, among others. The Off-Campus Services Librarian and one of the adjunct instructors served as co-principal investigators in a university grant to support the development of an online solution. They defined goals for the project, examined current practices, and then selected appropriate software. They wanted to include sound files, animation, and text and to also provide flexible, nonlinear navigation to information students needed immediately. They selected Macromedia Flash MX, a high-end product, and offered users a CD if they couldn’t use the online version. They agreed upon six content modules and began work. Currently, the work has not been completed because the project required substantially more time than initially expected and changes in the Library’s website and the databases themselves. E. Onega.

Jayne, Elaine Anderson. “The Librarian as Bricoleur: Meeting the Needs of Distance Learners.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 161-170, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 161-170.
Taking the term “bricoleur” (French for handyman) in its anthropological sense to describe a tribesperson who uses at-hand materials to construct something new, the author describes the tools created by librarians at Western Michigan University (WMU) to meet the needs of its adult distance users. The majority of WMU’s off campus students attend classes at five regional centers, each of which has a computer lab but no library. To provide them with equivalent library services, librarians at WMU have developed a “bricolage” or instructional librarian’s toolbox. This includes providing class-related instruction at the centers’ computer labs, distributing a detailed Library Guide for Continuing Education Students (which includes an index, referral information, research instruction, directions and examples on searching online databases, list of all e-resources, sample forms for requesting services, and more), drop-in help sessions at each regional computer lab, reference assistance by email or phone, and a one credit class in library skills. Of these five “tools,” the most effective three (class-related instruction, the library guide, and the credit class) will be retained and expanded. P. Ortega.

Wheelock College (Massachusetts)

Johnson, Albie. “Supporting Library Resources From a Distance: The Wheelock College Model.” Technicalities 19, no. 8 (September 1999): 7-8.
Wheelock College in Boston, MA, offers professional undergraduate and graduate education in elementary education, human development and family studies. The graduate program offers off-campus programs within the United States and abroad, one of which is located in Bermuda. The library designed a pilot program of individualized outreach for the 33 students enrolled in the program. Librarians provided training to these students in accessing the online databases and in conducting online searches and also provided customized searches upon completion of a consultation with the student (by phone, fax, or email). Recent articles in each student’s own area of research were photocopied and sent to them along with lists of bibliographic citations of other journal resources which students could request by fax or mail. Relevant books and academic papers were donated to the library of the Bermuda Ministry of Education. In addition, these off-campus students were provided access to all Wheelock Library databases and full-text resources. Requests for reference help and document delivery were accepted through voicemail, email, fax and Internet. Throughout the two-year program, communication was ongoing among librarians, faculty and students. Based upon the positive evaluation of this pilot project, the library plans to offer the same services to all their off-campus programs. P. Ortega.