Mikesell, Brian L. “Anything, Anytime, Anywhere: Proxy Servers, Shibboleth and the Dream of the Digital Library.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 235-242. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 315-326.
In order to provide distance students with remote access, quite a bit goes on behind the scenes for remote authentication to work. The author provides diagrams of IP authentication with and without the use of proxy servers are used to ease understanding of these sometimes difficult concepts. The following remote authentication methods are examined in short detail: proxies that require users to configure browser settings, EZproxy, Onelog, Virtual Private Networks, Athens and Shibboleth. The author points out that no solution is perfect for every instance and institution, but encourages distance librarians to become familiar with the options that are available to ensure that patrons always have the easiest, most seamless access to the resources they need to complete their studies. P. Pival.

Washburn, Allyson and Jessica Draper. “80 Miles from the Nearest Library, with a Research Paper Due Monday: Extending Library Services to Distance Learners.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 383-402. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 507-529.
Brigham Young University supports a large population of distance learners, comprising close half of the student enrollment. The library, in response to the needs of the distance students, created a portal for the students taking English courses integrating an off-campus authentication system for access to electronic resources and library services including email and chat reference. The library also created course specific library pages to be integrated with web based courseware (Blackboard), and publicized to faculty and distance students the availability of the portal and courseware pages. In the final phase of the project, the library conducted extensive usability testing on the portal and specific course pages. This project was funded by an ALA grant funded by SIRSI. C. Biles.


Covey, Denise Troll. “The Need to Improve Remote Access to Online Library Resources: Filling the Gap Between Commercial Vendor and Academic User Practice.” Portal: Libraries and the Academy 3, no. 4 (October 2003): 577-599.
The author looks at remote access to library resources as a high priority need to serve an academic user population used to convenience and ease-of-use. Libraries are providing access via proxy server and VPN (virtual private network) technology. Covey surveyed academic libraries to look at costs including estimates of labor costs, rate of technical problems encountered by users, workflow of problem reporting to problem handling within institutions, time spent troubleshooting and explaining access, etc. The results of the survey suggest that libraries find these technologies problematic, but necessary. The author suggests emerging technologies such as Shibboleth can provide a single sign-on approach for institutions that have developed a campus-wide directory environment. Solutions like Shibboleth can provide better security for vendors as well as convenient access for users. I. Frank.


Arnold, Judith, Jennifer Sias, and Jingping Zhang. “Bringing the Library to the Students: Using Technology to Deliver Instruction and Resources for Research.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 19-25. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 27-37.
This paper describes the preparation and use of multimedia instructional presentations for off-campus students of Marshall University, Huntington, WV. PowerPoint slides provide the framework, packaged on a CD-ROM. Techsmith’s SnagIt enables video of the process of searching the catalog, databases or the web to be captured (without audio commentary) as .avi files. These are then added to the PowerPoint to be replayed using RealPlayer. Emphasis is placed on the importance of planning&emdash;carefully rehearsing searches, capturing different databases as separate modules, and carefully naming the files. Other tips are provided. Brief descriptions also are given of MU’s production of a searchable ejournal holdings database, their IDS Express request and home delivery system for scanned articles using Illiad software, and their provision of direct access to the commercial Ingenta periodicals collection for unmediated document delivery. M. Nolan.

Casey, Anne Marie. “Collection Development for Distance Learning.” Journal of Library Administration 36, no. 3 (2002): 59-72.
The role of distance learning librarians in collection development is outlined. Before the advent of electronic resources, these librarians were concerned basically with three facets of collection development: providing multiple copies of books required in distance classes, establishing core deposit collections at satellite locations where distance classes were offered, and referring these students to libraries in their home areas that might have useful materials. Since the establishment, however, of the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services which state that the sponsoring institution is responsible for supplying library services and materials to its students, this last facet is done only informally if at all. With the onset of electronic resources, librarians have been concerned with easing distance students’ access to these resources, through proxy servers and through providing databases which allowed remote access. Also, by tracking requests for articles made through these databases and through ILL, librarians can subscribe to heavily requested periodicals and/or subscribe to electronic resources which better answer these students’ needs. Beyond this, librarians create virtual libraries specific to the needs of their institution’s distance students, expanding their traditional role in collection development. P. Ortega.

Curtis, Donnelyn. Attracting, Educating, and Serving Remote Users Through the Web. How-To-Do-It Manuals for Librarians, no. 114. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2002. 269 pp. ISBN 1-55570-436-0.
This book, written by librarians at the University of Nevada, Reno Library, examines how librarians can effectively assist remote users in using library resources. Nine chapters examine the following topics: (1) “Reaching Out -The Library’s New Role;” (2) “Getting to Know Remote Users;” (3) “Presenting the Virtual Library;” (4) “Providing Electronic Reference Services;” (5) “Maximizing Current Awareness and Document Delivery Services;” (6) “Providing Library Instruction to Remote Users;” (7) “Integrating Library Resources Into Online Instruction;” (8) “Supporting the Remote User of Licensed Resources;” and (9) “Fundraising and Public Relations in an Electronic Environment.” The authors have developed a website to accompany the text that presents supplemental information. An index and brief biographies of the contributors are provided. S. Heidenreich.

Dieterle, Ulrike. “Digital Document Delivery to the Desktop: Distance is No Longer an Issue.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 193-198. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 243-250.
The Health Sciences Libraries of the University of Wisconsin-Madison built a web-based system to deliver scanned articles, book chapters and tables of contents to their graduate students, faculty and staff. The author describes the expansion of an existing system at another campus library into their version of Library Express, to replace a failed first attempt of their own. A period of careful planning, starting out small and growing gradually, closely evaluating and adjusting staff and equipment needs, listening carefully to user survey responses and a prolonged 16 month beta phase all helped assure a smoothly running, efficient and effective system. M. Nolan.

Edens, Wes, Micaela Agyare, and Carol Hammond. “Here, There and Everywhere: A Virtual Library for Access to Business Information.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 227-238. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 287-303.
The International Business Information Centre (IBIC)–the library serving Thunderbird, the American Graduate School of International Business–provides traditional and technologically- advanced library services to students around the world. Students represent 80 nations. Through a web-based intranet called My Thunderbird (MTB) the IBIC provides a virtual library to its users, authenticated through EZProxy software. MTB provides reference service 24/7 via an electronic bulletin board called AskIBIC. MTB contains course resources, including specific articles provided through durable links to Proquest and EBSCOHost databases, electronic pathfinders on broad topics, and Global Gateway, a web database of over 3500 links for international business researchers. Instruction in using library and web resources to do graduate level research is delivered online both as classes broadcast by satellite and as course pages using the same set of tools faculty use in teaching their courses. Sample pages from MTB are shown. M. Nolan.

Ferguson, Jessame, Joel Fowler, Marilyn Hanley, and Jay Schafer. “Building a Digital Library in Support of Distance Learning.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 249-258. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2003): 317-331.
This paper is a detailed description of the planning that went into the University of Massachusetts Digital Library. The work of each of 5 task forces, formed in mid-2000 by the libraries of the five member campuses is outlined. The Collection Development Task Force dealt with joint purchase of resources. Extended Reference planned a Live Reference chat service. Web Site Development hired a contractor to develop a joint web portal to give access both to joint resources and to those offered by each campus. Digitization worked on standards and equipment for digitization of special collections. Information Literacy provided help guides and documentation. Phase 2 plans remained for funding and staffing. M. Nolan.

Kibbee, Jo and Lynn Wiley. “Take Us With You!: Delivering Library Resources and Services to Users in the Field.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 62-72.
The “Take Us With You!” project at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champlain (UIUC) provides materials to off campus students and faculty who are not necessarily enrolled in a formal distance education course. The challenge was both to inform them of the resources available and to facilitate their use. The UIUC Library already had several major electronic delivery services available, but a focus group from the university’s International Programs & Studies Office revealed that potential users were largely unaware of the services. In addition, there are many technical problems, especially in access from overseas. From a “Take Us With You!” website they now offer links to the services and point of use technical help in the form of preparatory instructions and FAQs. An online feedback form, reproduced here, has been very valuable, as have outreach efforts such as notifying all faculty awarded sabbatical leave. M. Nolan.

Philbert, Medaline. “Bridging the Distance: Pace University Library and Remote Users.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 87-98, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 87-98.
Library services provided to distance learning students in two programs of study at Pace University are the focus of this article. The two online programs are the e.MBA (Executive MBA) and the National Coalition for Telecommunications Education and Learning. While the same services that are available to on-campus students are also available to distance students, some adjustments to these services needed to be made to meet the needs of the distance students. For example, web pages were created that were specifically designed to help distance students in these programs access the information they needed when they needed it. Interlibrary loan services were adjusted to allow distance students to receive materials at their home addresses as well as by fax and by email. The library also subsidizes the cost of document delivery services by SUMO Uncover for these students. Reference assistance is available through the use of a toll-free telephone number, an online form for emailing questions to the library, and online research guides. The procedures involved in remote access for students and the ways the library solved remote access problems are also discussed. A. Lawrence.

Thomas, Judy and Vickie Arrowsmith. “Working in Partnership to Deliver an Innovative Pre-Registration Nursing Programme.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 19, no. 3 (September 2002): 161-163.
As an outcome of two UK government reports on healthcare practice, the Open University (OU) began offering a nursing programme for healthcare workers that would like to be nurses,. This program aims to encourage healthcare assistants to be reflective practitioners by applying theory and values and viewing the patient as a whole person. In response, the OU’s library service, Open Library, focused on providing access to bibliographic databases and electronic journals that would support the new programme. The librarians worked with the curriculum committee to incorporate increasing levels of information literacy and competency in the courses as the students progress through the programme. Open Library is addressing several issues: ensuring that students have basic IT skills to use Open Library, ensuring that all the electronic resources needed are available, and assessing the students’ information literacy skills. E. Onega.

Toraki, Katerina. “Remote Users in the Virtual Library: A Need for Diversification?” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 208-216.
The Technical Chamber of Greece Library serves professional engineer members throughout the nation. The main library, located in Athens, initiated a study of their remote (off-site) users in 2000 and 2001. Email and fax queries were studied for types of requests made. More than twice as many requests came by fax as by email. A random sample of those users was asked what virtual library services would be used, and whether they would be willing to pay for them. The general conclusion was that their remote users had the same needs as other users, but they do not yet enjoy the same rights. Measures that would improve the situation are publicizing the electronic services, providing primary sources online, having staff trained in serving remote users, and developing more user-friendly electronic services. M. Nolan.


Buehler, Marianne, Elizabeth Dopp, Kerry A. Hughes, and Jen Thompson. “It Takes a Library to Support Distance Learners.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 5, no. 3 (2001): 5-24.
Distance learners at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) are scattered over 45 states and many countries. Both students and faculty depend almost exclusively on the Internet for their communications. Library resources and services must be available to these students and faculty without regard to time zones or personal schedules. To accomplish this feat, the library uses many types of technology to offer vital services and resources and also to make a continuous effort to educate users on what is available to them. The FirstClass software used by RIT features a bulletin board, online chats, and email. Through the bulletin board segment of the software, the library has a series of brief email messages, each one covering a topic. Users can invite the Distance Learning Librarian to chat and receive immediate online help. Electronic reserves have presented the library with several challenges, such as large numbers of materials with multiple pages that caused download problems for students. Interlibrary loan services work very well through the use of ILLiad and Ariel software and the FedEx delivery service. Other services and resources provided by the library include over 150 electronic databases, several collections of digital images, electronic books, instruction tutorials, course-specific guides to resources, video/audio streamed instruction, and Library News Flash. Library News Flash allows students to subscribe to one or more biweekly mailing list listservs that the library uses to keep students updated on what the library offers. Since it is also crucial for the faculty to be aware of the services and resources available to their students, the Distance Learning Librarian works with them in various ways that are described. Assessment is conducted every mid-quarter through an email survey, resulting in a continuous process of making improvements and creating new services. A. Lawrence.

Guenther, Kim. “Building Digital Libraries: Know Thy Remote Users.” Computers in Libraries 21, no. 4 (April 2001): 52-54.
This article suggests that web use statistics are one way to better understand the information needs of distance learners, lacking a face-to-face reference interview. Using WebTrends software, or similar log file analyzers, important information can be inferred about how the web site is being used. It is useful to know from what search engine or other page users come, and where they exit your site, perhaps due to frustration. The software records keywords searched for on your site, and what pages or tools were visited and for how long. Knowledge of the speed of users’ connections can suggest page design optimization. M. Nolan.

Higginbottom, Patricia and Edward P. Harris III. “The Virtual Desktop: The Remote Access Solution.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 20, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 1-8.
Lister Hill Library of the Health Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham has created a way for its users to access databases and educational software from remote locations. Although it was initially a labor intensive and costly venture, the results have proven worthwhile. Now in addition to access to electronic databases, remote users also have access to CD-ROM based programs formally available only in the library. The CD-ROM based programs have been made available through the use of a Linux front end and Citrix MetaFrame server which authenticates the user and allows remote access. A Virtual Desktop provides users with an initial screen showing icons and links to all the electronic resources. An authentication process for remote users was developed using the university’s databases of students and employees. All licensing agreements with electronic resource vendors were reviewed to insure none were being violated by the new Virtual Desktop system. Use statistics are collected by the authentication server and may be reviewed at any time. A brief discussion of the implementation process used, along with some of the problems encountered, is given. S. Heidenreich.

Mackay, Mary. “The Provision of Networked Access to Hybrid Resources at Small or Remote Sites.” Library Management 22, no. 1/2 (2001): 26-29.
The University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI) has the responsibility for providing educational access to those living in some of Scotland’s most remote areas. Partnering with thirteen colleges within those areas, they are testing the HyLiFe Project (Hybrid Library of the Future). Central to the provision of educational support is the creation of purpose-built learning centers throughout the region. These centers serve as the technological connections in the UHI/Scottish Telecom wide area network, allowing remote students access to training rooms, computers, videoconferencing, and web access. The author discusses the services provided for print and electronic resources, as well as looking forward to a national network of learning centers. B. Reiten.

Matheson, Arden. “Research Note: Research Services for Distant Learners: The OLADE Project.” Online Information Review 25 no. 5 (2001): 321-325.
OLADE, the Latin American Energy Organization (Organizacion Latino Americana de Energia), is an international agency aimed at promoting the development, conservation and rational use of energy resources in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1997, the University of Calgary began offering a Masters of Science degree program in energy and the environment in Quito, Ecuador, to train professionals to assist OLADE in fulfilling its mandate. The University of Calgary Library believes that distance students should have the same access to electronic databases, research materials and document delivery as on-campus students. The author describes how, through technology and the Internet, these information resources were made available to the off-continent students enrolled in the program. Through direct Web connections and instruction using CD-ROM presentations, access to full-text and index databases, e-mail, research resources and document delivery was effectively provided. F. Devlin.


Birch, Katie and Ian Pettman. “Linking Distance Learners With the UNIverse.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 166-174.
The UNIverse project of the European Commission is charged with developing a web-based virtual union catalog of European libraries, searchable in parallel. Though the project was not specifically aimed at distance learning needs, this paper looks at the project, completed in September 1999, from that perspective. The VUC is based on the Z39.50 Version 3 and ISO ILL software standards. Some of its unique features developed are an integrated search, request and delivery process; a multilingual thesaurus capability; and automatic deduplication of results. Not all the capabilities of the VUC, however, are available to users as yet. M. Nolan.

Black, Nancy E. “Emerging Technologies: Tools for Distance Education and Library Services.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 29-38. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 45-59.
The author argues that technology can be used effectively to make distance education and library support more visible to users and potential users. Creative use of web capabilities by libraries can raise the profile, but accessible librarians are important as well. “Cutting edge” technology should be used judiciously and with consideration of the users to be served. Regular, on-going communication between librarians, faculty, technical support and administration is essential. M. Nolan.

Cullen, Kevin F. and Jennifer S. Kutzik. “Supporting Remote Access to Libraries Resources: After the Proxy Server is Implemented.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2000): 67-80.
The authors provide a history of the changes of the proxy server, Innovative Web Access Management, from 1998 through 1999. Because of a massive flood in the library, the distant learning library program became the lead in delivering materials not just to distant learners, but also to local learners who no longer had access to what had been in the library. The resulting services needs of the University for materials drove the librarians to a new server. This created the need for the librarians to find innovative ways for training users how to authenticate and to communicate when there were problems. Support teams then were able to respond to problems and communicate solutions through a number of avenues, but most specifically through their website. Remote access problem calls were cut in half after website redesign. Cross training on remote access methods, concepts and issues also helped educate users faster. The authors also described some as yet to be solved proxyserver/browser problems, such as AOL. M. Horan.

Dunlap, Steven. “From Isolation to Cooperation: The Changes That Technology Creates in Institutional Culture.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 133-138. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 195-206.
Golden Gate University’s University Library added the Innovative Interfaces’ “Web Access Management Module” in 1998. Subsequent logistical problems encountered in implementing remote access to online databases brought new opportunities for cooperation with other academic and administrative units of the University. A joint project with the Registrar to provide their CyberCampus’ distance education students with bar-coded ids hit many stumbling blocks. Restricting a database to students registered in a particular course was a challenge due to its JavaScript format and the security provisions of the networks students used to connect to it. These experiences point to the importance of inter-departmental cooperation in implementing technological change in a university. M. Nolan.

Felts, John. “Now You Can Get There From Here: Creating an Interactive Web Application for Accessing Full-Text Journal Articles From Any Location.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 139-145. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 207-218.
The library at the University of North Carolina – Greensboro set about to provide a searchable, interactive website which would “provide reliable, user-friendly access to full-text electronic journals” for its distance education students. After identifying the technical problems of such an endeavor and then deciding on which options to employ, journal resource selection criteria were established. For example, these required that resources should be free to the user, aggregate databases must have significant full-text content, and no resources with rolling beginning dates would be included. To provide database connectivity through a web interface, Microsoft’s Active Server Pages was utilized. The author includes a detailed outline of the steps involved in the creation and implementation of the resulting database and in providing remote access to it. P. Ortega.

Morris, Anne and Neil Jacobs. “Experiences of Using Electronic Document Delivery Services From the Workplace and From Home.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 154-165.
This article reports on the feasibility of using commercial document delivery services to take the place of regular interlibrary loans of periodical articles. The criteria evaluated included ease of setup, reliability of technical support, costs, equipment specification and technical complexity, speed of access, subject coverage, ease of use and learning, and reliability. None of the 5 services was adequate in terms of all the criteria used to evaluate them, so combinations of services linked together to create a seamless service is seen as the likely solution. M. Nolan.

Ren, Wen-Hua. “Library Services to Distance Learners Across the Pacific.” In National Online Meeting Proceedings – 2000: Proceedings of the 21st National Online Meeting, New York, May 16-18, 2000, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2000, 353-358.
This article reports on Rutgers’ John Cotton Dana Library collaboration with their Graduate School of Management to support research needs of their International Executive MBA students in Beijing and Singapore. An email survey of Chinese students in the program to determine their library needs was conducted. Results showed that all respondents had Internet access and most wanted the resources offered in English. A special library web page was tailored for access to the resources the students would most need, including a connection to the Rutgers electronic reference service. Electronic reserves and document delivery are used. In the first year of the program its library coordinator, while vacationing in Beijing, gave an in-person library instruction class and investigated local library resources to which the students could have access. Plans for future developments are given, as well as a discussion of the major factors that contributed to the success of the program. M. Nolan.

Stubley, Peter and Verity Brack. “RIDING: Levering Real Services From a Virtual Catalogue.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 133-142.
RIDING is project funded by the UK eLib program. It is supported by a consortium of universities in the north of England, begun in 1998. The goal is to bring together, using Z39.50 protocol, a “clump” or virtual aggregate of the online library catalogs of 11 member universities, the Leeds public library and the British Library Document Supply Centre. As a searcher uses the menus and command language of one OPAC, the Z39.50 protocol translates the query into a standardized format that can run on all the members’ OPACs. The Z39.50 gateway serves as go-between for 6 different commercial automated library systems and because implementation of Z39.50 in library management systems has lacked consistency, there are many problems. Meanwhile, the consortium has moved ahead in planning access to the materials for members’ patrons, either in person or via an electronic interlibrary loan request. M. Nolan.


Clarke, Sarah. “Access to Electronic Journals for Distance Learners.” Vine (London), no. 110 (1999): 30-33.
This article describes problems faced by the British Open University Library in giving their 150,000+ students access to electronic journals. Due to varying licenses and access arrangements with 10 suppliers, not all students have access to all the journals. Password access is generally independent of geographic location or method of connecting to the Internet, and offers more specific statistics and the ability to set expiry dates. However, students must choose the titles available to them based on who the publisher is and which publishers offer password access. There is concern over trends toward pricing by total number of students. So far asking students to pay-per-view has been avoided. M. Nolan.

Miller, Lindsey, Kimberly Peters, Mary Pappano, and Kate Manuel. “A Research Review for Librarians Working with Electronic Serials and Licensing Agreements in the Age of the Internet and Distance Education.” The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances 12, no. 3 (1999): 113-119.
Acknowledging that accreditation of distance education programs increasingly demands provision of library resources equivalent to those available to users on campus, the authors review the recent literature on selecting and managing electronic journals. Thirty articles are cited, and an additional 33 are listed for further reading. Acknowledging that each licensing decision is unique to a given library, the text covers issues such as costs, the degree to which the complete contents of the print version are made available, individual title subscriptions, aggregated databases, licensing, and copyright issues. The article ends an explanation of the importance of understanding 5 terms used in contract language. M. Nolan.

Noble, Steve. “Delivering Accessible Library Services in a Distance Learning Environment.” Information Technology and Disabilities 6, no. 1-2 (April 1999).
Libraries must deliver reference services, document delivery and information literacy to students involved in distance learning courses. Document delivery can be problematic for students with print disabilities. Recording for the Black and Dyslexic (RFB&D) obtained a Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program (THAP) grant beginning October 1, 1998 to examine the feasibility of delivering accessible textbooks via digital delivery methods. The RFB&D’s AudioPlus books include an electronic text file with digitally-mastered audio. I. Frank.