2006

Sharifabadi, Saeed Rezaei. (Department of Library and Information Science, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran). “How Digital Libraries Can Support e-Learning.” The Electronic Library. 24, no. 3 (2006): 389-401.
This research paper provides a thorough review of the origin of digital libraries defines e-learning and presents terminology in the field. Also discussed are the benefits of e-learning for both students and instructors; the role of digital libraries, librarians and the institutions supporting this new type of learning are examined. The expectations of e-learners’ are included in this discussion; relevant literature is reviewed as to what is expected of librarians in this new environment, and the author urges librarians to keep in mind that e-learners are a wider community than just students. He challenges us as librarians that support e-learning, to rethink resources and services, and to broaden our role: instead of being gatekeepers, become gateways to information. Sharifabadi also stresses the importance of collaboration, not only within our institutions but outside them, including the publishers, vendors, and creators of e-resources. He encourages librarians to redefine their values and services, look for paths for collaboration, and to think creatively. R. Leech

2005

Arnold, J. M., Csir, F., Sias, J., & Zhang, J. “Does anyone need help out there? Lessons from Designing Online Help.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no 3/4 (2005): 115-134.
In response to the increase in the online access traffic experienced on their website, Marshall University Libraries (Huntingdon, WV) began developing an expanded online patron help service. The authors provide an excellent overview of the issues of creating and maintaining online help. Their inventory of tools for users is complete. The rationale for selection, organization, and user orientation are general and useful in understanding the range of choices. The organizational building process is clear and their explanation for their iterations and additions useful. M. Horan

Cassner, M., & Adams, K. E. “Academic library web sites for distance learners in greater western library alliance member institutions.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 3/4 (2005): 33-42.
In their introduction, the authors methodically define the various electronic communications platforms being used at the time of writing from chat to course management software links. The article works through an inventory of website characteristics created within a regional distance learning consortium. The pages illustrate a wide range of responses to the needs of their learners. Citing Stephen Dew’s recommendations for distance education websites, the authors indirectly imply that many fall short and they seem to recommend an increase in collaboration within the consortium would serve the consortium students better. The method of evaluation could be applied when comparing similar schools as well. M. Horan

Feeney, Mary. “Centralizing Information About Library Services and Resources: Delivering the Library to Users at Any Distance.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 1/2 (2005): 129-146.
The author is a University of Arizona (UA) librarian and the liaison to the UA School of Information Resources and Library Science (SIRLS). Students enrolled in the SIRLS program are classified as being either on-campus, off-campus, or distance. This article describes how the author focused on library services for distance students, promoted online resources, and eventually prepared a website especially for UA SIRLS distance students. Screen captures from the website are provided along with explanatory text. The conclusion of the article notes that efforts made to provide online resources and services to distance students can also be applied to the future of library access for all students regardless of location. This article is well written and organized and could be used as a model for other libraries seeking to expand their online presence for distance students. Throughout the article the author cites articles and studies that she used when planning, implementing, and promoting library services for SIRLS distance students. S. Heidenreich

Lippincott, Joan K. “Where Learners Go: How to Strengthen the Library Role in Online Learning.” Library Journal 130, no. 16 (2005): 35-37.
The author offers an expansive view of opportunities for libraries to meet online learners in the rapidly changing Internet environment. Citing increased reliance on the Internet by information seekers and evolving online trends such as social spaces and a growing wealth of freely available Internet educational content, Lippincott urges both academic and public libraries to creatively connect with learners. Libraries are encouraged to pursue options for increasing visibility by partnering with other academic or Internet entities and by publicizing services in physical environments where information seekers congregate. The article includes specific examples of innovative outreach at library websites. Although web user trends will change and new library web sites and services will develop, the author’s exhortation for libraries to reach out and connect with online learners has enduring relevance, particularly for distance learning librarianship. J. Hutton

2004

Black, Nancy E. “Blessing or Curse?: Distance Delivery to Students with Invisible Disabilities.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 33-45.
Students with learning disabilities are increasingly entering post-secondary education and some of those students will also be distance students. Librarians have already removed barriers for distance students in using the library for research and can adapt their experience to also work with students that have learning disabilities. The author includes a discussion of three studies that determined how beneficial instructional computer technology was to students with learning disabilities. Technology often benefited these students, even when the technology was not specifically designed for them. The pros and cons identified in the studies should be considered when librarians design web pages and seek ways to integrate technologies adapted for people with disabilities. In practical terms, librarians should assume that some distance students will have learning and other disabilities and be ready to help these students by working with people in their institutions that are knowledgeable about special needs and accommodations for students with disabilities. Librarians should also be aware of legislation, technology, and information from disciplines such as psychology and education that may affect our services. E. Onega.

Cassner, Mary, and Kate E. Adams. “Academic library web sites for distance learners in Greater Western Library Alliance member institutions.” I9, no. 3/4 (2004): 33-42. Published simultaneously in Internet Reference Support for Distance Learners, ed. by William Miller and Rita M. Pellen. New York: Haworth Press, 2004, 33-42.
The authors thoroughly examined the main web sites and distance education pages of 21 academic libraries. Seventy-five percent or more of the distance-focused sites included: a description of the scope of services and eligibility; an email link to the distance education library services coordinator; and links to the library’s catalog and the university home page. Fewer distance sites linked to liaison librarians, university services for distance learners, or information specifically for distance faculty. The authors sought reference-related information on the top pages of library web sites and often found: a site search or site index; library address; links to library instruction pages and electronic tutorials; subject pathfinders and guides to library research; access to electronic journals and e-books; electronic reserves; links to digitized collections; reference desk phone number; virtual chat reference; and more. Rare were proxy instructions for remote access, links to web search engines, links to course management systems, or toll-free numbers. Concluding that libraries now provide extensive resources and services to distance learners, the authors identify three trends. First, libraries will allocate more resources to interface and help systems that enable unmediated access to growing digital collections. Second, librarians will integrate library services into course management software. Third, through consortial collaboration libraries will provide more information products and maintain up-to-date expertise. S. Searing

Searing, Susan E. “All in the Family: Library Services for LIS Online Education.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 295-304. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 391-405.
Online distance education is an increasingly common method of educating of new librarians, but librarianship offers special challenges in distance education. The information literacy requirements of the curriculum, the need to understand the physical library, and the need to experience the ideals of the profession through interaction with professionals all require greater access to library resources than is the norm among distance education courses. Additionally, the students require access to profession specific literature rarely held by local university and public libraries. The author provides details about the services offered to LIS students enrolled in the LEEP program at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and observations on usage and appreciation of those services. C. Biles.

Washburn, Allyson and Jessica Draper. “80 Miles from the Nearest Library, with a Research Paper Due Monday: Extending Library Services to Distance Learners.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 383-402.
Brigham Young University supports a large population of distance learners, comprising close half of the student enrollment. The library, in response to the needs of the distance students, created a portal for the students taking English courses integrating an off-campus authentication system for access to electronic resources and library services including email and chat reference. The library also created course specific library pages to be integrated with web based courseware (Blackboard), and publicized to faculty and distance students the availability of the portal and courseware pages. In the final phase of the project, the library conducted extensive usability testing on the portal and specific course pages. This project was funded by an ALA grant funded by SIRSI. C. Biles.

2003

Shank, John D. and Nancy H. Dewald. “Establishing Our Presence in Courseware: Adding Library Services to the Virtual Classroom.” Information Technology and Libraries 22, no. 1 (March 2003): 38-43.
Supplemental course software packages (courseware) such as Blackboard and WebCT have been integrated into nearly one in five college courses. While many libraries have generally not participated in the development and implementation of courseware, the authors assert the importance having a library presence in this domain. Benefits to libraries include the ability to distribute resources (such as research guides and websites), extra communication tools, and a potential medium for assessment. The paper discusses options librarians have when working directly with individual faculty members, including online instruction, specialized pathfinders, links to databases recommended for specific assignments, guides to appropriate style sheets, access to an individual librarian, tutorials, quizzes, and student questionnaires. Working directly with faculty on specific courses is very time-intensive. The authors also discuss more general options including adding resources into the university’s general courseware interface, including links to the OPAC and databases, global pathfinders, a virtual reference desk, and document delivery services. J. Brandt.

2002

Jorgensen, Daphne. “The Challenges and Benefits of Asynchronous Learning Networks.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 77 (2002): 3-17, and Distance Learning: Information Access and Services for Virtual Users, edited by Hemalata Iyer. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 3-17.
This discussion of the pros and cons of asynchronous learning networks (ALNs), defined by the author as a “distance learning method…whereby students remotely access courses at their convenience using a computer with Internet access,” encompasses financial, technological, pedagogical and social issues. Citing studies that suggests ALNs are cost effective largely due to their scalability, the author counters that that the investment in time and effort on the part of the faculty in rethinking and adapting courses is significant. According to the author, the most effective online courses are those that create a collaborative learning environment and foster the building of community. Strategies to that end are presented. Concluding remarks suggest that advantages of ALNs outweigh the disadvantages, particularly for mature adult learners. J. Markgraf.

Prezatarcon, Adoracio. “Virtual Library: A Real Library?” Staff and Educational Development International 6, no. 1 (2002): 75-86.
Online networks show great promise to expand educational opportunities for a broader student population, but also pose significant challenges to the educational community. A case study of the Open University of Catalonia analyzes new roles librarians perform in an online, virtual environment. Topics discussed include new types of learners, an increase in the number of library users, reference services, and access to databases. J. Brandt.

Roberts, Sue and John Davey. “VLEs and Information Services: Redefining Distance Learning and the Role of Information Services Within the Virtual Learning Environment.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 73-84.
The Information and Media Services (IMS) staff of Edge Hill College in Ormskirk, England, collaborated with the Teaching and Learning Development Unit of the College to integrate electronic resources and information skills into a Virtual Learning Environment, in this case WebCT. Specific resources were embedded in the content for student use, but emphasis also was placed on activities to develop general skills for resource discovery through the World Wide Web and online databases. An introductory module on using the software and selected online resources gave students a strong foundation and confidence before starting the actual instruction. An important component of the program was staff development in online learning for all IMS staff. M. Nolan.

2001

Brophy, Peter. “Networked Learning.” Journal of Documentation 57, no. 1 (January 2001): 130-156.
A combination of a new emphasis on the need for life-long learning and the evolution of information and communications technology (ICT) has led to an increased focus on networked learning in higher education, allowing a wider economic and social strata and extended age groupings of people to take advantage of educational opportunities. Efforts in networked learning have concentrated on delivery systems rather than learning. Cognitive and learning styles, emphasis on the student, and multiple modalities of interaction play key roles in the effectiveness of a program. Traditional library instruction must be adapted to teach the information skills suitable for networked learning, just as traditional library reference must change to include new delivery methods. C. Biles.

Coté, Denise. “The Online College Library: An Exploration of Library Services to Distance Education Students.” Community & Junior College Libraries 10, no. 2 (2001): 61-77.
The College of DuPage Library in 1999 ran a pilot project to determine the need to package online resources and document delivery resources for the distance learner. The article briefly discusses and evaluates each service tried, then gives the results of two surveys of the users that were conducted to learn about students’ library use and their ability to manage technological issues involved in the project. One result of the latter was to abandon a separate web page for distance education users and to offer these services within the Library’s official website. M. Nolan.

Johnston, Pete. “After the Big Bang: Forces of Change and e-Learning.” Ariadne, no. 27 (March 2001). Online. Available: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue27/johnston/
Forces of change in higher education include both new forms of delivering learning and new groups of adult learners whose employers expect their continuous education. The impact of these changes on information managers in libraries, museums and archives in the United Kingdom is the focus in this article. The Higher Education Funding Council for England has proposed an “e-university” in response to commercial competition. A major challenge is provision of an extended digital resource base for such an e-university, equivalent to universities’ physical libraries and repositories. Both acquisition of materials and permissions to digitize, and development of flexible delivery options are essential. The learner will have to acquire and integrate available resources. This will require training in the use of the resources and better description of the resources by suppliers. M. Nolan.

Mackay, Mary. “Collaboration and Liaison: The Importance of Developing Working Partnerships in the Provision of Networked Hybrid Services to Lifelong Learners in Rural Areas.” Library Management 22, no. 8/9 (2001): 411-415.
The article reviews the implications and challenges for management and staff at the University of the Highlands and Islands Millennium Institute (UHIMI) as they strive to implement changes which will support students studying courses in remote, rural communities who previously had little or no library support. The author reflects on the findings of a project that undertook to provide access to networked hybrid resources to their distance students. Increased interaction and partnerships played an important role in the successful implementation of networked learning resources in a distributed environment. The article focuses on the need for increased interaction between all sites and staff involved in the implementation and provision of networked resources &endash; senior management, academic staff, lecturers, technical and library staff and the increased use of technology to facilitate this. Implications for staff development and training in a distributed networked environment such as the UHIMI are also examined. F. Devlin.

Morrison, Derek. “Project GOLD: Supporting Distance Learning Students.” Ariadne, no. 28 (June 2001). Online. Available: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue28/gold/
A description is providedof the pilot of University of Bath’s Centre for the Development of New Technologies in Learning’s ‘Project GOLD’ (Guidance Online for those Learning at a Distance), started in 1998. The challenge was to support use of technology by distance learning students who lacked the supportive IT infrastructure available on campus. Participants were Masters students based in the UK, Ireland and Iceland. Project GOLD employed a highly interventionist approach to equip and train students and their tutors in the use of Internet technology. Digging for GOLD, a multimedia CD of narrated video demonstrations proved very effective, along with a dedicated web site and web-based conferencing using WebBoard. The lessons learned were to “keep it simple,” to design for obsolescence, to design for the ability to scale, and to embed the technology in the educational processes so its use is essential to completing the class. M. Nolan.

Roes, Hans. “Digital Libraries and Education: Trends and Opportunities.” D-Lib Magazine 7, no. 7/8 (July/August 2001). Online. Available: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july01/roes/07roes.html
This article identifies strategic issues for libraries dealing with the changes in higher education due to the increased use of information and communication technologies. Since libraries in higher education exist to support research and education, they are now challenged to find ways to transform themselves in order to cope with the changes in our educational systems. After an thorough analysis of the nature of the challenges, the author identifies five major areas in which libraries can enhance services for their patrons: digital libraries and digital learning environments, digital portfolios, information literacy, collaborative course design; and the relationship between physical and virtual learning environments. M. Nolan.

2000

Clarke, Zoë and Monica Brinkley. “Management Information For the Delivery of High-Quality Library Services to Distant Users in the Hybrid Library Environment.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 266-275.
The EQUINOX project (11/98-11/2000), funded in part by the European Union, addressed the need for developing quantitative and qualitative performance measures of libraries’ electronic services. A preliminary set of 14 measures was drawn up and introduced at workshops to gather feedback, that is summarized here. The second goal of the project was to develop an integrated software system to facilitate application of performance measurement and quality management principles in libraries. Emphasis was on building a flexible, locally-tailored system that would run on platforms already in wide use in European libraries. M. Nolan.

D’Angelo, Barbara J. and Barry M. Maid. “Virtual Classroom, Virtual Library: Library Services for an Online Writing Laboratory.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 39, no. 3 (Spring 2000): 278-283.
The Online Writing Laboratory at the University of Arkansas uses a text-based MOO (Multiuser Object Oriented Environment) to bring together tutors and students from two community colleges in a virtual classroom environment. In the fall of 1997 a Library presence was added to offer research help. Links to pages of reference resources were tailored to the participating colleges. A reference desk and office hours gave “in person” access to a librarian. Among the problems encountered were the need for better communication between the librarian and the instructors, software problems, and the need for the librarian to be able to connect to resources offered only to affiliates of the other colleges. Possible solutions are provided. M. Nolan.

Edwards, Helen. “Helping the Librarian to Help the User: The HEADLINE Personal Information Environment.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 143-153.
Project HEADLINE (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment) is a research project sponsored by the UK’s eLib Programme. Its members are the libraries of the London School of Economics, London Business School and the University of Hertfordshire. The goal was to provide a Personal Information Environment (PIE) through which librarians could deliver to students, using a single login, personalized access to traditional and electronic resources and support services of their libraries. Resource descriptions, user data and management information in relational databases would allow users to connect to appropriate resources. The PIE would be a series of generic html pages that are to be filled with personalized resources data appropriate to the user and physical location. M. Nolan.

Fjällbrant, Nancy. “Information Literacy for Scientists and Engineers: Experiences of EDUCATE and DEDICATE.” Program 34, no. 3 (July 2000): 257-268.
EDUCATE (EdD User Courses in Information Access through Communication Technology) and DEDICATE (Distance Education Information Courses with Access Through Networks) were programs funded by the European Union and offered in Europe in the mid to late 1990s to help address the need for information literacy training for scientists and engineers. EDUCATE was developed to address subject-related issues of information literacy for scientists and engineers. The program resulted in the development of INTO INFO programs that provided pathfinders to help individuals learn about how to access and use relevant resources in science and engineering. DEDICATE was developed to train librarians so that they could design information literacy programs at their institutions. At the time of the writing of this article, the program was proved successful at the five test sites established in Central and Eastern Europe. J. Tuñón.

Fjällbrant, Nancy. “Networked Information Literacy: The European EDUCATE and DEDICATE Projects.” New Review of Information Networking 6 (2000): 53-60.
Two projects by the Union Telematics for Libraries, EDUCATE and DEDICATE, were designed to promote networked information literacy in Europe. EDUCATE or End-user Courses in Information Access through Communication Technology was a project developed by six European universities. It ran from 1994 to1997 as a multi-media information portal that could be used in subject-specific information literacy courses or by individuals as self-paced units. DEDICATE or “Distance Education Information Courses Through Networks” followed from 1998 to 1999 and was concerned with training the trainers to develop specialized information literacy courses at member institutions. Both projects were successful. EDUCATE resulted in a number of follow-up projects including DEDICATE while the DEDICATE Project was successful in bringing about networked courses that promoted continuing professional development. J. Tuñón.

Foster, Jonathan. “Virtual Universities – Institutional Issues for Information Professionals.” Ariadne, no. 25 (September 2000). Online. Available: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue25/foster/
In response to the Dearing Report’s review (NCIHE, 1997) of the British higher education system and its support for the new communication and information technologies, Foster identifies a number of institutional challenges facing information professionals. These include wider cooperation within the institution, design and delivery of resource-based learning methods, electronic access to networked resources, and institutional support for library and information services. Foster concludes that “the development of virtual education is an intrinsically collaborative problem.” M. Nolan.

Jackson, Maureen and Sandra Parker. Resource Based Learning and the Impact on Library and Information Services. IMPEL2 Project. 2000.
The IMPEL2 Project at the School of Information Studies, and Information Services Department, the University of Northumbria at Newcastle. England, studied the impact on students of electronic libraries. “Radical changes” in the UK Higher Education sector within the last ten years have shifted student learning to their own use of resources, usually electronic in format, rather than classroom lectures. Academic libraries must provide appropriate resources and access to them, as well as guidance, training and support. Some common attendant effects on library and information services staff are reorganization of services; dealing with technical requirements, licensing and networking; greater involvement in course development; increased importance of instruction of user’s for lifelong learning; and a need for multi-skilled, highly trained information staff. These in turn require a commitment by the parent institution to increased library funding, a comprehensive information strategy and the infrastructure to provide convenient access to the resources. M. Nolan.

Jung, Insung. “Technology Innovations and the Development of Distance Education: Korean Experience.” Open Learning 15, no. 3 (2000): 217-231.
Four technology projects to support distance education at Korea National Open University (KNOU) are described. Of the four projects, one involves a library of sorts, but not in the traditional sense. In 1992 KNOU implemented a text-based database containing supplementary learning materials, similar to electronic reserves. In 1997/98 KNOU built a web-based multimedia digital library system containing “all KNOU TV, radio, and cassette programs &endash; 760 hours of video and 4730 hours of audio materials.” While assessment has been performed on the other three technology projects, only anecdotal feedback is provided for the library-related projects. P. Pival.

Lawson, Mollie D., Linda Lillard, Patricia Antrim, and Susan Morgan. “We’re in This Together: Librarians as Co-Instructors With Classroom Faculty for Electronic Delivery.” In Distance Learning 2000: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 2-4, 2000, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000, 251-255.
A faculty member in the Nursing Department at Central Missouri State University asked the library’s liaison to the department to participate in her Nursing Research course taught through CourseInfo courseware. Co-instructor status gave the librarian full access to course components so she could provide web links tailored to the content and communicate easily with the students via email. She advertised help with research by postings on CourseInfo’s announcement board and by emailing each student. Only 52% of the 31 students in this course contacted the librarian, but there might be a future risk of her being overwhelmed by requests. An evaluative survey surprisingly showed only 36% of respondents felt they needed a real time interactive session with the librarian, and only 45% supported the idea of an online tutorial. M. Nolan.

Levy, Philippa. “Information Specialists Supporting Learning in the Networked Environment: A Review of Trends and Issues in Higher Education.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 1 (2000): 35-64.
Based largely on the results of a 1995-8 training and awareness project called NetLinkS, and extensive literature review, a case is made that as “networked learning” continues to increase, the role of the information specialist (librarian) will change considerably. Not only do librarians need to learn new skills, but the changing information environment means that in some cases, “librarians’ traditional ownership of areas related to information access and support is called into question.” Increasingly, librarians involved in distance education are more fully involved in the curriculum design process, working with both faculty and IT departments. Several areas of prominence are highlighted, including online reference, open learning resources such as virtual library tours, and information literacy courses. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) will continue to play a role in the way librarians interact with students, and in how libraries deliver services to distance students. P. Pival.

Perrone, Vye Gower. “The Changing Role of Librarians and the Online Learning Environment.” Paper presented at Distance Education: An Open Question? an international conference sponsored by the University of South Australia in conjunction with the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) held at the University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, 11-13 September 2000. Online. Available: http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/cccc/papers/refereed/paper34/Paper34-1.htm
In order to promote information literacy and provide library service, librarians at the University of Waikato in New Zealand served as Information Coaches for several different online classes. Information coaches reviewed research outlines, provided personal feedback to students, and monitored course discussions. With access to course readings, lectures, and discussion, librarians expanded their roles within a course and enhanced their ability to address information literacy skills. Factors that contributed to the success of the information coaches include specific research assignments for the students, participation in class discussions, including course instructors in communications, and developing a relationship with the course instructors. J. Brandt.

1999

D’Angelo, Barbara J. and Barry M. Maid. “MOOs and the Web: Combining Technologies to Provide Academic Support Services to Remote Students.” In Distance Learning ’99: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 4-6 1999, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1999, 141-145.
A description of ArkMOO (Arkansas Multi-user environment, object oriented), used for tutoring and library services for distance students, is provided. Originally built to offer writing tutoring to distance students, the library section was added a short time later in 1999. Free internet resources and assignment-specific information are included, though there are problems in that many of the students served do not have remote access to true library databases. Reference service is available both synchronously and asynchronously, though low-use of the synchronous service may mean its cancellation. Problems and enhancements to the service are discussed. P. Pival.

Logue, Susan and Barbara Preece. “Instructional Support in the Changing Library Environment.” Technical Services Quarterly 17, no. 1 (1999): 13-22.
Morris Library at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, has long offered technical support to faculty for the delivery of instruction. This article describes the changes made in their Instructional Support Services to accommodate off-campus resources and services. There are now two reference librarians cross-appointed to ISS, who review web sites and develop access to resources. Servers for faculty development trials, WebCT and web sites for courses are maintained by ISS. An ISS librarian administers the library’s main web site that provides access to electronic resources, forms and subject aids. Arrangements were made for IP authentication. A “Pathfinder” web site allows customized electronic subject lists of resources to be generated from a database built by subject librarians. A Library Lessons web site teaches how to research a topic, with interactive practice quizzes included. Perl programming was used to create a management system for providing electronic course reserves. M. Nolan.

Logue, Susan and Barbara Preece. “Library Services to Support Remote Students.” Resource Sharing & Information Networks 14, no. 1 (1999): 41-50.
At Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, reference and instructional support staff in the Library work together to assist remote users and their instructors. The Instructional Support Services unit of the Library added a librarian position, and two reference librarians were assigned part-time to ISS to develop technology-based projects to enhance reference services. Among new services are on- demand “Pathfinders” produced from resources, both electronic and print, added by subject specialists to a data file. Electronic reserve web pages are similarly created “on the fly,” using a Perl script to search the data file of reserve materials. ISS developed a method to automatically post testing data to course web pages and licensed WebCT courseware for faculty to develop courses. M. Nolan.

1998

D’Angelo, Barbara J. and Barry M. Maid. “Service From a Distance: The Use of Information Technologies in Support of Off-Campus Students.” Paper presented at the CAUSE98 Conference: The Networked Academy: Seattle, Washington, December 8-11, 1998. Online. Available: http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/html/cnc9847/cnc9847.html
While information technologies are being used for innovative forms of instruction, but academic support services for them is often an afterthought, even though accreditation agencies see such support as essential. ArkMOO (a multi-user object-oriented environment) was developed for graduate students from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock to provide virtual peer tutoring to students at Arkansas community colleges. A Virtual Library was added to ArkMOO as a logical extension of the tutoring project. Working together, teaching faculty and the librarian provide general and class-specific resources, and the librarian provides online reference help via the MOO. The Library “room” on the MOO contains Internet-based resources for each participating community college, based on course syllabi and assignments for each course taught during the semester. These resources can be used from a regular web page. A set of tutorials was added to enhance the Library’s use. Analyzing the problems encountered and the lessons learned, the article concludes that the new technologies for delivery work well. However, there are old-fashioned problems with institutions funded by differing constituencies being able to collaborate, and with creating a broad base of faculty expertise. Until the problems are addressed, the potential of emerging technologies will go unrealized. M. Nolan.

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