2004

Cervone, Frank H. “Open source software to support distance learning library services.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 3/4 (2004): 147-158.
In an era of decreasing budgets in libraries, this article provides a timely overview of open source software and outlines its possible uses in libraries. The author begins by providing a detailed description of what open source software is, and what it is not. Cervone provides insight into the open source versus proprietary software debate, and discusses both philosophical and practical issues surrounding open source software. This article presents both the benefits and potential drawbacks of using open source software in libraries, and provides some examples of open source initiatives that have been created for use in libraries, including chat reference and electronic course reserves systems. This article will be of use to libraries who are considering adopting open source initiatives as it clearly outlines the issues in using this type of software. E. Fabbro

2005

Li, Jie, Robert A. Runderson, Judy F.Burnham, Geneva Bush Staggs, Justin C. Robertson, & Thomas L. Williams. “Delivering distance training to rural health care professionals.” Medical reference services quarterly 24, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 41-54.
This case study, discusses the South Alabama Medical Network Digital Library (SAMNet) project, which received an Internet Access to Digital Libraries (IADL) grant from the National Library of Medicine to provide rural health care professionals from nine southern Alabama counties access to much needed information resources, library services and training on locating relevant information. During the project, a digital library was created to allow access to both free and subscription core resources, on-site training was offered at each of the sites, and training modules were developed using Producer, a freely available program that can be added onto PowerPoint 2002 or above. The authors discuss the challenges that they faced in providing training to staff at the rural sites, and discuss the rationale behind the decision to choose Producer to create the modules, This article, written by practitioners in the field, provides strategies for delivering services to remote users in less than ideal conditions, and makes a valuable contribution to the body of research on distance library services. E. Fabbro

Ruan, L. “Designing and developing internet reference services to support firefighter distance learners in Illinois.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 9, no. 1/2 (2005): 147-172.
Director/Head Librarian at the Illinois Fire Service Institute Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, writes about designing library services to support America’s first online Firefighter II Certification Program, begun in September 2000. In 2001, a $49,570 LSTA (Library Services and Technology Act) grant, sponsored by the Office of Secretary of State and the Illinois State Library, provided funding for collection development of electronic and digital resources, document delivery, a user instruction training program, and a partnership with fourteen Illinois libraries. The project was implemented through three phases within an eight-month schedule. A wide range of methods are mentioned for providing information (reserves to licensed databases), training (classroom to streamed video/audio), interlibrary loan services (mail, fax, Fed Ex, and via Ariel), and reference services (toll free telephone to the most popular e-mail). A My Librarian virtual reference service was added in 2004. Assessment, outcomes, and challenges are addressed in this model partnership with information technology teams, instructors, and libraries to empower information literacy and community protection. J. Rex

2004

Black, Coral and Sue Roberts. “Staff Without Walls: Developing Library and Information Staff for e-Learning.” In Libraries Without Walls 5: The Distributed Delivery of Library and Information Services, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Jenny Craven. London: Facet Publishing, 2004, 19-30.
The virtual learning of today makes heavy demands on library and information services staff. In such an ever-changing environment, information professionals are forced to perform work and undertake roles that go far beyond the training that they received before starting their careers. The need for continuing staff development and training cannot be emphasized enough. The staff development practices at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in northwestern England are presented as a case study. A. Lawrence.

Buchanan, Elizabeth A. “Institutional Challenges in Web-Based Programs: Student Challenges and Institutional Responses.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 47-53. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 65-74.
This article uses the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee’s distance education program, Master of Library and Information Science, as an example of how institutions can serve the many needs of their distance students effectively. The author refers to research conducted to analyze the frustrations of the students in the program. The frustrations ranged from difficulties in knowing who to contact, how to register, how to solve technical difficulties, etc. Largely, these problems were the result of a lack of institutional planning; however the university addressed the students’ concerns in several ways. First it created an office for distance education students which served as a one-stop service point for all questions and difficulties. This new office also created an orientation for new distance students in a variety of formats, which gave the students an institutional identity and starting place to resolve problems. The university also created an online lounge, free of faculty visitation, so that students could have an inhibited forum for discussion and social contact. Lastly, the distance education coordinator implemented an online mentoring program, pairing new students with existing ones. Plans are underway to tailor the program by location and interests. The overall goal is to make the online education experience more meaningful and satisfactory for students and to increase retention. E. Onega.

Buehler, Marianne A. “Where is the Library in Course Management Software?” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 55-62. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 75-84.
The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) uses two different course management software (CMS) products, FirstClass and Prometheus, for its online courses. FirstClass is used only for online classes taken by distance learners and Prometheus is used for some online courses, blended courses, and on-campus courses. Both CMS products are used behind the scenes and locally named myCourses. The RIT library actively works with the faculty to create links and pathfinders specific to the courses being taught. The library also provides an orientation class for faculty to acquaint them with the services offered by the library. These services include providing links and resources specifically selected for the syllabus, outline of assignments, projects and papers, and lectures of a course, along with appropriate e-reserves. Since most CMS packages do not provide easy linking to library resources by using an icon or an incorporated link to the library, the author recommends working with our colleagues at universities and colleges to encourage courseware companies to add prominent library linking to their software. E. Onega.

Croft, Rosie and Shailoo Bedi. “eBooks for a Distributed Learning University: The Royal Roads University Case.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 85-103. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 113-137.
Royal Roads University (RRU) is in British Columbia and received a provincial mandate in 1995 to offer undergraduate and graduate degrees to mid-career professionals. The school selected programs to offer, based on the needs of the market. The library followed the lead of the university by focusing on lifelong learning and student-centered delivery and support. The library started with a small print collection to which the librarians have added both print and electronic books thereby tailoring the collection to support the new academic mission of the university. The library began its electronic book collection in April 2000 and has added numerous titles from NetLibrary, ebrary, and ITKnowledge (ceased in February 2001). The library staff has spent a significant amount of money to add the these electronic books to the collection and decided to survey users to see if these books are being used and by whom; whether the users prefer using NetLibrary, ebrary, or print books; and if the books satisfy the needs of the clientele. The librarians involved in the online survey asked students eleven questions and added one more for the faculty. The article includes the questions and breaks up the responses by student, faculty, and department, if appropriate. The authors include findings some of which were expected and others were a surprise. The authors also set goals based on the unmet needs they discovered from the survey. E. Onega.

Dinwiddie, Mollie and Janice Winters. “Two-Stepping with Technology: An Instructor/Librarian Collaboration in Health Promotion for Baccalaureate Nursing Students.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 4 (2004): 33-45.
As a result of collaboration between nursing faculty and a librarian, a Blackboard-based project to enhance the learning environment for nursing students was developed at Central Missouri State University. The authors discuss the importance of utilizing collaboration and technology to create learning communities that improve student learning and success. Newly matriculated nursing students are enrolled in a Blackboard course entitled “Research Assistance for Nursing Students,” and remain in this non-credit, extra-curricular “pseudo-course” until graduation. The courseware technology provides an ongoing forum where students are able to access the nursing liaison librarian, their fellow students, nursing faculty, and supplemental research materials at any time during their student career. By instructing students how to use this forum, the librarian facilitates student work on a specific “health promotion” research project as well as cultivates personal and institutional links with students and faculty. The results of a questionnaire regarding this Blackboard-based forum are included in the appendix. J. Brandt.

Randall, Sara. “Learning Systems & Us.” Library Journal 129, no.16 (2004): 34-35.
In this article the author discusses integrating library content into course management systems by using OpenURL resolvers and federated search products. At the time the article was written there were several interoperability issues to be addressed. As some of these problems may now be corrected readers may want to consult more current information on this topic. The concluding remarks of the article focus on the role of librarians in advancing the use of course management systems to deliver library content. S. Heidenreich

Rensleigh, C., & de Beer, C. (2004). “Streamlining the integration between INNOPAC’s electronic course reserves and WebCT. ” South African Journal of Information Management 6, no. 3 (2004). Available Online: http://www.sajim.co.za
The authors, a Lecturer in the Department of Information Studies and a Web Manager at the Rand Afrikaans University, elucidate how the internet and information and communications technologies spawn and benefit virtual libraries and the distance delivery of higher education instruction. Electronic course reserves, as a component of virtual libraries, offer a solution to the increased demand for resources in an environment that can easily breach the effectiveness of copyright protections. The university library can be the medium that receives the copyright clearance for the university and seamlessly makes documents available to students via hyperlinks and an authentication script from the WebCT course management system. Although WebCT has now merged with Blackboard and the online environment has expanded to include wikis, blogs, podcasts and other Web 2.0 technologies, the seamless access to electronic course reserves can still be a viable solution to copyright infringement in a virtual world. J. Rex.

Thomsett-Scott, Beth. “Yeah, I Found It!: Performing Web Site Usability Testing to Ensure that Students Get the Most Out of the Distance Learning Experience.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 355-364. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 471-483.
The University of North Texas (UNT) libraries conducted a series of usability testing studies on a pool of undergraduate and graduate students to improve the usefulness of the library website. The author illustrates three techniques for usability testing with her experiences during those studies. Librarians at UNT used a combination of formal usability studies followed by an informal questionnaire, and focus groups. In all cases, the usability studies were designed to promote positive feelings in the participants, including creating a comfortable environment to promote communication and providing chocolate to cheer up participants frustrated in the formal study. The author suggests that cognitive walk-throughs, although not utilized by UNT, are another valuable tool for usability testing. C. Biles.

Washburn, Allyson and Jessica Draper. “80 Miles from the Nearest Library, with a Research Paper Due Monday: Extending Library Services to Distance Learners.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 383-402. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 507-529.
Brigham Young University supports a large population of distance learners, comprising close half of the student enrollment. The library, in response to the needs of the distance students, created a portal for the students taking English courses integrating an off-campus authentication system for access to electronic resources and library services including email and chat reference. The library also created course specific library pages to be integrated with web based courseware (Blackboard), and publicized to faculty and distance students the availability of the portal and courseware pages. In the final phase of the project, the library conducted extensive usability testing on the portal and specific course pages. This project was funded by an ALA grant funded by SIRSI. C. Biles.

2003

McDonald, Randy and Marthea Turnage. “Making the Connection: Library Services for Distance Education and Off-Campus Students.” Texas Library Journal 79, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 50-53.
As well as offering traditional services to the Stephen F. Austin State University’s distance learners, the Ralph W. Steen Library offers a range of electronic services such as desktop delivery of interlibrary loans and Web access to bibliographic databases. The Library provides delivery of reserve material to cooperating libraries and participates in workshops for faculty who are developing online courses. This provides an opportunity to market the Library’s services and resources including information on reserves, interlibrary loan, document delivery, information literacy, etc. The Library also offers technical support to students using WebCT. To streamline services, the University deployed Campus Pipeline software to provide a portal with a single logon for students. The portal provides access to courses and the library resources. The Library is experimenting with a chat service that is integrated into the portal in order to provide additional avenues for support. I. Frank.

Ramsden, Anne. “The OU Goes Digital.” Library + Information Update 2, no. 2 (Febrary 2003): 34-35.
As a part of a reexamination of its course production model, the Open University developed initiatives to increase the use of information technology and online learning resources. In response to these initiatives, a study of university academic staff was conducted. The results indicate a desire for more numerous and up-to-date library resources, to exploit new technologies to enhance library services, and to improve coordination between the library and course instructors. The author outlines library initiatives designed to meet these challenges, including development of personalized online library services, embedding e-resources into the curriculum, streamlining remote authentication to online resources, and developing 24/7 just-in-time support for library users. J. Brandt.

2002

Blakeslee, Sarah and Kristin Johnson. “Using HorizonLive to Deliver Library Instruction to Distance and Online Students.” Reference Services Review 30, no. 4 (2002): 324-329.
Information literacy and instruction librarians at California State University, Chico decided to collaborate with selected teaching faculty, using HorizonLive virtual classroom software for convenient and flexible delivery of information literacy concepts to its distance education students. The librarians began by soliciting responses from interested faculty who agreed to participate in the proposal. They researched HorizonLive’s capabilities and then selected the course content, using screenshots as the preferred format for the presentation’s slides instead of live Web pages. Humorous images and explanatory text were incorporated into the presentation for added interest and clarity. The presentation’s slides were then placed in order and recorded; however HorizonLive did not allow for easy editing, once the presentation was initiated. A chat reference component was added in case there were any questions; however, none of the students chose to use the chat feature. The students were given a follow-up quiz via WebCT, which indicated that most had listened and paid attention to the presentation. HorizonLive, albeit cost-prohibitive, was to be easy to use, requiring very little technical expertise or additional software. Overall, the library’s project proved successful among the students and faculty who participated. M. Thomas.

Chan, Annie. “Providing Library and Information Services for the Visually Impaired: The Experience of the Open University of Hong Kong Library.” Paper presented at the AAOU Pre-Conference Seminar on Outreach Library Services for Distance Learners, February 20, 2002, New Delhi, India.
The Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK) was started in order to provide distance education opportunities. The OUHK has offered support for students whose mobility, hearing or vision is impaired. The University’s E-Library is described. The E-Library includes electronic databases, an e-text centre, an online reserve collection, web links, the provision of interlibrary loan, and user support services. An overview of the support services available from the OUHK for students with disabilities is given. Web accessibility for the visually impaired, as it relates to the E-Library, is then discussed including technical and administrative issues and web page design considerations. J. Wheeler.

Craven, Jenny and Jillian Griffiths. “30,000 Different Users, 30,000 Different Needs?: Design and Delivery of Distributed Resources to the User Community.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 173-186.
All library users could be considered to have “special” needs, as a consequence of their different learning styles, abilities/disabilities, access to technology, cognitive styles, etc. Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) is a UK institution with a student body diverse in age, status (such as part- or full-time, local or distant), and abilities. Two research projects were undertaken in the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management (CERLIM) to develop enhanced understanding of information-seeking behavior among such a diverse population, including blind and visually impaired users. These projects, titled DEvISE (Dimensions in Evaluation of Internet Search Engines) and NoVA (Non-Visual Access to the Digital Library), resulted in information intended to inform developers of online information services. One conclusion reached from these two studies is that users, regardless of different abilities, seem to consider ease and speed of searching as the most important aspect of information seeking. Includes list of references and Web sites. A. Haynes.

Currier, Sarah. “INSPIRAL. Digital Library Services and Online Learning Environments: Issues for Integration.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 50-61.
INSPIRAL (INveStigating Portals for Information Resources And Learning) was a research project that ran from May through October 2001, and was funded by the UK’s JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) of the Higher Education Funding Councils. Its purpose was to discover and analyze the non-technical challenges in linking virtual learning environments (VLE’s) and managed learning environments (MLE’s) with digital and hybrid libraries, focusing on the needs of the UK learner in higher education. The project was based at the University of Strathclyde’s Centre for Digital Library Research (CDLR) and Centre for Educational Systems (CES). This article, written four months into the INSPIRAL project, presents the issues raised and discussed in the initial stakeholder consultation phase. Input from the students and educational staff was collected by means of interviews, community fora, and a workshop Results included these desired factors: seamless, one-stop access between the VLE and MLE; all library functions online; individualization by means of student portals; flexibility for instructors; universal accessibility. References are included. A. Haynes.

Donoghue, Angie. “VLE Information Adviser – What’s That?” SCONUL Newsletter, no. 27 (Winter 2002): 4-7. Also online. Available: http://www.sconul.ac.uk/publications/newsletter/27/CONTENTS.PDF (in pdf format)
The author was tapped to be (VLE) Virtual Learning Environment information advisor representing the learning centre information services within the Sheffield Hallam University’s institute on learning and teaching. Blackboard is the main courseware used for the entire university. The Learning and Teaching Institute (LTI) staff, along with other units on campus, address implementation, technical, copyright, and accessibility issues as well as other issues associated with the use of Blackboard and with e-learning in general. There is a link to the learning centre catalog from the Welcome screen of Blackboard. Library resources are integrated in other ways as well. The Learning Centre provides advice on available electronic resources and services. Faculty members are encouraged to include library-related resources in their courses. In addition they are taught how to link to these resources. In order to improve student information literacy competencies, the Learning Centre has embedded a tutorial, InfoQuest, within Blackboard. Resources and services are publicized through the Learning Centre and the Learning and Teaching Institute. In order to keep up with e-learning and library issues, the VLE Information Advisor attends conferences and workshops and reads material published through the JISC (the Joint Information Systems Committee). I. Frank.

Eales, Susan. “How the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) is Working Towards Assisting Colleges to Better Support Part-Time and Distance Learners in Further Education.” ASSIGNation 19, no 3 (April 2002): 9-12.
The United Kingdom has a Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) that supports distance education programs in colleges throughout the country. In this article, the activities and projects of the JISC are described. The author has divided the activities into five broad categories that include: (1) Managed Learning or Virtual Learning Environment that describes the JISC and activities of the subcommittee to support colleges in providing distance learning support; (2) Content or the acquisition of database access in a variety of subjects; (3) Content creation projects which describe the projects that the JISC are working on to create content and involve the production of learning materials and the creation of subject lists of web sites; (4) interoperability or working groups on standardization to facilitate access; and (5) authentication and security that briefly describes how students and libraries can access the resources. T. Summey.

Fisher, Shelagh. “Evaluating the Impact of the UK’s Distributed National Electronic Resource.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 143-157.
The EDNER project is the evaluative arm of the Distributed National Electronic Resource (DNER), being developed by the UK’s Joint Information Systems Committee, a strategic advisory committee representing funding bodies for higher and further education in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The DNER is intended to represent the concept of a seamless electronic resource available to students and staff. In 1999, funding was made available over three years for the improvement of information and communication technologies for learning and teaching. The EDNER project is being led by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management (CERLIM) at Manchester Metropolitan University together with the Centre for Studies in Advanced Learning Technology (CSALT) at Lancaster University. The EDNER project structure and evaluation methods are described in detail. References and many Web links are included. A. Haynes.

Jenkins, Ruth. “Supporting E-learning at the University of Birmingham.” SCONUL Newsletter, no. 25 (Spring 2002): 53-56. Also online. Available: http://www.sconul.ac.uk/publications/newsletter/25/53-56_25.pdf (in pdf format)
Collaborative efforts among librarians, tutors and Information Services (IS) staff in supporting WebCT courses at the University of Birmingham are described. Liaison librarians work with tutors to incorporate electronic journal articles, textbooks, databases and other information resources into online courses. While collaboration currently relies on the initiative of the individual librarians and tutors, the author recognizes that such an approach is not readily scalable. As the number of e-learning courses grows, it will be increasingly difficult to continue with the one-on-one efforts and a more systematic and automated process in the future is desired. The author also recognizes the need for a more user-centered approach to presenting the library’s suite of services to e-learners. In an effort to learn more about the e-learning landscape and address the challenges, the author and her e-learning colleagues are participating as e-learners in a WebCT course entitled “E-learning in Higher Education.” J. Markgraf.

Moch, Michael. “Using Computer-Based and Electronic Library Materials in the Classroom: It’s Not the Technology, It’s the System!” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 207-214, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 207-214.
A professor of management describes the frustrations of integrating various components of the electronic materials used in teaching his classes. Individual components included online materials such as PowerPoint presentations, a collection of newspaper articles, a quizzing system, a grade management system, student peer evaluations, and library services such as online databases of newspaper and journal articles. Even with excellent library staff and resources, a combination of local technical, equipment, licensing, and administrative barriers stand in the way of successful integration of all the parts that would make for a successfully integrated course management system. A. Haynes.

O’Leary, Mick. ” e-global library Advances the Virtual Library.” Information Today 19 no. 3 (March 2002): 19-20, 46.
The author provides a thorough review of e-global library created by Jones International University, a distance learning institution. e-global library is described as having a click-and-mortar strategy that relies on digital content and, implicitly, print resources that the students will need to access on their own. The “click” part offers digital versions of most library collections and services, including reference and instruction. It is aggregated from public Web sites, proprietary periodical databases, and, for reference and instruction, internally created content (i.e. tutorials and subject-oriented research guides) and a reference hotline. The “mortar” part contains bibliographies of books and journals that the student will seek out at neighboring academic libraries. While e-global library advances the concept of the virtual library, it is not yet ready to replace brick-and-mortar institutions. F. Devlin.

Ramsden, Andrew. “How the Virtual Learning Arcade Supports Distance and Part-time Learners.” ASSIGNation 19, no. 3 (April 2002): 40-44.
The Virtual Learning Arcade, created by Biz/ed in collaboration with the Institute of Fiscal Studies was launched in December of 2001. It provides interactive online models and supporting learning materials for distance learning students in the areas of business and economics. It allows the students easy access to models and gives them the ability to manipulate those models observing the results. The models are divided into three areas: large scale models that simulate real world behavior; small scale models to illustrate small scale theoretical relationships, and educational games which offer online scenarios to offer active participation for students. T. Summey.

Secker, Jane and Kris Roger. “Learning Technology at the LSE.” ASSIGNation 19, no. 3 (April 2002): 33-35.
The London School of Economics (LSE) in 1999 established a Learning and Teaching Technology Group to provide services and support for distance learners. Growth in distance education led to the further creation of the LSE Centre for Learning Technology to support more distance education courses with more staff and services. Departments developing online education can apply for grants to employ a research assistant that works during the development phase of the course to develop the information research aspects of the course. Involved in the responsibilities of this research assistant are the development of web pages and electronic course packs for the course. The author ends by describing a multi-university project in the area of global media and communications. T. Summey.

2001

Bishop, Sarah and Glenda Henderson. “Information Literacy Made Ezy.” In Information Online 2001: Digital Dancing: New Steps, New Partners: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Information Online Conference & Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 16-18 January 2001. Sydney: Information Specialists Division, Australian Library & Information Association, 2001, 239-251. Also online.
This paper discusses the development of the Web-ezy software and its implementation in 2000 at Charles Sturt University (CSU), a leading provider of distance education in Australia devoted to flexible online delivery. The geography of Australia has encouraged the growth and development of distance education, and CSU is a leader in online education. Web-ezy software, a tool for making library and information skills available to students in an online environment, was developed collaboratively by CSU and UNILINC Limited and marketed by Web-ezy Solutions. The software, which is modular and flexible, provides a shell for developing highly interactive Web-based programs. The user has access to immediate and continuous feedback. Formal assessment of the system had not yet been done at the time of writing of this article, but feedback from library staff, academics, and students had been positive. The software had also not been in use long enough yet to acquire meaningful statistics. The authors conclude they are most impressed by the flexibility of the software for modifying and updating. References are included. A. Haynes.

Boon, J. A. (Hans), Theo J. D. Bothma, and Johannes C. Cronjé. “E-learning and e-libraries – Quo vadis?” IATUL Proceedings (New Series) 11 (2001).
Academic libraries have not yet fully risen to the challenge of transforming themselves to support e-learning, argues the author. The contention is made that libraries continue to allocate the majority of their time to traditional activities such as selecting, organizing, indexing and retrieving information. The author suggests that to adequately support e-learning, e-libraries should increasingly be emphasizing value-added activities such as analyzing, synthesizing, interpreting, customizing and repackaging information. Using the University of Pretoria as a case study, examples of e-learning programs and the library’s support of them are presented. Strategic challenges to the e-library posed by the coming-of-age of e-learning are outlined. J. Markgraf.

Casado, Margaret. “Delivering Library Services to Remote Students.” Computers in Libraries 21, no. 4 (April 2001): 32-38.
The history of the University of Tennessee’s Knoxville campus library services to remote students is traced from its beginning in the early 1990’s. This program serves UT’s nontraditional learning population taking both credit and non-credit courses. Distance library services began with the Evening School supporting two graduate students to provide students with copies of articles needed for classes. In 1995 the author was hired as the full-time librarian to provide off-campus library services. The gradual addition of technology and the progression through the various stages of user education in technology is traced. The author relates her experience with and reliance on such tools as Web browsers, fax, AOL Instant Messenger, Centra Symposium, Blackboard’s CourseInfo course management system, Microsoft NetMeeting, SnagIt, and WebWhacker for delivering library instruction. Contact information for the producers of the software is given. A. Haynes.

Clark, Judith. “An Integrated Online Learning Environment – What Does It Mean for the Library?” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 2 (2001): 79-93.
This article describes an online information environment for teaching, learning and research at James Cook University (JCU), Australia’s leading tropical university. The history of online learning at JCU is described. JCU does not have an organizational structure called the “Library.” In place of that structure, technical services are under the directorship of the university’s information technology (IT) organization, and reference is handled by a combination of IT help desk staff, learning advisors, instructional designers, and audiovisual services staff. Portals are planned to facilitate delivery of all kinds of information resources to students. However, the objectives of the library environment have not changed and this structure is meant to continue delivering information and services to users. A. Haynes.

Currier, Sarah. “INSPIRAL: Digital Libraries and Virtual Learning Environments.” Ariadne, no. 28 (June 2001). Online. Available: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue28/inspiral/
INSPIRAL (INveStigating Portals for Information Resources And Learning) was a research project that ran from May through October 2001, and was funded by JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) of the United Kingdom. VLE’s (Virtual Learning Environments) and MLE’s (Managed Learning Environments) have developed separately from digital and hybrid libraries, but VLE’s and MLE’s need to be linked with digital and hybrid libraries to benefit the learner in higher education. The INSPIRAL project focused on the organizational aspects of this convergence. The author, a research fellow of INSPIRAL, describes the early stages of the project, identifies preliminary issues raised by initial interviews with stakeholders, and invites others to participate in the research. A list of all the relevant Web sites is included. A. Haynes.

Harmeyer, Dave. “Theological Distance Education: A Librarian’s Perspective.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Religious and Theological Information 3, no. 3/4 (2001): 69-86, and Theological Librarians and the Internet: Implications for Practice, edited by Mark Stover. New York: Haworth Press, 2001, 69-86.
An increasing number of theological institutions with distance education courses or programs, in the United States, are being accredited by the Association of Theological Schools. National library and accreditation standards that apply to these institutions are the Association of College and Research Libraries’ (ACRL) Distance Learning Services guidelines and the Association of Theological Schools (ATS) standards. Theological librarians are often overlooked but play a significant role in meeting the needs of distance students in these institutions. The current state of theological library services to distance students is discussed. A look at future theological library services is included, and many specific electronic resources and references are included. A. Haynes.

Love-Rodgers, Christine. “Electronic Resources for the Arts: Supporting Distance Learners at the Open University.” Art Libraries Journal 26, no. 3 (2001): 4-7.
Electronic library support for distance learners is described from the perspective of a fine arts librarian at the Open University (OU), Britain’s largest university. The university is entirely dedicated to distance learning and supports about 180,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students connected to thirteen regional centers throughout the UK. Before the mid-1990’s, OH’s library support was aimed at the faculty and research students based on campus, but since that time they have focused on supporting students directly. The new learner support service, Open Libr@ry, providing a portal for distance learners, was launched in June 2000. Access to the Web services and databases is attained by OU password, and the aim of Open Libr@ry has been to tailor this service to the individual’s needs. Components of Open Libr@ry are ROUTES (Resources for Open University Teachers and Students), a database of selected resources intended for novice Internet users; the Webskills project; and the OU Library Online Personal Academic Librarian project. Ideas for future development of Open Libr@ry are also discussed. References are included. A. Haynes.

Love-Rodgers, Christine. “Opening the Book: Developing e-Book Resources at the Open University Library.” Vine (London), no.125 (December 2001): 12-17.
Electronic books, or e-books, provide distance learners with new opportunities for research and study resources. Open University’s Library has developed an electronic library service to provide information resources to its distance education students. While this service offers databases and electronic journals, students began requesting electronic books be made available as well. In response, the library added resources such as Electronic Text Center, Project Gutenberg, Literature Online, and electronic versions of reference works to its database of web resources. To begin building a collection of e-books for its students, Open University Library purchased two collections of material from netLibrary. A general collection contains reference books and books on distance learning. The other collection supports the Religious Studies program and was selected with input from the academic department staff. The use of this collection will be monitored and evaluated over a one-year period to determine the effectiveness of this type of resource. Several issues to consider when evaluating the e-books and their use include how can text be printed, how can students find what e-books are available to them, and how can the text of the e-books be viewed. The library is looking at several ways to improve and upgrade e-book use and access to accommodate the needs of students and faculty. S. Heidenreich.

McBain, Ian and Tanya Rowe. “Help for Students and Profile for the Library: The WebCT Student Help Desk at Flinders University Library.” In Information Online 2001: Digital Dancing: New Steps, New Partners: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Information Online Conference & Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 16-18 January 2001. Sydney: Information Specialists Division, Australian Library & Information Association, 2001, 252-257.
The Flinders University Library put in a proposal for funding to provide support to students using WebCT, the University’s chosen course management system. With library staff as members of university and faculty committees, the Library was able to play a key role in the implementation of WebCT. No other group on campus was prepared to provide direct support to students. With additional funding, the Library deployed staff at different physical locations as well as providing a virtual service point. They also provided walk-in services during hours that the libraries are open. The library staff were able to handle the technical questions that arose as well as provide student orientation and training in the use of WebCT. Statistics on the number of training sessions and the kinds of questions answered concerning WebCT are included. I. Frank.

McCarthy, Jennifer Joan. “Integrating Library Services into the eLearning Environment at Queensland University of Technology.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 222-238.
Queensland University of Technology instituted a Flexible Delivery Policy, in 1998, to inform the development of a cohesive online learning environment that is focused on student needs. The library has partnered with teaching faculty in development of not only online library resources, but educational programs and services, including creating Web links from online teaching pages to catalogue records. The library home page was redesigned in 1999 with a new focus on the electronic nature of information sources and services; some services include PILOT, the library’s Web-based information literacy tutorial; and the Infoquest subject gateway. The author describes several user surveys (giving some details of the response data) done in 2000 and 2001 that have resulted in important information, including the conclusion that QUT students find the use of online databases difficult and will require simplified access and search strategies and increased training efforts. An increased focus on library staff training and development has been one of the most important endeavors in the library during the development of this online learning environment. Approximately 5% of QUT students are external, or distance, students and an extensive Web site is maintained for them. References, mostly to QUT’s Web sites, are included. A. Haynes.

Moore, Elaine, Elisabeth Knight, and Ruth Kinnersley. “WKU Libraries’ Kentucky Virtual University Support Services.” Kentucky Libraries 65, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 31-35.
Since 1999, the Kentucky Virtual Library (KYVL) has served a dual-mission to support the Kentucky Virtual University (KYVU) and to support life-long learning for the residents of Kentucky. The article focuses on the support services provided to the Kentucky Virtual University faculty and students by the KYVL contact persons at Western Kentucky University. Support services are examined from three perspectives: (1) promotion and orientation efforts, (2) reference assistance, and (3) document delivery services. The authors also provide a brief background about the evolution of KYVL and its relationship to the Kentucky Virtual University. F. Devlin.

Quinsee, Susannah. “Facilitating e-Learning.” Library Association Record 103, no. 10 (October 2001): 616-617.
The development of a Masters in Geography Information (MGI) program via WebCT at the City University in the UK is described in this case study. Issues like feeling of isolation vs. community building in an online café, preferred access to the materials and information overload are addressed. The development of the virtual library, authenticated by Athens (an access management system that controls access web-based subscriptions services; used primarily in the UK), was vital to the design of the MGI course and was later expanded to be a comprehensive information resource. Some problems are identified with the digital resources (e.g. copyright clearance, licensure, cost, time, effort), but the biggest challenge was digitizing the existing course materials without changing the module structure or content. Despite all the challenges, the virtual library was successful. The author concludes by discussing the future of e-learning for the MGI course and recommends further work in the areas of developing an online community and for provision of central authentication. M. Chakraborty.

Ramsden, Anne, David Turpie, and Jonathan Rea. “Managing the Internet: Trying a New Tool.” Vine (London), no.124 (September 2001): 36-45.
The Open University Library in the UK developed a pilot project for a staff Intranet using Zope and the Content Management Framework (CMF) toolkit. The key Intranet issues were content management and sharing, easy workflow &endash; from creation to publication of the content, defined roles for security and consistency of the content, storage and retrieval of information through metadata, and full-text search capabilities. Content and content mapping were the focus in designing the Intranet and staff ideas and working needs were taken into consideration. Despite the steep learning curve for the team and lack of documentation and training in UK, CMF still was a satisfactory choice as it proved to be a highly flexible set of tools for developing an information-sharing Intranet. M. Chakraborty.

Rodman, Ruey L. “The S.A.G.E. Project: A Model for Library Support of Distance Education.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 6, no. 2 (2001): 35-46.
The Office of Geriatric and Gerontology (OGG) at the Ohio State University collaborated with the Prior Health Sciences Library (PHSL) to provide library services to their distance students in the Series in Applied Gerontology Education (S.A.G. E.) courses. WebCT was the selected courseware and the library icon on the main page linked to the following resources and services: document delivery, e-reserves, Ask-a-Health Sciences-librarian, access to PHSL, evaluating websites and a list of web resources. Having a significant role in this collaborative project, the librarian informed the team instructor of virtual library resources and services, created library specific WebPages within WebCT, and instructed the students on using the electronic databases, online catalog, and evaluating websites. The librarian was also involved during the orientation where the distance students coming to campus, had an hour-long BI session. The initial analysis of the S.A.G.E. project revealed that document delivery was the most popular service. Other lesser-used services were e-reserves and Ask-a-Health Sciences Librarian that were already established services. In spite of some maintenance issues (e.g. adding individual patron records, maintaining the library web page within WebCT), the model proved to be successful. Based on this success, the author recommended more research on how libraries could effectively use course authoring software programs. M. Chakraborty.

Young, Caroline and Judy Stokker. “Course Materials Database: Integrating Information Resources Into Online Teaching for Students at QUT.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 240-252.
The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Course Materials Database (CMD) was created in 2000-2001 to provide students with Web access to most of their course materials, including published materials, lecture notes and past exam files. Each student at QUT has a personal Web portal, password-protected, that links to the online teaching pages, providing “one-stop shopping” for course readings. This successful project, a collaborative effort of several areas of the university, replaced the former separate services of library course reserves, e-reserves, past exam papers, and online teaching pages. Some of the problems encountered were with the overload on the server, slowness in printing, and equity of access for students not having computer access at home. The authors outline the product, how it was developed, and what was learned in the process. A. Haynes.

2000

Cavanagh, Anthony K. “Providing Services and Information to the Dispersed Off-Campus Student: An Integrated Approach.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 99-110. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 149-166.
Deakin University in Victoria, Australia has created a CD-ROM that is distributed free to all students and staff of the university to enable them to use the university’s electronic services. This addresses the problem faced by many off-campus students of having difficulty setting themselves up to use electronic services. Some of the components of the Toolkit are a Web browser, an e-mail program, anti-virus programs for both PC’s and Mac, Adobe Acrobat Reader, computer-based training modules on IT skills development, an installation kit for establishing Internet access, computer conferencing software, software for providing library database access, electronic request forms, and EndNote bibliographic management software. The Deakin Learning Toolkit was developed for off-campus users, but in reality benefits all users wishing to access the Library from home. References, and appendices giving statistics on the student body and library collections and services, are included. A. Haynes.

Cole, Timothy W., Robert S. Allen, and John G. Schmitz. “Building an Outreach Digital Library Collection.” Illinois Libraries 82, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 239-250.
This article describes a collaborative effort of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and the Agricultural Instructional Media Lab of the UIUC College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES) to build a prototype outreach information system. This prototype system demonstrates technologies that can be used to organize and index a digital library of online texts. Items first had to be identified for inclusion; then technologies and processes for acquisition and organization of the materials, including the creation of metadata, had to be researched. The authors found that constructing this prototype digital library was both time-consuming and labor-intensive, and they recommend that libraries work even more closely with publishers so that creation of digital libraries can be facilitated. References are included. A. Haynes.

Davies, Rob. “Information Society Training and Awareness-Raising Networks: ISTAR.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 205-219.
The ISTAR project, which began in 1997, was funded by Directorate General V of the European Commission (EC) under the European Programme for Inter-Regional Cooperation and Regional Economic Innovation &endash; Regional Information Society Initiatives (RISI1). The RISI programs seek to improve access to information and communications technology, addressing the gap between the information-rich and poor, in peripheral European regions (regions that have poor access to markets and networks). This conference paper describes ISTAR including all aspects of its development, project management structure, feasibility and definition phase, external evaluation by the EC, services, monitoring and evaluation of services, and future possibilities. A Haynes.

Dority, Kim and Martin Garnar. “The Electronic Global Library of Jones International University.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 17 (2000): 93-107.
The history, development, and philosophy of the E-Global Library at Jones International University (JIU), a distance education university, are described. All the major components of E-Global Library (bibliographic instruction, reference and research, document delivery, interlibrary loan, and electronic database searching) are explained. Some controversial issues in distance education library services are discussed, including to what extent distance students should be taught how to do their own research, and whether or not to refer students to “victim libraries,” or students’ local libraries, to supplement their institutions’ library resources. A section on the research agenda outlines a number of questions that need to be addressed as E-Global Library develops further. The future of distance education in the United States is discussed. References are included. A. Haynes.

Hammond, Carol, Wes Edens, Ann Tolzman, and Catharine Cebrowski. “An International Information Gateway: Thunderbird’s Intranet for Teaching, Learning, and Research.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 17 (2000): 67-92.
Thunderbird, the American Graduate School of International Management, has students worldwide. A single degree is offered, the Master of International Management, and the students are required to be proficient users of various computer software, hardware, networks, and systems. The school, the world’s oldest and largest school of international management, created an instructional intranet to accommodate all its constituents, whether on campus or at other locations, by providing various types of information and services typically found in a library. This intranet, My Thunderbird, uses Web pages for specific courses, departments, and individual profiles. It provides extensive personalization for many categories of users and groups, and is completely integrated with the registrar’s data system. The article contains much detail about the many uses of the My Thunderbird library, offering examples from the Web pages. A. Haynes.

Heilig, Jean M. “E-Global Library: The Academic Campus Library Meets the Internet.” Searcher: The Magazine for Database Professionals 9, no. 6 (June 2000): 34-43.
The author, Director of Research and Information for e-global library, describes the expansion and development of this electronic library, first developed for Jones International University (JIU) in 1999. e-global library was initially intended as the library system for the students of JIU, a distance university. One year after its beginning, it was marketed as an enhanced service to other institutions, such as other virtual universities, corporate universities, the military, and others without a means for offering library services to their distance students. The staff are professional librarians with subject expertise in business, general reference, government, humanities, science and technology, and social sciences. The six primary components of e-global library are described: bibliographic instruction, research assistance, core collection of research materials (including details on the collection development policies), access to electronic databases, reference assistance, and document delivery management. Future plans and challenges, such as competition with other electronic library initiatives such as Questia, XanEdu, and Fathom, are discussed. A. Haynes.

McKnight, Sue and Jenny McCarthy. “Delivering Library Services to Remote Users: The Deakin Learning Toolkit.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 175-182.
The authors describe the development of several editions of a CD-ROM product, the Deakin Learning Toolkit. This product, which has had positive feedback and has since attracted the interest of several other Australian universities, contains a suite of software that facilitates student learning at Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. The Toolkit acts as a portal into both the Deakin Web site and external Internet sites, including licensed databases of electronic journals and indexes. Also included are all the tools students need to assist their learning: information on all the faculties, schools and research centers of Deakin; all services offered by the University; a research skills section; tutorials; and electronic forms for submitting interlibrary loan, reference, and other kinds of requests. The authors conclude that the success of this product has lead Deakin to explore newer options in delivering information and services to its students. A. Haynes.

Prestamo, Anne. “If We Build It, Will They Come?” In National Online Meeting Proceedings – 2000: Proceedings of the 21st National Online Meeting, New York, May 16-18, 2000, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2000, 313-324.
In 1999 the Oklahoma State University (OSU) Library created a unit to meet the information needs of OSU’s distance learning students as well as the needs of all OSU constituents regardless of their location. Staffing was accomplished through reallocation of existing Reference Services positions. The Digital Library Services unit works with existing library departments to assist students and faculty with access to their many electronic resources, electronic reference services, online interlibrary loan services, online requests for OSU Library materials needed by distance students, Web-based tutorials and technical support for these services. This paper discusses the planning process for the new unit, policy establishment, services offered, and outreach/marketing effort. Usage statistics for the fall 1999 semester, future plans, and lessons learned are included. One lesson learned is that the real challenges are promotion of services and user support. A. Haynes.

1999

Gillham, Mark and Hazel Hall. “‘Alive’ on the Internet: A User-Centred Evaluation of BIS-Online.” New Review of Academic Librarianship 5 (1999): 61-79.
BIS-Online is the online component of an academic business module, Business Information Sources, taught at Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, UK. Students who used the online component of BIS to supplement the module in 1999 were asked for feedback on its usefulness. This feedback was gathered in the form of a questionnaire (completed by 12 students, or half the population taking the module) and followed up by focus groups, which provided extensive qualitative data. The results were that the students using the online module used the Web as an aid to private study, and greatly appreciated its advantages. However, the students also emphasized the importance of the face-to-face contact with faculty and fellow students in the lectures. Data and references are provided. A. Haynes.

Helfer, Doris Small. “Has the Virtual University Library Truly Arrived?” Searcher: The Magazine for Database Professionals 7, no. 8 (September 1999): 62-65.
The increase in distance learning has caused increased demand for the electronic, or virtual, library. Jones International University (JUI) is an online university, established in 1993 and accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The typical student is a working adult with limited time, well-motivated, self-directed learner. Computers with high-speed Internet access are required equipment for JUI students. An essential part of JIU’s development was the incorporation of an electronic library, named the Electronic Global Library (E-Global Library), intended to provide not only course-related materials but access to research resources similar to those available to a campus-based university. The E-Global Library provided bibliographic instruction, reference services, document delivery, interlibrary loan, and database searching. The author describes the attributes of each of these parts of E-Global Library. A. Haynes.

McDonald, Andrew. “The Human Factors in Developing Electronic Library Services.” In [Proceedings of the] ICDE Librarians’ Roundtable, 11-12 October, 1999, The Open University of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong, 1999, 34-40. ERIC ED 438 832. Also online. Available: http://www.ouhk.edu.hk/10th/roundtable/uk2.pdf (in pdf format)
This conference paper points out the importance of paying attention to human factors when designing library electronic services. The University of Sunderland, UK provides one of the largest and most heavily used electronic information networks in UK higher education, including digital databases of exam papers and other course-related resources. The institution has been involved in some research projects to identify the human factors most important for leadership in electronic library development. Some of the conclusions reached thus far are: digital librarians (the term used for librarians leading the development of electronic libraries) must have certain personal qualities rather than specific technical knowledge (the latter can be acquired); the service culture of electronic libraries has the potential to be more flexible than that of the traditional library setting; electronic services have a great impact on library staff; and the users should be involved in the design of electronic libraries. A long list of references from the library administration and technology literature is included. A. Haynes.

Ramsden, Anne and Una O’Sullivan. “ROUTES: Creating a Tailored Learning Resource for Distance Learning Students at the Open University.” Program 33, no. 4 (October 1999): 339-346.
This article, by two staff members of the Open University (OU), UK, describes ROUTES (Resources for Open University TEachers and Students), a project to build an electronic network of course-related information resources for use by students of OU. The purpose of ROUTES is to assist OU students with limited Internet experience by giving them a single Web page with the resources they need, minimizing their frustration in searching and their online charges. At the time of the writing of this article, ROUTES was moving from a prototype into development of a fully operational service. Priorities for continuation of this project were developed by a focus group of academics, technical and library staff. The ROUTES database is based on a technical platform called ROADS (Resource Organisation And Discovery in Subject-based services), a free toolkit that can be downloaded from a Web site at Bristol University. Initial observation of users showed that ROUTES was successful in meeting its purposes. References and URL’s of several internet gateways and resources are included. A. Haynes.