2004

Adams, Tina M. and R. Sean Evans. “Educating the Educators: Outreach to the College of Education Distance Faculty and Native American Students.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 1-12. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 3-18.
The administration at Northern Arizona University’s Cline Library made organizational changes in 2000 to enhance support to off-campus students, especially their large Native American population. The changes integrated services for distance students into existing library departments instead of being handled as a special service. Some of the changes included using web-based document delivery forms, electronic delivery for articles and Ask-A-Librarian rapid response e-mail reference. Although these services helped all off-campus students, the instruction classes have been tailored to suit the learning styles, cultural background, curriculum, and other needs of the Native American students. In addition, the Library has worked actively with the College of Education, a major provider of distance education offered by the University, to increase awareness of the Library’s services to off-campus students by offering joint workshops to all full- and part-time faculty. These successful workshops were funded by a grant which covered all the expenses incurred by attendance. E. Onega.

Black, Coral and Sue Roberts. “Staff Without Walls: Developing Library and Information Staff for e-Learning.” In Libraries Without Walls 5: The Distributed Delivery of Library and Information Services, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Jenny Craven. London: Facet Publishing, 2004, 19-30.
The virtual learning of today makes heavy demands on library and information services staff. In such an ever-changing environment, information professionals are forced to perform work and undertake roles that go far beyond the training that they received before starting their careers. The need for continuing staff development and training cannot be emphasized enough. The staff development practices at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in northwestern England are presented as a case study. A. Lawrence.

Burich, Nancy J. “Providing Leadership for Change in Distance Learning .” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 2 (2004): 31-41.
Because of its reliance on quickly evolving technology, distance learning has accommodated change at a much more rapid pace than is typical in the academy. Required to respond to swift changes in their environment, distance learning librarians are in a position to help lead their libraries and institutions adapt to fundamental changes in higher education. After discussing general definitions and qualities of leaders, the author describes how developing library services for distance learners led to leadership roles at the University of Kansas. Recognizing problems that need to be addressed, taking time to research potential solutions, and devoting energy to implement strategies were highlighted as significant activities for a potential leader. Leadership strategies are highlighted in descriptions of several projects undertaken by the author, including acquiring collections for distance learners, developing electronic reserves, and expanding electronic reference services. In order to help others develop a process and strategy to implement new ideas, the author provides an annotated checklist for initiating and leading change. J Brandt.

Cassner, Mary and Kate E. Adams. “A Survey of Distance Librarian-Administrators in ARL Libraries: An Overview of Library Resources and Services.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 63-71. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 85-96.
This 2003 study follows up on a 1996 ARL survey of distance learning services and a 1997 article by Lebowitz which forecast the affect of tight budgets on distance learning library services. The researchers sent surveys to the directors of all 112 ARL libraries and 73 usable surveys were returned. The thirteen survey questions covered a broad range of library resources and services for distance students. Questions included access to library materials, databases, reference, library instruction; library materials delivery options; staffing models; future funding; and collaboration with teaching faculty. The article includes all the questions and responses, along with the authors’ analysis. A primary goal of the research was to determine how budgetary concerns will affect library services to distance learners in the future. The authors determined that libraries will continue to support new technologies, such as class web pages, chat reference, etc., while phasing out older technologies, such as print handouts and delivery of photocopies. Because budgets are not expected to increase significantly, ARL libraries will have to make philosophical and practical decisions about how to offer services, while keeping an eye on the bottom line. The research also outlines the current state of services ARL libraries offer to distance students. E. Onega.

Keeble, Heather and Louise McGill. “Guerrillas in the Mist: Breaking Through Boundaries to Provide a First-Class Remote Library Service.” Serials 17, no. 1 (March 2004): 19-24.
Guerilla librarians are those who take a “proactive role within academic environments,” according to the authors, and they describe their efforts to do just that in serving distance learners at the University of Leicester. Working from the premise that all students are diverse, the authors advocate a departure from standardized approaches to providing service in favor of flexible and creative approaches that address the unique needs and circumstances of each student, and emphasize equitable rather than equal service. One recommended strategy is the development of a Distance Learning library team comprising multi-skilled members who, through a single point of contact for the student, can solve a multi-faceted problem without having to refer a student to several library staff members, each of whom have a specific area of expertise. The authors also emphasize the importance of addressing the library’s image on campus, advocating a proactive role for librarians in course and program development and in defining their role as teachers rather than trainers. J. Markgraf.

Lee, Marta. “Red, White, and Blues: Library Services to a Satellite Campus.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 3 (2004): 65-78.
In response to the creation of a new satellite campus, Regent University developed new library services for students in the Washington, DC, area. Initially, the library served these students using programs originally developed for online students, including document delivery, a toll-free reference phone number, and purchasing borrowing cards for local libraries. The author discusses the establishment of a permanent Library Resources Room on the satellite campus, addressing staffing, security, and collection development issues. Procedures for creating a reserve collection, developed in response to an accreditation report, are also described. To evaluate the program, a survey was distributed to students and faculty in 2003. The results describe the level of usage of library services and also identify areas needing improvement, including user training, more assistance from librarians, and advertising. The survey questions and results are included in an appendix. J Brandt.

McMain, Lynn M. and Judy Ann Jerabek. “Assessing Minds Want to Know: Developing Questions for Assessment of Library Services Supporting Off-Campus Learning Programs.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 227-233. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 303-314.
The process of creating a solid assessment instrument is discussed in this paper. The authors suggest dealing with the following issues when designing a questionnaire; literature review, qualitative or quantitative, defining the research objective, research formats, question types, survey structure, and other issues to consider. Each of these areas is covered in a paragraph or two. The paper concludes with a summary of these points, and a useful checklist to follow. P. Pival.

Reeves, Linda A. “Starting Small: Setting Up Off-Campus Library Services with Limited Resources” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 265-271. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 355-364.
The author examines recent trends in the growth of distance education in general, and then compares these national trends to her own institution (Northwest Vista College in Texas). Brief summaries of several services offered by the NVC library are given, including providing Access to Materials (predominantly online), Reference Service (via email and Elluminate vClass for virtual reference), Library Instruction (web-based tutorials in HTML), and Targeted Marketing. The focus is on how these services can be delivered by a library with a small budget and a small staff. The conclusion is that quality library services can indeed be offered to distance students 24 hours per day even by a small library with a small budget. P. Pival.

Secord, Anne Marie, Robin Lockerby, Laura Roach, and Joseph H. Simpson. “Strategic Planning for Distance Learning Services.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 305-308. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 407-411.
National University has 29 distinct centers in California, catering to a primarily adult learners population. The university opened a central library in 2000, along with several satellite libraries, in an effort to improve access to library resources to a population scattered around the state. At the same time, the library staff, with input from faculty and students, created a strategic plan for improving access, changing from bricks-and-mortar to clicks-and-mortar, and fostering communication between the library and its users. C. Biles.

Shaffer, Janette, Kate Finkelstein, Nancy Woelfl, and Elizabeth Lyden. “A Systematic Approach to Assessing the Needs of Distance Faculty.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 309-319. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 413-428.
Distance education at the University of Nebraska Medical Center has grown continuously since the 1960s, but support for remote users at the library has only grown in spots in response to specific demands. In 2001 the library hired a distance services librarian and undertook self-study using focus groups and a survey of faculty course needs in order to create a written remote services plan. Three problems emerged from the results of the self-study. First, the library needed to educate faculty members about student information literacy and to provide library instruction to entire classes improve information literacy, and, second, to publicize distance education services to all users. The third problem was the lack of available electronic resources in health disciplines, which will be remediated as more sources become available. The survey and cover letter is included. C. Biles.

Stratton, John M. “An Information Access Model at a Distant Branch Library.” Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 1 (2004): 79-98.
The Regents Center Library (RCL) at the University of Kansas Edwards Campus (KUEC) is a distant branch library that serves the needs of a population of adult students, most of whom are enrolled in graduate programs. The author describes an information access plan developed for the RCL. The University of Kansas libraries have been moving to a collaborative model of collection development, with the RCL included as a partner in the collaboration. The term “information access plan” accurately reflects the RCL’s emphasis on access over ownership of materials. He places this plan into the larger context of the challenges that are faced by branch libraries in general, particularly those that do not have a specialized collection or function and are located at a distance from the main library of the university. This article includes a literature review highlighting the most important literature from the past 35 years covering the topic of branch library administration. The author discusses the most significant factors affecting the development of the plan, including the RCL’s distance from the main campus, the nature of the programs offered at the KUEC, the evolving definition of distance learners, and the broader planning processes that the University of Kansas. He outlines the potential uses of the plan, and states that trends in the literature indicate that this type of information access plan will fit in will with significant changes in the ways that academic libraries provide information access to their constituents. J. Marshall.

Waddell, Bonnie. Remote Distance / Continuing Education Information Support Project: Library Services for Distance Education Students. Office of Learning Technologies, Human Resources Development Canada Project #21021. Truro, NS: Nova Scotia Agricultural College, 2004. 23 pp. Online. Available: http://www.novanet.ns.ca/distance/OLTFinal.pdf (in pdf format)
The Office of Learning Technologies, Human Resources Development Canada, funded a two-year project aimed at eliminating barriers for Novanet distance education students and improving their ability to access information to support their course work. A comprehensive needs assessment identified four areas for examination: discipline-specific electronic book collections, online tutorials, live help/chat reference, and electronic reserves. This general overview of the project includes activities charts, outcomes, and recommendations. A. Lawrence.

Waddell, Bonnie and others. Remote Distance / Continuing Education Information Support Project Final Report – Part 1: Year 2: Pilot Project Summary. Office of Learning Technologies, Human Resources Development Canada Project #21021. Truro, NS: Nova Scotia Agricultural College, 2004. 25 pp. Online. Available http://www.novanet.ns.ca/distance/Pilot_Project_Final_Report1.pdf (in pdf format)
In an effort to improve library support for Novanet distance learners, the Office of Learning Technologies, Human Resources Development Canada, funded a two-year project to identify the most vital areas of need and to devise ways to meet those needs. The project concentrated on four areas: discipline-specific electronic book collections, online tutorials, live help/chat reference, and electronic reserves. This summary of the experiences of the four team groups includes their activities, the issues each group faced and resolved, anticipated and unanticipated outcomes, recommendations made, and suggested ways to make each area sustainable beyond the project time and funding period. A. Lawrence.

Waddell, Bonnie and others. Remote Distance / Continuing Education Information Support Project Final Report – Part 2: Year 2: Pilot Project Summary. Office of Learning Technologies, Human Resources Development Canada Project #21021. Truro, NS: Nova Scotia Agricultural College, 2004. 80 pp. Online. Available http://www.novanet.ns.ca/distance/Pilot_Project_Final_Report2.pdf (in pdf format)
Four pilot projects aimed at providing better library services to Novanet distance learning students were evaluated by a consultant who was hired to implement the process. The four projects were (1) discipline-specific electronic book collections, (2) online tutorials, (3) live help/chat reference, and (4) electronic reserves. During the first phase of the evaluation, students participated in a program simulation on campus and then evaluated the program. In the second phase, participants completed a short exercise from an off-campus location to test their satisfaction with the program from home. While the number of students participating in the evaluation process was too small for results to be generalized, the findings could be helpful in the improvement of services. A. Lawrence.

2003

Hoffmann, Lynn. “Collaborate, Communicate, Celebrate: Successful Delivery of Library Services for the Distance Learner.” Paper presented at Distance Learning 2003: The 19th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 13-15, 2003, Madison Wisconsin.
Problems accessing library services encountered by nontraditional and distance education students in the Nursing program at Slippery Rock University prompted collaboration between librarians and instructional faculty. Regular meetings between librarians and Nursing faculty were established through which problems with traditional delivery systems were identified and addressed. Collaborative efforts resulted in improved user authentication, increased online nursing journal and book collections, augmented technical support, and expanded levels of reference and instruction services provided online and via fax and toll-free phone. Ongoing communication between librarians and faculty is emphasized as crucial in identifying problems and continually improving library services to distance learners. J. Markgraf.

Mcswiney, Carolyn and Stephen Parnell. “Transnational Expansion and the Role of the University Library: A Study of Academics and Librarians in an Australian University.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 4 (2003): 63-75.
As the University of South Australia has continued to expand its course offerings to offshore clientele, the information needs of that clientele have become more complex and demanding. In 2002 the University’s library commissioned a report which was expected to act as a catalyst for the library and its activities, to make the University community more aware of the library’s services, and to clarify the faculty’s thinking on offshore education and their expectations of the library. Discussions were held between librarians and more than forty academics from the four Divisions of the University, focusing on the seven outcomes that the University has adopted for its graduates. It was agreed that parity of library services for all University students is of primary importance and that there should be a strong partnership between academics and the library. Strategic plans were made to support the graduate qualities. A. Lawrence.

Rodman, Ruey L. “Cost Analysis and Student Survey Results of Library Support for Distance Education.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 91, no. 1 (January 2003): 72-78.
In 2001, the Prior Health Sciences Library at the Ohio State University (OSU) provided support for a pilot program of distance-education courses, including the development of a library WebCT presence. Costs to the library to support this program are calculated by analyzing staff time devoted to general librarian activities (such as orientation, training, and web development), e-mail reference service, document delivery, and electronic reserves. Total costs for three courses with twenty students were $1,876.24, yielding an average of $625.41 per course and $93.81 per student. The results of a six-question student evaluation are described, covering reported problems, the library’s WebCT presence, orientation sessions, and specific library services. J. Brandt.

Watson, Elizabeth F. Developing Library and Information Services for Distance Education. Knowledge Series. Vancouver, BC: Commonwealth of Learning, 2003.
This guide is part of the Commonwealth of Learning’s Knowledge Series, which publishes discreet guides in various areas of distance education practice and delivery. The author explains that distance education students need libraries and librarians as much as traditional on-campus students do. She then proceeds to outline, in a bulleted format, the numerous factors that make a successful service, starting with establishing guidelines that meet the institution’s mission and programs and also adhere to professional requirements and standards. There is an excellent section on planning distance library services that discusses cost considerations and effective public relations to educate students, administrators, and faculty about the benefits the library offers to distance education students. The author then rounds out the topic by considering the importance of timeliness, quality, and use of a personal touch in document delivery, reference, database searches, and bibliographic and literacy instruction. She also discusses technology, especially in developing countries, and ways to overcome challenges a librarian may face in providing library services to distance students. E. Onega.

2002

Algenio, Emilie R. “The Virtual Reserve Room: Extending Library Services Off-Campus.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 11-18. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 15-25.
The University of Massachusetts Amherst developed an electronic reserves program after carefully evaluating the features of available systems. Distance education programs were a major consideration during planning and development of the program. The author discusses the research, implementation, and initial evaluation of the system, which became operational in 2001. Complying with copyright law is one of the major ongoing issues that will be faced by all who provide and use electronic reserves in the foreseeable future. The author identifies several important factors to consider when undertaking an electronic reserves system: campus environment, resources, time, money, copyright, marketing, service guidelines, faculty relations, and students. Issues related to electronic reserves are continually developing and changing. The author suggests some future trends in this type of service. J. Marshall.

Ault, Meredith. “Thinking Outside the Library: How to Develop, Implement and Promote Library Services for Distance Learners.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 27-33. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 39-48.
It is important for libraries to develop effective, high-quality services to distance learners. The author describes the process of designing services; the components include defining who the distance learners are, identifying their needs, developing a resources and services plan, becoming aware of potential barriers, and implementing and promoting the resources and services. The author also advocates methods for pacing the planning and implementation of the service offerings for maximum effectiveness. Professional guidelines such as those issued by ACRL and the expectations of the regional accrediting agencies will serve to heighten the future importance of a careful planning process. J. Marshall.

Baird, Constance M. and Pat Wilson. “Distance Learning Librarian: Essential Team Member in Distance Learning Design.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 35-40. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 49-57.
In 1998 the University of Kentucky created the Distance Learning Technology Center (DLTC), comprised of all campus groups who support distance education students. The DLTC is housed in the William T. Young Library, and the librarian who heads the Distance Learning Library Services unit is also a Director in the DLTC. The group has committed itself to providing a complete suite of services and products for distance learners through collaboration among dedicated professionals. The authors describe the concepts underlying the work of the DLTC. They also detail some of the specific projects that have been developed by its participants. The DLTC staff and faculty are looking forward to the challenges presented by the evolving distance learning environment. J. Marshall.

Barsun, Rita. “It’s My Library, Too, Isn’t It?” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 41-60. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 59-82.
Distance education students sometimes seek to fill their research needs at public libraries or at local academic libraries that are convenient to their places of residence. According to available guidelines, the library of the institution that is offering the degree is responsible for providing or coordinating the provision of library services to its own students, no matter where they are located. The author discusses several types of services and agreements that may be arranged among libraries to serve these students, including consortial agreements and those agreements between two libraries. The author states that there are reasons why it may be beneficial to the student to use a local library in addition to the services offered by the home institution. Several appendices include sample agreements and considerations for dividing services between an academic and public library. The author includes a lengthy list of references. J. Marshall.

Buchanan, Elizabeth. “Institutional and Library Services for Distance Education Courses and Programs.” In The Design and Management of Effective Distance Learning Programs, edited by Richard Discenza, Caroline Howard, and Karen Schenk. London: Idea Group, 2002, 141-154.
In this chapter, the author contends that the number of institutions offering distance education programs continues to rise, yet often sufficient formal planning is lacking, which may deprive the distance student of the necessary services and support. Planning, clearly stated institutional goals, communication, training, and assessment mechanisms must be established for the success of distance education programs. Universities can facilitate distance education endeavors by implementing and providing sufficient academic advising, establishing voluntary peer networking and Student-to-Student Services, and ensuring that required course materials are prepared well in advance of the beginning of the course. In keeping with ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services, the author states that proactive librarians should nurture partnerships with other libraries, promote and provide efficient electronic resources and library Web pages, and employ a full-time distance education librarian. It is suggested that one year’s preparation is required for the preparation of distance education courses; however, too often though, a year’s time is not always available. The author suggests a series of five steps that institutions may use to guide a distance education program’s initial orientation stages through the latter stages of needs assessment, review of institutional goals and implementation of new programs. A Sample Institutional Checklist is included. M. Thomas.

Casey, Anne Marie and Pamela A. Grudzien. “Increasing Document Delivery to Off-Campus Students Through an Interdepartmental Partnership.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 111-117. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 137-145.
The library at Central Michigan University provides services to off-campus students through a department of Off-Campus Library Services (OCLS). There is a Document Delivery Office (DDO), separate from Interlibrary Loan (ILL) that has sent materials to distance education students. The authors describe the genesis and progress of a partnership between the DDO and ILL. This partnership has increased the fill rate of document delivery to distance students. It has also led to more partnerships between OCLS and other library departments. Since OCLS has its own budget, these collaborations may lead to enhanced services through and increased ability to purchase desirable products for services to students. J. Marshall.

Chakraborty, Mou and Johanna Tuñón. “Taking the Distance Out of Library Services Offered to International Graduate Students: Considerations, Challenges, and Concerns.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 131-139. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 163-176.
Provision of library services for distance education students based in different countries poses new challenges and issues for librarians to consider. The authors discuss many of these challenges and some possible solutions in the context of services offered through Nova Southeastern University. They cover topics such as document delivery of print resources; online access; issues in trying to set up formal agreements with local libraries; whether to keep a local reading room with resources for some programs; reference and library instruction; courses offered in languages other than the primary language of the home institution; and cultural and political sensibilities. They conclude that even when expending great effort, it is possible that equivalent access and services may remain a desired rather than an attainable goal. J. Marshall.

Cother, Christine and Stephen Parnell. “Quality Assurance and Models of Service in an Environment of Change.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 151-163. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 189-206.
Universities’ competition for students is accelerating, in an environment where the numbers of online courses and curricula are increasing. Quality in distance education programs and services is important. At the University of South Australia the Distance Education Library Service developed quality assurance measures and indicators for services to students. The authors discuss several aspects of quality assurance, including how to define quality. The environment for quality assurance in Australia is described, and the authors argue for the importance of providing quality services. Measures of quality are an essential component of a quality assurance process, as is risk management. Librarians must work with teaching faculty to assure quality in course delivery and to integrate information literacy principles into the courses. Quality in library information services is also very important. The authors conclude with a discussion of the place of statistics in quality assurance. J. Marshall.

Dew, Stephen H. “Documenting Priorities, Progress, and Potential: Planning Library Services for Distance Education.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 173-191. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 217-242.
Development of a written plan that “addresses the needs [of the distance learning community] and outlines the methods by which progress can be measured” is a recommendation of the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Education Library Services. The author advocates the usefulness of such plans, using as a case study the plan he has written at the University of Iowa. He details the considerations that went into the plan and describes its benefits. Benefits include the enhancement of the distance education library services coordinator’s ability to set priorities and to communicate the services’ importance to university and library administrators. The description of the sections of the plan, and a copy of the plan itself that is included as an appendix to the paper, serve as testimonials to its utility. The plan may be used as a model for other libraries that serve distance learners. J. Marshall.

Duesing, Ann. “Community Connections in Off-Campus Outreach Services.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 213-219. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 269-278.
The author describes collaborative activities of the University of Virginia Health Sciences Library’s Outreach Librarian, who works to integrate outreach information services into community health projects. She focuses on four projects that demonstrate how the library’s services extend beyond the needs of students in distance learning programs, to also encompass services to medical residents, teachers, health care providers, health organizations, community health coalitions, consumer/patient groups, and public or school librarians. Activities in all of these areas have led to growth in the library’s health information outreach services. Through these services new pathways to community health information are being created. J. Marshall.

Gadd, Elizabeth. “Meeting the Library Needs of Distance Learners Without Additional Funding.” Library Management 23, no. 8/9 (2002): 359-368.
Ideally libraries receive additional funding for distance learning library services through the institutional administration. In reality, not all libraries are able to obtain extra funding. The author discusses this issue through the example of Loughborough University (UK). She describes the research and report of a distance learning working group established by the university’s library. The group was charged to study the progress of development of distance learning programs at the university and to recommend library services that should be added or enhanced. After surveying various groups of students and faculty, the working group recommended several services enhancements or new services. The recommendations fell into three funding categories: free services, to be added at little extra cost; added value services, to be provided for a fee; and investment services, for which the library would need extra resources. The author thoroughly describes the working group’s process, providing a case study from which others might gather ideas. J. Marshall.

Jerabek, Judy Ann and Lynn M. McMain. “The Answer You Get Depends on Who (and What) You Ask: Involving Stakeholders in Needs Assessments.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 301-307. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 387-395.
Needs assessments are valuable tools for identifying the needs of students, faculty, and others involved in distance learning programs. A needs assessment requires broad participation by “stakeholders.” That term originated in the fields of business and management. The authors define the term and explain who stakeholders are and why they should be involved in a needs assessment. They explain the necessity for asking different questions of different groups of stakeholders, and suggest methods for increasing stakeholder participation in a needs assessment. A list of references for further reading is included. J. Marshall.

Jerabek, J. Ann, Lynn M. McMain, and James L. Van Roekel. “Using Needs Assessment to Determine Library Services for Distance Learning Programs.” Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Information Supply 12, no. 4 (2002): 41-61.
The steps in conducting a needs assessment study to plan for library distance learning services are outlined. First, the authors define the pre-assessment phase of the process as assigning responsibility, defining the purpose, establishing a time frame, defining target groups and selecting a methodology. The next step is selecting appropriate data collection tools. Surveys, the Delphi technique, interviews and focus groups are described, along with their respective advantages and disadvantages. The authors then discuss the importance of constructing questions, promoting the assessment and providing incentives for participants. The stage of assessing, compiling and analyzing the data is followed by the final stage of reporting on the findings. The authors emphasize the importance of disseminating the results of the needs assessment not only to stakeholders but also to other librarians. J. Markgraf.

Johnson, Ken. “Library Services for Distance Learners at Drexel University’s LeBow College of Business.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 141-154, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 141-154.
Many business schools are adding online degree programs, particularly at the MBA level. The author discusses how one library has developed services to serve its university’s business students who are distance learners. He addresses some service issues that are similar to those encountered with other types of distance learning programs, and some that are unique to distance programs in business. One problem that may be encountered more often with MBA programs than with others occurs when an employer furnishes a home computer with Internet access to the student, and although working from home the student encounters the corporation’s computer system firewall. The author proposes resolutions to these and other challenges of access or technology. He also describes the library organizational model at Drexel University that is used for providing library services to distance learners and other remote users. J. Marshall.

Jones, Marie F. “Help! I’m the New Distance Librarian – Where Do I Begin?” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 309-319. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 397-410.
Librarians who enter positions as distance learning librarians often do so with no previous experience or training in distance learning library services. The author presents the results of a survey of practicing distance learning librarians. She asked just one question: “If you were to offer advice to a brand new distance education/extended campus services librarian, what would that advice be?” She synthesized the results of the survey and presents the answers organized in conceptual groupings such as networking and communication, marketing, gathering information, and evaluating policies. She notes that the main piece of advice gleaned from the study is to become involved and visible to others on campus. J. Marshall.

Kupferberg, Natalie. “Going Virtual: A Non-traditional Approach to a Pharmacy Degree.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 341-349. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 437-449.
Ohio State University began offering a Doctor of Pharmacy degree online in January 2001. After considering their educational environment and the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services, librarians at OSU’s Biological Sciences/Pharmacy Library developed a full program of distance library services for students in the new program. The author describes the process of and rationale for the offering of each service. She provides results of a survey that was given to students attending the first course offered through the program. She adds some advice for librarians who may find themselves involved in a distance education program from its inception. J. Marshall.

Markgraf, Jill S. and Robert C. Erffmeyer. “Providing Library Service to Off-Campus Business Students: Access, Resources and Instruction.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 99-114, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 99-114.
The conversion of a course to an online and asynchronous environment poses challenges for the provision of library services. This challenge is heightened if the course is one that has traditionally required intensive, in-person library research. Librarians at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire met this challenge by working with faculty teaching the course to ameliorate the assignment for the online distance learning environment. In addition, librarians improved online instructional materials, keeping in mind the nature of the marketing students taking the course. The author recommends several steps libraries should take to improve services to distance education students. These include finding adequate funding; simplifying remote access to library resources; testing the technology early in the course; providing reference services when the students need it; providing document delivery services in a timely manner; and improving online instructional materials for distance education courses. J. Marshall.

Markgraf, Jill S. “Collaboration Between Distance Education Faculty and the Library: One Size Does Not Fit All.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 351-360. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 451-464.
Distance education librarians often must think creatively in order to find ways to develop collaborative relationships with faculty who teach distance learners. At the University of Wisconsin &endash; Eau Claire there is no centralized coordinating unit for distance education curricula, so it became even more important to reach out to the faculty teaching the courses. The author promoted services in a variety of ways, including articles in campus newsletters, campus presentations and workshops, connections with staff members who support the distance education faculty, promotional/informational brochures, and email notices to distance education faculty members. She lists several needs of faculty members; the list is based on the findings of several published studies. The author’s experience indicates that development of collaborative relationships happens incrementally, and must be based on the needs and interests of the parties involved. J. Marshall.

Parnell, Stephen. “Redefining the Cost and Complexity of Library Services for Open and Distance Learning.” International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 3, no. 2 (October 2002). Reprinted in New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 3 (2002): 43-60.
The cost of library services to support distance education is difficult to calculate, and past research has focused on measuring direct costs to the library. The author asserts these measures ignore the costs borne by elements outside of the library, including other departments, other universities, outside organizations, and the students themselves. The paper suggests a majority of distance learners may not utilize the services of their home library, and discusses the role libraries have in supporting distance learners. Other institutions that bear considerable cost in supporting distance learners include public libraries and other universities. The variety of costs to students, in both time and money, are discussed. Infrastructure and hidden costs within institutional libraries are also highlighted. Further research is necessary to address pedagogical, ethical, and equity issues raised by limitations in library services for distance learners. J. Brandt.

Riedel, Tom. “Added Value, Multiple Choices: Librarian /Faculty Collaboration in Online Course Development.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 369-375. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 477-487.
Distance learning courses present a challenge to librarians who want to inform students about available library resources and instruct both students and faculty in their use. It can be difficult for librarians to become involved in program planning and curricular development early enough so that library resources and services can be planned to support new programs. The author delineates the strategy that he used to develop a collaborative relationship for online course development with distance education faculty at Regis University. He describes the particulars of three differing courses that required varying strategies for information provision and instruction. A variety of upcoming changes to electronic access were taken into consideration when developing the courses. The benefits of this sort of approach to faculty collaboration are described. J. Marshall.

Stratford, Sandra K. “Surviving a Distance Learning Accreditation Visit.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 377-387. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 489-501.
Regional accreditation agencies have begun to closely examine the distance education offerings of universities. If the number of distance education courses offered through an institution makes up a large percentage of the entire curriculum, the institution may be subject of a special distance education accreditation review. In 1998 Columbus State University in Georgia became the first higher education institution in the state to undergo a distance learning accreditation review by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). The author describes the preparation for the accreditation review, focusing on the library’s participation. She conveys lessons learned through the accreditation visit, and details what the library did right in order to highlight its accomplishments and to be cited as excellent in the exit conference at the end of the accreditation visit. J. Marshall.

Waddell, Bonnie R. and others. Discussion Paper: Distance Education Stakeholder’s Forum, May 27-28, 2002, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Truro, NS: Nova Scotia Agricultural College, 2002. 45 pp. Available from: Bonnie R. Waddell, MacRae Library, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS, Canada B2N 5E3.
The Novanet consortium of ten academic libraries in Nova Scotia recently identified services to distance education students as an area with which it wished to better assist its member libraries. A working group developed a survey to be sent to distance students and faculty served by the member libraries. As a result of the survey, the authors have identified key issues relating to distance education library services and also list a number of issues that would need to be addressed to improve information support for distance education. They include detailed analysis of the survey results, along with text of comments submitted by survey respondents. J. Marshall.

Witten, Shelle. “Being RAD: Reference at a Distance in a Multi-campus Institution.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 423-438. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 549-567.
The author describes a virtual reference pilot project underway at the Maricopa County Community College District (MCCCD) in Arizona. The district is comprised of 10 accredited colleges, two skill centers, and several education centers. The virtual reference service, Librarians Online, began in spring 2001 with the initiation of a chat service using AOL Instant Messenger and the collaborative web-browsing product called Hipbone. Due to a significant funding increase for virtual reference, the service began using LSSI software beginning in fall 2001. The author describes the process of planning for the service and also gives some real examples of positive and negative aspects encountered during its operation. She predicts future trends in the service as offered at MCCCD. J. Marshall.

2001

Bremner, Alison. “Letters from America: Developing a Virtual Library for the USA.” Impact: The Journal of the Career Development Group 4, no. 6 (November/December 2001): 113-114.
The United States Open University (USOU), a non-profit distance learning institution, was developed from the Open University in the United Kingdom. Librarians at the U.K.’s Open University provide library services to the USOU. The services are entirely virtual, and are based on the ACRL Guidelines for Library Services to Distance Learners. The author briefly describes the process of planning for services and mentions that the institution has been seeking accreditation from the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools in the U.S. Specific databases and other services are also mentioned, as are the lessons that have been learned so far in providing this kind of library service. J. Marshall.

Burnett, Kathleen and Marilia Painter. “Learning from Experience: Strategies for Assuring Effective Library and Information Services to Web-based Distance Learners.” Paper presented at the ACRL 10th National Conference: Crossing the Divide: Denver, Colorado, March 15-18, 2001.
A five-year case study of library services for Florida State University (FSU) School of Information Studies distance learning programs provides the context for observations made on the provision of library services for distance learners. The roles of FSU libraries, the Florida Center for Library Automation, the Florida Distance Learning Reference and Referral Center, and the School of Information Studies are described. The results of a “virtual Internship” to provide more personalized distance education library service are discussed. Finally, FSU distance education library services are examined against the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services in areas of management, finances, personnel, facilities, resources, documentation and library education. J. Markgraf.

Culpepper, Jetta Carol. “Pragmatic Assessment Impacts Support for Distance Education.” Collection Management 26, no. 4 (2001): 59-71.
While much has been written on library services supporting distance education, less has been written about assessment of those services, contends the author. A two-year assessment of library support for off-campus students and faculty at Murray State University (MSU) in Kentucky is described. The assessment includes results of a survey, as well as comments and questions received and informal observations made by staff. Results of the study indicate that a majority of students surveyed used a library for research, including school and public libraries in addition to the main campus library and the Kentucky Virtual Library (KVL). Students were most pleased with online resources and least satisfied with monograph collections. Extended-campus faculty and staff indicated high levels of satisfaction with library support and services. Among changes made as a result of the assessment, the MSU library converted CD-ROM subscriptions to Internet subscriptions, posted more instructional and publicity information on its website, and continues efforts to build its book collection. J. Markgraf.

Goodson, Carol. Providing Library Services for Distance Education Students: A How-To-Do-It Manual. How-To-Do-It Manuals for Librarians, no. 108. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2001. 227 pp. ISBN 1-55570-409-3.
The author has tried to find a comprehensive guide for providing library services for distance education students. Her quest was unsuccessful. Her vision for such a guide led her to write this basic manual. Many librarians who enter distance education library services have little background in education or specialized training to prepare them for understanding the special service needs of students in these programs. The author discusses strategic planning for and coordination of services. She describes some current services that may be used as models, and provides an extensive list of resources that are also maintained in web format. She discusses official standards and guidelines of professional organizations and accrediting agencies. She also follows the history of distance education library services through the 20th century. Sample policies, procedures, handouts, and request forms are also included. J. Marshall.

Livesey, Suzanne and Peter Wynne. “Extending the Hybrid Library to Students on Franchised Courses; User Profile, Service Implementation Issues and Management Strategies.” Library Management 22, no. 1/2 (2001): 21-25.
Hybrid libraries are those that provide access to print and electronic material from a single interface. HyLife, a hybrid libraries project, was funded by the UK eLib Programme. It was implemented at several universities in Great Britain. In the implementation at the University of Central Lancashire, provision of services to students in franchised courses was the project’s main object. The authors discuss the characteristics of students who take franchise courses, and compare these with the characteristics of distance learners. Many are similar, but distance learners tend to be graduate students, with franchise students tending to be at the undergraduate level. The authors also discuss the importance of empowerment of the user in the implementation of hybrid libraries. They conclude with a discussion of management strategies, focusing on the case of the library services of the University of Central Lancashire. It is important to promote services effectively, to enhance skill and confidence among the users of electronic services, and to provide an adequate technological infrastructure. J. Marshall.

McCarthy, Jenny. “QUT Library’s Support for Flexible Delivery: Integrated Planning for an Integrated Service.” In Partners in Learning and Research: Changing Roles for Australian Technology Network Libraries, edited by John Frylinck. Adelaide: University of South Australia Library for Librarians of the Australian Technology Network, 2001, 57-76.
Described in this article are the Queensland University of Technology Library’s efforts at providing to its distance education students a flexible and integrated learning environment. The Library’s Strategic Plan illustrates its support for the University’s commitment to distance teaching and learning through the provision of electronic information resources, online reserves, and access to a number of full-text electronic materials. Traditional services at the University’s Branches are complemented by the use of technology, featuring the Library’s electronic resources and services offered via the Web. An information literacy plan was also established, encouraging the promotion of partnerships between library liaisons and the teaching faculty. A number of staff development opportunities were initiated to ensure maintenance of up-to-date skills and knowledge. M. Thomas.

RUSA Business Reference and Services Section. “Serving Business Distance Education Students: A Checklist for Librarians.” Reference and User Services Quarterly 41, no. 2 (Winter 2001): 144-158.
The Business Reference and Services Section (BRASS) surveyed librarians serving business Distance Education (DE) students to investigate if some unique aspects existed and were attention-worthy enough to create new guidelines. The results revealed some key points: MBA was the most common type of distance education, the home institution’s own state was the most commonly cited location for offering DE to the business students, and library services to distance students varied among different institutions. The predominant view in the survey was that there were no unique issues, but some comments indicated otherwise. By acknowledging issues unique to libraries and librarians serving business distance students and emphasizing important issues and challenges, BRASS developed a checklist, complementing the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. To better serve the business distance students, a virtual library tailored to their needs, is absolutely important. Coordination of existing library services (e.g. circulation, document delivery, reference assistance) should be adequate to support distant access. Access to electronic resources necessitates licensing and technical support issues. Relationships need to be fostered with faculty who are instrumental in promoting library services to the distance students. Serving international distance students is more challenging as issues revolving access to local library resources in students’ own country, technical problems, cultural communications barriers need to be resolved. The need to develop and promote a content-rich, user-friendly website specifically for the distance students and to have this as a link from the business school’s web page is paramount. A need for building partnerships and cooperative agreements with other libraries is essential. Future recommendations included accreditation standards, information literacy, copyright, and licensing which were identified as key areas of concern. M. Chakraborty.

2000

Adamson, Veronica. “What, No Library? The Development of a Library and Learning Resource Service for the University of the Highlands and Islands Project.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 1 (2000): 123-136.
Planners of the University of the Highlands and Islands Project (UHI) are designing and implementing a model to serve the dispersed and underserved population of university students in the North of Scotland. This area takes up almost half of the country, but until now has had no university of its own. Fifteen colleges and research institutions are collaborating on providing courses through the UHI Millennium Institute. Lifelong learning is an important concept underlying the development of UHI, which is planned not to fit into the traditional university model. The author describes the planning process for library services for UHI. The model for library services needed to have a distributed structure, mirroring the model used in UHI as a whole. Hiring of trained library staff was seen to be essential. Currently, there is a head of library services for UHI, and each participating institution provides a library contact person. A library catalog that reflected the holdings of collaborating universities was also essential to the concept of providing services. The library management system used for the UHI project is Fretwell Downing’s OLIB7 product. (In December 2002, the UHI Millennium Institute website at http://www.uhi.ac.uk/ states that the goal for separate university status is now 2007). J. Marshall.

Buchanan, Elizabeth A. “Going the Extra Mile: Serving Distance Education Students.” Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 3, no. 1 (Spring 2000). Online. Available: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/buchanan31.html
This article describes ways in which the university library can successfully accommodate the needs of the growing number of distance education students. Sufficient planning for Internet-based distance education is essential and the library, the instructors, and institution must coordinate their efforts at the earliest stages of the program’s development. The author mentions ACRL Guidelines and suggests some practical strategies for serving distance education students. These may include database vendors’ provision of sufficient access to electronic resources, the creation of a full-time distance education librarian position, the provision of timely access to reserve materials and other course materials, and the provision of toll-free numbers for reference questions. Institutional support for such services is also vital and the author suggests strategies for institutions to accommodate distance students, the provision of toll-free numbers, designation of a distance education contact person, and provisions for delivery of books and other course readings. M. Thomas.

Buchanan, Elizabeth A. “Going the Extra Mile: Serving Distance Education Students with Resources and Services.” Syllabus 13, no. 9 (May 2000): 44-47.
The number of colleges and universities that offer web-based distance learning opportunities continues to grow and the chances for their success and strength depend upon proactive planning, establishing and sustaining workable mechanisms and strategies for growth. Outlined in this article are a number of practical strategies suggested for teachers and instructors, libraries, and institutions. For example, instructors might see that course materials are prepared in advance, provide sufficient feedback and social interaction, and work in a weekly “reading day” to guard against burn-out. In addition to becoming involved in the early stages of the distance education program, the author suggests that libraries adhere to the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services to ensure access to library materials and collaborative opportunities with other libraries. Institutions might respond to the challenge of serving distance learners by providing toll-free numbers, e-mail, designated contact persons, and convenient mechanisms for obtaining ID cards, for example. Mechanisms such as these, as well as sufficient planning and commitment at all levels will help strengthen university distance education programs. M. Thomas.

Heller-Ross, Holly and Julia Kiple. “Information Literacy for Interactive Distance Learners.” In Teaching the New Library to Today’s Users: Reaching International, Minority, Senior Citizens, Gay/Lesbian, First-Generation, At-Risk, Graduate and Returning Students, and Distance Learners, edited by Trudi E. Jacobson and Helene C. Williams. The New Library Series, Number 4. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000, 191-219.
Information literacy instruction should be an integral part of a library’s service program for distance learners. The authors describe the administrative structures for providing services to distance learners in several organizations, each of whose constituencies has a different demographic makeup from the others. They propose that each of these can serve as a model for similar types of organization. They describe how information literacy and instruction programs for distance students relate to the same programs for on-campus students. Critical issues in organization, pedagogy, and logistics of these programs must be faced. The authors show how the model organizations have responded to these issues. In addition, they use the results of a survey of distance librarians to extrapolate trends in the provision of information literacy instruction for distance learners. J. Marshall.

Hufford, Jon R. “Planning for Distance Learning: Support Services and the Library’s Role.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 175-180. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 259-266.
Libraries should be involved with others from throughout their universities when planning distance education programs. It is best if librarians serve on committees that plan services beyond those that the library provides, so that library reference, instruction, and document delivery are incorporated as essential services for distance students. The author discusses the process of developing a vision statement at Texas Tech University, and the library’s role in helping to develop the vision. He also describes current services and plans for future library service offerings. It is essential that the library provide the best possible support for distance courses. The author provides much of the same information as in the article listed below, but this paper was written later and is more up to date. J. Marshall.

Hufford, Jon R. “The University Library’s Role in Planning a Successful Distance Learning Program.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 193-203, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 193-203.
The author has provided a longer version of the conference paper listed above. It includes a literature review and a more detailed description of the process of developing the vision of distance learning at Texas Tech University. J. Marshall.

Hughes, Carol Ann, Ilene Rockman, and Lizabeth A. Wilson. “Communicating Resource Needs for Successful Library Services.” The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances 13, no. 1 (2000): 10-15.
An understanding of the budget process at the institutional level is the first step in knowing how to influence the allocation of money to the library for projects and improvement of services. The authors generate several questions to ask and factors to consider about the budget process. They describe two case examples, including one that relates to distance education services, using a budget model from the University of Washington. This model identifies a baseline and also divides budget needs by classes with high library dependency, medium library dependency, and low library dependency. They advise libraries to follow best budget practices for the best results. J. Marshall.

Kearley, Jamie P. and Karen S. Lange. “Partners in Emerging Technology: Library Support for Web-Based Courses.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 181-189. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 267-280.
Collaboration between an academic library and university planners is essential for smoothing the planning for library services to support distance learners. Often, university administrators and those planning distance programs neglect to include the library until programs are already in place. At the University of Wyoming the library has a long history of participation in planning and providing library services for off-campus students. The authors describe and analyze the planning process that the university undertook in the early 1990s, as distance programs became more complex. They outline the steps taken, fitting them into a model proposed in a 1998 article by Hache. The outline includes: preparatory steps of planning; gathering of information and analysis; strategic choices; implementation of the strategy; and evaluation and control of the strategy. The authors also describe library developments related to university strategic planning, including transition to the virtual library; promotion of library outreach services; library instruction for distance students; and technological challenges. The authors strongly advocate the establishment of a comprehensive library outreach program, and close collaboration between the library and the institution’s distance education programs. J. Marshall.

Kopp, James J. “All Hands on Deck: Navigating the Political Waters of Off-Campus Library Programs.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 199-206. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 295-308.
The author uses a nautical metaphor to provide a framework for his discussion of political issues facing libraries that provide library services to off campus students. He covers the politics of language, information technology, consortia, resources, academia in general, and more. Librarians need to develop alliances on campus and with appropriate agencies and groups not affiliated with their universities. They should also pay attention to the political environment and actively make sure that their voices are heard. J. Marshall.

Long, Ann Walsh. “Is Your Library Ready for Distance Education.” AALL Spectrum (American Association of Law Libraries) 4, no. 8 (May 2000): 12-13, 17. Online. Available: http://www.aallnet.org/products/pub_sp0005/pub_sp0005_ProDev.pdf (in pdf format)
Law schools are beginning to experiment with distance education, but remain hesitant to endorse it. The American Bar Association (ABA) is exploring distance education issues and in 1997 issued Temporary Distance Education Guidelines for law schools experimenting in the delivery of distance education. Now, according to the author, is the time for law libraries to begin planning for the inevitable emergence of distance education in legal education. Among the steps that law libraries can take in preparing to serve a distant population are the identification of possible library partners, including legal and other libraries; assessment of legal collections at potential partner libraries; evaluation of online legal resources, including web sites and subscription databases; and consideration of the library’s role in assisting students and faculty with the technological aspects of distance education. The article concludes with a discussion of experimental distance education endeavors at West Virginia University College of Law. J. Markgraf.

Lowe, Susan and Joyce Rumery. “Services to Distance Learners: Planning for E-Reserves and Copyright.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 213-220. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 319-330.
Implementation of an electronic reserves system requires knowledge of copyright issues that must be addressed. Librarians from the University of Maine System investigated many issues and questions regarding e-reserves before recommending a copyright statement and guidelines to be used. The authors list many of the considerations that were addressed, and also list unforeseen problems that occurred as the system was implemented. At the time this paper was presented, the System was still waiting for the state legislature to issue guidelines and a list of requirements regarding distance education, electronic resources, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. J. Marshall.

McCloskey, Kathleen M. “Library Outreach: Addressing Utah’s ‘Digital Divide’.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 88, no. 4 (October 2000): 367-373.
The Outreach Program at the Eccles Health Sciences Library of the University of Utah is intended to address the “digital divide” between urban and rural health care practitioners. The urban health care centers have sufficient access to, and knowledge of, information technology and resources. The rural health care system, in contrast, suffer from limited budgets that limit their ability to subscribe to expensive resources or to pay for much staff training. The Outreach Program includes partnerships with three groups serving health professionals: the University of Utah Health Sciences Center, the Utah Area Health Education Centers, and the Utah Department of Health. The program provides training and resource services to health care professionals and to students in health-related distance learning programs. An outreach librarian travels around the state providing classes and training sessions. At the time the article was written, some digital initiatives were underway to provide web-based training modules. The training sessions have saved students and other health professionals a great amount of travel time and money, and have raised the knowledge levels among those who have participated. J. Marshall.

Middleton, Michael and Judith Peacock. “Library Services to External Students From Australian Universities: The Influence of Flexible Delivery upon Traditional Service Provision.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 205-217, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 205-217.
Distance education and library services for distance learners are well established in Australia. The increasing variety and flexibility of delivery methods are lessening the distinction between services for distance learners and on-campus students. A variety of types of library services are analyzed in the context of the Australian system of higher education. The authors argue that since distance learners are predominantly adult students, some provision should be made for delivering services designed for adult learners. They describe characteristics and needs of adult learners. After an overview of library services to adult learners in Australia, they conclude that distance learning library services are not being targeted specifically to adult needs. J. Marshall.

Prestamo, Anne. “If We Build It, Will They Come?” In National Online Meeting Proceedings – 2000: Proceedings of the 21st National Online Meeting, New York, May 16-18, 2000, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2000, 313-324.
The Digital Library Services Unit (DLS) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) began in 1999. The model used for the DLS is somewhat different than those used at other libraries that provide services to distance students. The mission of the DLS is to provide services to facilitate access to electronic and print library resources and other services to university-affiliated library users, no matter where they are located. The unit serves the needs of distance learners, but also addresses the needs of other users on campus who want access to resources from outside of the library building. The author details the mission and goals, planning process, policy development, and services offered by the DLS. She describes initial outreach and marketing efforts, as well as some statistics gathered during the first year of the service. Plans for expansion of services are also included. J. Marshall.

Sheu, Feng Ru and Paul Alford. “Making Them Work for the IST Online Program: A Case Study.” In Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the 23rd National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Denver, CO, October 25-28, 2000. ERIC ED 455 793.
Understanding the needs of participants in distance education programs is an important component in planning for library services to students and faculty. The Instructional Systems Technology (IST) program at Indiana University (IU) offers online distance education curricula. The authors, both graduate students at Indiana University, surveyed distance education students, faculty, administrators, and librarians with the intent of identifying important library services for all groups. Through a literature review and brainstorming the authors identify six categories of library services for distance learners. They interviewed thirteen people who were involved at a variety of levels with the IST program and the library, and then administered a written survey. The results are ranked by level of importance. The authors also discuss the differing expectations of distance education students and faculty as compared to librarians. They also comment on the services offered through the IU Libraries and identify needs that should be addressed. J. Marshall.

Smith, Rhonda M., Stephanie F. Race, and Meredith Ault. “Virtual Desk: Real Reference.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 245-252. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 371-382.
The Florida Distance Learning Library Initiative (DLLI) began in the late 1990s to provide services to distance learners enrolled at universities across the state. This ambitious project incorporated facets such as document delivery, interlibrary loan, library instruction, and reference services. The authors detail the concepts underlying the establishment of the DLLI, and also provide a fascinating case study of changes that were made to the plan, primarily due to variations in funding and escalating costs for electronic resources. Many components of the DLLI could be or have been also adopted in other states. The end of this paper discusses the services of the DLLI’s Reference and Referral Center (RRC), based in the University of South Florida’s library. Since this paper was presented, funding changes forced the closure of the RRC, in December 2001. The system for provision of other distance learning library services in Florida has also changed dramatically. Some of the URLs at the end of the paper no longer work, but more information about the RRC is available at http://www.rrc.usf.edu/ (Retrieved October 19, 2002). J. Marshall.

Swaine, Cynthia Wright. Challenges in Delivering Library Services for Distance Learning. Norfolk, VA: Perry Library, Old Dominion University, 2000. ERIC ED 438 837.
Providing services for distance education students is an activity that has an impact on all departments and functions of a library. The author outlines some of the considerations related to the challenge of providing services that are equivalent to the library services offered to students on campus. The author describes the special challenges that each department faces. She focuses on following guidelines and satisfying accreditation standards in order to meet these challenges. J. Marshall.

Tuñón, Johanna and Paul R. Pival. “Reaccreditation at Nova Southeastern University: How Reaccreditation Can Create Opportunities for Improving Library Services to Distance Students.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 273-282. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 409-424.
The authors offer the experience of the Einstein Library of Nova Southeastern University (NSU) as a case study of how their library used the accreditation process to develop a stronger partnership between the library and the university administration in funding for a variety of library services. NSU went through the reaccreditation process at a time when standards of library services to distance learners were changing dramatically. The university had recently changed in curricular ways as well, since the Nova University of the early 1990s had merged with Southeastern University of the Health Sciences to create NSU in 1994. The long tradition of NSU’s offering of curricula at remote sites continued, and they were developing newer program models as well. About half of NSU’s student body is enrolled in distance programs. The reaccreditation process was long and tortuous for NSU. This was due to the uniquely nontraditional nature of the university. The library’s services were thoroughly scrutinized by the librarians and by the accreditation team. Each group made several recommendations that improved services and led to better funding and better integration of the library into campus decision-making processes regarding distance education programs. J. Marshall.

University of Toronto Libraries. Library Council. So Near and Yet So Far: Reaching out to the Patron at a Distance. Report of the Task Force on Services at a Distance submitted to University of Toronto Library Council, March 2000. Online. Available: http://www.library.utoronto.ca/news/librarycouncil/distance/bigpicture.htm
A task force of the University of Toronto Library Council reports on its findings relating to the needs of and services to the distance patron. An in-depth literature review highlights four major themes: institutional support, global projects on networking and resource sharing, practical perspective with ‘hands-on’ advice, and recent conference reports describing the delivery services at a distance. The task force recommends the following issues be addressed by any organization that is planning to provide distance services: equitable service, adequate and well-trained staff, effective reference services, sufficient technological advances and finally, the barriers and challenges associated with providing such services. M. Chakraborty.

1999

Berry, Susan Sykes and Peggy Mullaly-Quijas. “So You Want to Provide Library Support for a Distance Education Program? A Blueprint for Getting Started.” In Distance Learning ’99: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 4-6 1999, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1999, 409-412.
The Health Sciences Library at the University of Missouri-Kansas City has developed several documents that may be used when planning new services for distance education students. The documents include topics such as considerations for librarians, considerations for faculty, a recommendation for addressing issues, a plan for services, and a budget. Brief synopses of the documents are included in this paper, with a few excerpts, e.g., a timeline for development of services. The presenters state that the full documents are available via email. J. Marshall.

Burch, Malcolm. “Funding Library Services for Distance Learners: ‘What’s the Problem?'” In Library Services for Distance Learners: Proceedings of the Seminar at University of Surrey, 13th January 1999, edited by D. A. Lock. Guildford: Information Services, George Edwards Library, University of Surrey, 1999, 23-31.
Rather than casting blame for inadequate funding of library services for distance learners over the years, the author chooses to focus on the factors that have shaped library funding policies and to suggest action for the future. Attitudes that have viewed distance learning courses and students as too different and difficult to deal with and politically unimportant have contributed to a lack of support. The development of distance learning courses without proper consideration of library resources is also noted as a contributing factor. Changes in higher education that focus more on independent learning have led to changes in the way libraries provide services. By becoming more responsive and accessible, libraries are blurring the distinction between services to distance learners and traditional students. Library managers are encouraged to demonstrate their expertise in understanding costs associated with distance learning, optimizing resources and advocating for adequate funding. J. Markgraf.

Caspers, Jean S. “Outreach to Distance Learners: When the Distance Education Instructor Sends Students to the Library, Where Do They Go?” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 67/68 (1999): 299-311, and Library Outreach, Partnerships, and Distance Education: Reference Librarians at the Gateway, edited by Wendi Arant and Pixey Anne Mosley. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 299-311.
Library research support for distance education students is the responsibility of the home institution’s library, according to the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. Some research points out that these students tend to use other sorts of libraries in an attempt to satisfy their research needs. Librarians at the home institution need to reach out to these students to promote their special distance education services. These services should be visible and accessible, and compatible with the students’ needs. The author proposes strategies for planning to offer services, for networking and communicating with distance education administrators, and for reaching out to faculty and students in these programs. Employing a variety of strategies for continuous communication is essential to the success of distance education library services. J. Marshall.

Naylor, Sharon and Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe. “But We Don’t Have a Million Dollars! Providing Distance Learning Library Services With Limited Budget and Personnel.” In Distance Learning ’99: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 4-6 1999, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1999, 493-497.
How should a library proceed if confronted with an expectation to support a new distance education program while receiving no extra funding to do so? The authors have generated many strategies for planning how to provide services and resources for distance education students. These include being aware of expectations, educating oneself on the issues, assessing the local situation, setting goals, and advocating for the services on campus and in the library. While targeted toward librarians who are new to providing these services, many of the guidelines are broad and could apply to already established programs as well. The authors urge librarians to educate the campus community and library colleagues regarding the issues involved in distance education library services. J. Marshall.

Rein, Laura O. and James L. Staley. “An Integrated Approach to Providing Library Support for Extended Campuses: The Webster University Experience.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 16 (1999): 195-221.
In the mid-1990s Webster University completely reorganized their method of providing library resources and services to students at the university’s many extended-campus sites. They changed from providing identical decentralized library collections at many extended sites to providing centralized integrated library collections and services through a website. The authors describe the planning process used to make this change. A Task Force surveyed the directors of extended campus sites; requested bids from contractors to provide remote access to databases; and proposed extra staffing for document delivery processing. The library designed Passports, an integrated online research system through a web interface. The library enjoyed support from the university’s academic affairs office, and secured funding from them for a software design firm to create a web-based training program for Passports. The development of Passports has had unforeseen benefits, in that it has revitalized the campus community’s interest in the library and has led to collaborations between faculty members and librarians. The authors cite the importance of a service philosophy such as is outlined in the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. It is also very important to gain budgetary and administrative support from campus leaders. J. Marshall.