D’Angelo, Barbara J. and Barry M. Maid. “Beyond Instruction: Integrating Library Service in Support of Information Literacy.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 1/2 (2007): 55-63.
The authors describe challenges Arizona State University East’s Library Services faces in integrating library services into distance education classes in support of the shared information literacy commitment made with ASU East’s Multimedia Writing and Technical Communication Program. The lack of awareness by faculty and students of the Library’s resources is a central theme of the article. Many of the Program’s faculty teach online courses and never physically experience the Library which makes traditional awareness methods ineffective. Adjuncts who teach at irregular intervals also complicate awareness efforts. Raising awareness of Library resources among the non-traditional students who make up the majority of the Program’s student body is equally challenging. The authors discuss the impact that limitations in resources have on the Library’s ability to increase awareness and to integrate library services, but they are optimistic about future collaboration with the Program and offer positive next steps. T. Dickinson


Sacchanand, Chutima & Vipa Jaroenpuntaruk. “Development of a web-based self-training package for information retrieval using the distance education approach.” The Electronic Library 24, no. 4 (2006): 501-516.
This article provides an overview of a research project aimed at developing a self-training package for information retrieval to be used with junior library staff and library users in developing countries where the primary language is not English. The project is designed not only to provide continuing education opportunities to library staff, but also to increase the information seeking skills of students. In order to accommodate users who had limited access to the Internet, the program was not only delivered via the World Wide Web, but also on CD-ROM. The article includes a literature review, but does not consistently identify the research studies mentioned, so it was unclear as to whether these studies were conducted by the authors or by an outside source. While an overview of the project is provided, little explanation of the self training modules is given which results in the article seeming to provide a more superficial rather than detailed discussion of the project itself. The project itself is one of interest, but the article has been written in a style that periodically makes it hard to follow. E. Fabbro


Bury, S., & Oud, J. “Usability testing of an online information literacy tutorial.” Reference Services Review 33, no. 1 (2005): 54-65.
The implementation and results of usability testing of an online information literacy tutorial are studied. The authors researched the library literature and found much about the growth in online information literacy tutorials but almost nothing about usability assessment of such sites. Much wisdom was gained about usability testing of library web sites that helped to inform the authors’ subsequent work in designing the usability assessment carried out at Wilfrid Laurier University. One of the key findings used from the literature was that usability testing can be effective with only a small number of users – as few as five. Using the established principles of testing, the usability study was carried out and provided much insight and useful information that was ultimately used in the redesign of the Laurier Library’s Research Skills tutorial. A. Haynes

Hadengue, Véronique. “E-learning for information literacy: A case study.” Library Review 54.1/2 (2005): 36. Retrieved from Emerald Library Journals 27 February 2007.
The Universities of Lausanne, Geneva, and Montreal collaborated to create a full academic course teaching information searching to a distributed population of Economics, Dentistry, and Information Science students. The course took the form of an Internet-based computer assisted learning (CAL) project on information searching. Detailed information into how the course content was developed is included, including a discussion of how various educational theories are applied. The structure of the course design and the specific learning objectives for each instruction module are also covered. A brief discussion of the software platform chosen to host the course, including options available and the platform chosen is also included. N. Schiller

Kendall, Margaret. “Tackling student referencing errors through an online tutorial.” ASLIB Proceedings 57, no. 2 (2005): 131-145.
Using an action research model, a tutorial on citing sources using the British Standards style was implemented and studied. In the first part of the study, 116 students and 58 postgraduate students were given some face-to-face training and access to a print copy and an online booklet for doing proper citations. Their citations for various projects were scored. During Spring 2003 the Citing Proficiency tutorial was implemented using WebCT. Accessibility requirements were into account. Using WebCT’s tracking features, data were collected on whether students completed the entire tutorial, took all the quizzes, etc. Postgraduates’ citations improved more than the undergraduates which may have to do with motivation. In subsequent semesters, changes were made in the way the tutorial was presented. While some reduction in citation error was achieved, study of the data indicates that additional aids should be developed to improve student citations. Citing electronic resources correctly continues to be problematic. The project was successful enough to provide a model for tackling additional topics. I. Frank


Lillard, Linda L., Pat Wilson, and Constance M. Baird. “Progressive Partnering: Expanding Student and Faculty Access to Information Services.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 169-180. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 227-242.
Throughout 2003, a pilot project with a distance learning team consisting of a teaching faculty member, a distance learning librarian (DLL), and a distance learning administrator was run at the University of Kentucky. The DLL was given co-instructor privileges for several courses in the BlackBoard course management system, allowing her to be in much closer contact with both the faculty and the distance students than would otherwise have been the case. The DLL incorporated an information literacy module within the course, and several screenshots of this implementation are included. A survey was conducted at the end of each semester to record student reactions to the librarian consultation assignment. The results of the survey indicate that students appreciated the inclusion of the DLL in their courses. The project was considered a success, but some cautionary notes about workload in particular are expressed. P. Pival.

Lockerby, Robin, Divina Lynch, James Sherman, and Elizabeth Nelson. “Collaboration and Information Literacy: Challenges of Meeting Standards when Working with Remote Faculty.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 181-187. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 243-253.
National University in San Diego has had a Library Information Literacy Plan in place since 1999. The plan was revised in 2000, and it has slowly gained strength and profile across the main campus and at the Librarian Information Centers (LICs) supported by the home collection. Success stories from three of the nine LIC librarians are presented, as are challenges to the continued success of this initiative. Major successes discussed include collaboration with administration and faculty, teaching an information literacy course at an off-campus facility, outreach, and assessment of information literacy at remote campuses. P. Pival.

Needham, Gill. “Information Literacy – Who Needs It?” In Libraries Without Walls 5: The Distributed Delivery of Library and Information Services, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Jenny Craven. London: Facet Publishing, 2004, 109-119.
The United Kingdom lags behind North America and Australia in acknowledging the need for information literacy, and there is a lack of nationally accepted definitions and guidelines in the area. The Open University’s information literacy course is a 12-week for-credit online course offered twice a year and can be taken as part of a degree program or as a stand-alone. The majority of the students that took the two courses offered in 2002 were women ranging in age from 30 to 59 with a broad range of educational qualifications. An examination was done of student expectations for the course and whether or not these expectations were met. A. Lawrence.

Viggiano, Rachel G. “Online Tutorials as Instruction for Distance Students.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly Vol. 9, Issue 1 / 2 (2004): 37-54.
Delivering library instruction to distance learners presents challenges. The author examines the state of knowledge regarding the extent to which online tutorials can replace face-to-face library instruction for distance learners. The limited number of studies which compare the effectiveness of interactive online tutorials with in-class instruction demonstrate that the two modalities realize comparable success in teaching basic library skills. The author emphasizes that effective online tutorials require active learning opportunities that provide feedback to the users. An “informal survey” of 34 online tutorials from the ACRL PRIMO database (Peer-Reviewed Instructional Materials Online) found that most of the tutorials included interactive components (e.g. games, searches, mouse-over activities). On the other hand, this survey of online tutorials showed that few tutorials were designed specifically for distance learners. Viggiano applies the findings from her study to assess how to improve library services for distance learners at the University of Central Florida. The comments regarding the features of specific tutorials provide a helpful synopsis. P. Beale


May, Frances A. “Library Services and Instruction for Online Distance Learners.” In Integrating Information Literacy into the College Experience: Papers Presented at the 30th National LOEX Library Instruction Conference, edited by Julia K. Nims, Randal Baier, Rita Bullard, and Eric Owen. Library Orientation Series, No. 34. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press, 2003, 165-168.
University of North Texas librarians collaborated with teaching faculty to provide library and information literacy skills to students enrolled in an online class, “Issues and Trends in Merchandising and Hospitality Management.” The distance students were encouraged to enhance their research skills and foster the habit of reading literature in the merchandising and hospitality industry. To help accomplish this, the librarians created a model using including the information literacy tutorial, TILT, developed by the University of Texas at Austin. In addition, subject guides, developed by departmental library liaisons offered librarian-recommended resources and detailed class pages provided course-specific pages and links to the library’s electronic resources, readily available through WebCT courseware. Student and faculty comments revealed appreciation for the tutorial and for the content included within the class pages. M. Thomas.

Parker, Jo. “Putting the Pieces Together: Information Literacy at The Open University.” Library Management 24, no. 4/5 (2003): 223-228.
Initiatives to teach information literacy skills at the Open University (OU) are described. The author advocates “total integration of information literacy into the curriculum” but acknowledges that in reality this approach is often unfeasible, and offers two alternative approaches developed at OU. SAFARI (Skills in Accessing, Finding and Reviewing Information) is a collection of interactive information literacy materials that have the flexibility to be used together or independently. MOSAIC (Making Sense of Information in the Connected Age) is a short credit course in information literacy. The author outlines the challenges in offering the credit course, such as accessibility, overcoming student feelings of isolation, and assessment. Unexpected benefits of the course, such as using it as a staff development tool and as an avenue to bring more library staff into contact with students, are highlighted. J. Markgraf.

Tuñón, Johanna. “The Impact of Accreditation and Distance Education on Information Literacy.” Florida Libraries 46, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 11-14.
Accreditation standards provide impetus for developing and integrating information literacy instruction into the curriculum. The author discusses the effects of the new Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) standards on library instruction at Nova Southeastern University (NSU). At NSU, the library’s distance education unit took over responsibility for library instruction, both on and off campus, resulting in a greater array of instructional options for all students. The author discusses various approaches to instruction, such as one-shot instruction sessions, for-credit courses, and integration of library skills into required courses, emphasizing that there is no single optimal solution. Rather, the nature of individual institutions, programs, departments and libraries will determine the most effective method of offering library instruction. Finally, the author discusses the importance of assessment in meeting new accreditation standards. It is no longer enough to simply offer library instruction; institutions must be able to demonstrate that students are actually learning. J. Markgraf.

Wittkopf, Barbara. “Recreating the Credit Course in an Online Environment: Issues and Concerns.” Reference and User Services Quarterly 43, no.1 (Fall 2003): 18-25.
In this discussion of the impetus behind, the planning for and the implementation of an online credit information literacy course, the author provides a literature review as well as a case study from Louisiana State University. The author points to revised accreditation standards and state Board of Regents mandate as the driving force behind the curricular change that resulted in the online course. She looks to the literature for criteria in designing the course to ensure that it engages students, promotes interactions between students and faculty, assesses student learning and provides appropriate student support services. The author provides an overview of existing online information literacy tutorials and courses. The LSU course is then described using the same criteria. Among the features of the LSU course are assessment initiatives that include a pre- and posttest, prompt feedback on assignments and exams, and online course evaluations. The use of interactive tutorials and research topics of personal interest to the students address student engagement issues. The author emphasizes effective rather than gratuitous use of technology. J. Markgraf.


Blakeslee, Sarah and Kristin Johnson. “Using HorizonLive to Deliver Library Instruction to Distance and Online Students.” Reference Services Review 30, no. 4 (2002): 324-329.
Information literacy and instruction librarians at California State University, Chico decided to collaborate with selected teaching faculty, using HorizonLive virtual classroom software for convenient and flexible delivery of information literacy concepts to its distance education students. The librarians began by soliciting responses from interested faculty who agreed to participate in the proposal. They researched HorizonLive’s capabilities and then selected the course content, using screenshots as the preferred format for the presentation’s slides instead of live Web pages. Humorous images and explanatory text were incorporated into the presentation for added interest and clarity. The presentation’s slides were then placed in order and recorded; however HorizonLive did not allow for easy editing, once the presentation was initiated. A chat reference component was added in case there were any questions; however, none of the students chose to use the chat feature. The students were given a follow-up quiz via WebCT, which indicated that most had listened and paid attention to the presentation. HorizonLive, albeit cost-prohibitive, was to be easy to use, requiring very little technical expertise or additional software. Overall, the library’s project proved successful among the students and faculty who participated. M. Thomas.

Buchanan, Lori E., DeAnne L. Luck, and Ted C. Jones. “Integraing Information Literacy Into the Virtual University: A Couse Model.” Library Trends 51, no. 2 (Fall 2002): 144-166.
The authors detail a graduate level online course in multimedia literacy developed by the user education librarian, the library’s webmaster, and a communications professor at Austin Peay State University in Tennessee and which was largely based on the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education and the ACRL Instruction Section’s Objectives for Information Literacy Instruction. The course evolved from a longstanding collaboration between composition and communications faculty and librarians in developing and team-teaching two humanities courses on campus. Then, after attending an ACRL Institute for Information Literacy Immersion Program, librarians initiated meetings with teaching faculty to discuss incorporating IL outcomes in their classes. The plans for the collaborative online multimedia literacy course were initiated. In the course, students addressed and applied all five IL standards in their group-designed and created web sites as well in their individual web portfolios. Student evaluations of the course were largely favorable with practical suggestions for modifying course content and assignments. The authors offered their own practical recommendations for similar collaborative IL courses, starting with establishing firm connections with teaching faculty and continuing learning more about instructional design and online delivery. P. Ortega.

Burggraff, Denise and Mary Kraljic. “Collaboration for Program Enrichment: Exploring JSTOR and Nursing.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 69-75. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 93-100.
The Distance and Interlibrary Loan librarian at South Dakota State University obtained a Bush and Mellon Foundation grant to look for ways to use JSTOR to promote the use of technology, advertise the personal aspects of library service, and promote information literacy in SDSU’s Registered Nurse Upward Mobility Program. ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education were used to define the competencies that students needed to meet. Next, learning activities were designed for six courses in the RN Upward Mobility Program. The librarian worked with the faculty to have an archive of JSTOR articles collected in WebCT, to provide faculty training, and to post a PowerPoint tutorial in each RN Upward Mobility course. Pretests were administered at the beginning of the program, and posttests were planned for students when students completed the program. At the time of the writing of this article, the authors were in the process of developing a collaborative model for nursing faculty and librarians that would promote innovative partnerships. J. Tuñón.

Cook, Douglas L. “Ship to Shore: An Online Information Literacy Tutorial Using BlackBoard Distance Education Software.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 141-150. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 177-187.
This article describes efforts by Shippensbury University Library in south-central Pennsylvania to develop an online tutorial on information literacy skills for freshmen that was entitled Ship to Shore. The library used BlackBoard for the course management software to provide asynchronous training for students on and off campus. The librarians designing the tutorial used the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards as the basis for their content. Examples of good tutorials found in the APA Library Instruction Roundtable page also helped. After consulting with the College Writing faculty, the librarians developed quizzes in BlackBoard and pilot tested the tutorial. At the time of the writing of the article, plans were underway to have a second, larger pilot test before actually implementing the tutorial for all Shippensbury University freshmen. J. Tuñón.

Davis, Hazel M. “Information Literacy Modules as an Integral Component of a K-12 Teacher Preparation Program: A Librarian/Faculty Partnership.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 165-171. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 207-216.
The Rio Saludo College in Arizona is part of the Maricopa Community College District that focuses on distance education with its “College Without Walls” initiative. The article describes the efforts of the Faculty Chair of Library Science to collaborate with the Faculty Chair of Education to provide six online information literacy modules. The classes were part of a post-baccalaureate teacher preparation program for working adults who wished to enter the teaching profession after they obtained their undergraduate degree. The library was able to get a library module tied to each of the core classes. The modules were based on ACRL’s Information Literacy Standards for Higher Education. As a result, efforts were made to ensure that teachers would learn information literacy skills that they could in turn pass on to their students. To accomplish this, students were provided with online instruction. They were then required to complete searches on topics that they were graded on in specific related courses. The author concludes that this kind of collaborative effort demonstrates that information literacy can become an integral part of the distance instruction rather than remain only at the fringes of the educational process. J. Tuñón.

Hricko, Mary. “Using the Invisible Web to Teach Information Literacy.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 295-300. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 379-386.
ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education spell out the skills that undergraduate and graduate students need to possess in order to be considered information literate. To achieve these standards, the author maintains that students need to understand how to use “the Invisible Web” in order to utilize content-specific search engines as well as more the more generic search engines. Activities for each of the standards are identified in the article that librarians can use to help students better understand how to locate resources not easily obtained through whatever search engine happens to be the choice de jour. J. Tuñón.

Kearley, Jamie P. and Lori Phillips. “Distilling the Information Literacy Standards: Less is More.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 321-330. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 411-424.
The University of Wyoming developed TIP (Tutorial for Information Power). This interactive multimedia Web tutorial made information literacy training available to students both on and off campus as part of a required freshman class and on the library’s menu to reach students at their point of use. The authors describe the planning and design process for the tutorial to adapt information literacy standards in the content of the tutorial. The entire project took 8 months of intense work with a graphic designer and programmer. Librarians then involved seven student employees in the testing of the prototype. The rollout of the required tutorial in 2001 proved successful. However, the authors note that they experienced resistance from both faculty and staff because the librarians had involved a variety of stakeholders in the actual day-to-day details of development phase. They conclude that it is better politically to simply unveil the finished project when it is fully functional rather than trying to involve stakeholders at each step in the process. J. Tuñón.

McFarland, Dana and Susan Chandler. “‘Plug and Play’ in Context: Reflections on a Distance Information Literacy Unit.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 115-129, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 115-129.
Royal Roads University Library in British Columbia, Canada, developed a Web-based information literacy module for distance students in the Masters of Business Administrator Program (MBA). Because students’ classes were provided in a hybrid, distributed module, the author describes how the information literacy module was designed to provide a learning spiral that threaded throughout the online program and was supplemented by face-to-face sessions during students’ on-site residencies. At first, the library module only consisted of recommended reading and had no assessment component, but the stakeholders involved realized that this approach was not sufficient. As a result, a librarian was included in one of the online MBS classes to facilitate the assessment of an information literacy component. In the student assessment, students approved of the online module, but they also felt that face-to-face interaction was also essential to have as part of the residency experience. At the time the article was written, the library was considering migrating the library module to WebCT in order to provide more interactivity and online assessment tools. J. Tuñón.

Palmgren, Virpi and Kirsi Heino. “Active Integration of Information Searching Skills into the University Curriculum.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 197-207.
The Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) has a history of 30 years of organized courses in information searching called Searching for Scientific Information. The article describes a course adopted in 1999 that was delivered in five-week periods. Ideally, students would take this pass/fail library course while taking a course that required research skills. The course would start with either an introductory, two-hour course or reading the lecture notes. The library’s seven information specialists acted as tutors and communicated with students by email. Because of the number of international students in the program, an English version of the course got added. In 2001, Searching for Scientific Information became even more effective by incorporating a problem-based approach. The librarians merged their library course into another that was entitled Information Networks. The resulting course was successful in actively and more fully integrating information searching skills into the university curriculum. J. Tuñón.

Ransom, Sylvia. “Project Self Help at the University of New England.” Paper presented at the Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Available online (in pdf format)
In an effort to teach information literacy skills to their distance learning students, the Access Services staff at the University of New England (UNE) Libraries launched a self-help program in 2001 which was conveyed to targeted students through a series of emails sent to their university email accounts. The entire self-help program consisted of a total of eight emails, copies of which are given in an appendix. Student responses to the first diagnostic email determined which of the follow-up emails each one received. An evaluation of the program is given along with plans for the future. A. Lawrence.

Sacchanand, Chutima. “Information Literacy Instruction to Distance Students in Higher Education: Librarians’ Key Role.” Paper presented at the 68th IFLA General Conference and Council “Libraries for Life: Democracy, Diversity, Delivery,” August 18th – 24th 2002, Glasgow, Scotland. Online. Available: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla68/papers/113-098e.pdf (in pdf format)
Distance education has evolved with the advent of technological innovations. The author discusses the needs and challenges facing distance education today and the importance of information literacy, specifically providing a case study on the information literacy initiatives at the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (STOU), the largest distance education university in Thailand. Key roles of the academic librarians are described. Information literacy instruction was mainly delivered in print and audio-visual materials comprised of brochures, pamphlets, manuals, videotapes, radio and television programs, and the library website. A library services component was included in the foundation course while subject courses included content related to library research. Information skill instruction was provided during the new student orientation as well as during the professional experience practicum. Information literacy was more prominent at the graduate levels where instructional materials were developed by the librarians and distributed for self-study. At faculty requests, librarians also provided instructional sessions. M. Chakraborty.

Walsh, Robin. “Information Literacy at Ulster County Community College: Going the Distance.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 77 (2002): 89-105, and Distance Learning: Information Access and Services for Virtual Users, edited by Hemalata Iyer. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 89-105.
This article chronicles the genesis and evolution of an information literacy course at Ulster County Community College (UCCC) in New York. The course originally began with an information literacy initiative in 1992. Both librarians and teaching faculty worked collaboratively on the curriculum, content, and teaching. The class was eventually offered online in the fall 1997. Concurrently with the events at UCCC, the SUNY Office of Library & Information Services (OLIS) provided funding to create an online literacy course, which would be made available to all SUNY institutions. The UCCC course was redesigned and became the template for the online information literacy class, which SUNY institutions could download in July 2000. The course contains an introduction (The Information Age) and four modules: Searching Databases, Searching for Library Materials, Searching for Reference Sources – Print and Electronic, and Searching the Internet. The UCCC librarians continue to update the course and incorporate new technologies into the course. E. Onega.

Zhang, Wenxian. “Developing Web-Enhanced Learning for Information Literacy.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 41, no. 4 (Summer 2002): 356-363.
The author discusses the efforts of the Olin Library at Rollins College to incorporate WebCT in its information literacy course, in partnership with the College’s Department of Information Technology. The instructor built the course, “Introduction to Information Fluency – Information Research, Evaluation, and Communication,” on a plan designed by Associated Colleges of the South (ACS). Rollins College is a member of the ACS consortium, along with fourteen other liberal arts institutions. The article includes the specifics of the pedagogy, organization, communication, and assessment of the course, which would be useful to someone planning to teach an online course. E. Onega.


Bishop, Sarah and Glenda Henderson. “Information Literacy Made Ezy.” In Information Online 2001: Digital Dancing: New Steps, New Partners: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Information Online Conference & Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 16-18 January 2001. Sydney: Information Specialists Division, Australian Library & Information Association, 2001, 239-251. Also online.
Web-ezy Solutions software was an Australian product developed by UNILINC for Australian libraries. It was designed to provide a shell that could be customized for various institutions’ Web-based library instruction. In March 2000, the librarians at Charles Sturt University (CSU) were first to use the software for customizing their information literacy instruction via CSU Web-ezy. They found that the shell had the advantage of being customizable, interactive, and being used for Web-based information literacy programs. It provided modules with summaries and the capability of including multiple choice quizzes. The librarians were positive about the flexibility and resulting interactivity achieved. The librarians do note, however, that at the time of writing of the article, the project had not yet been used for a complete year. As a result, the project had not yet been formally evaluated, but this was also due in part because of caching problems that made obtaining usage statistics difficult. J. Tuñón.

Deubert, Kathy. “Information Literacy: The Flexible Approach.” In Partners in Learning and Research: Changing Roles for Australian Technology Network Libraries, edited by John Frylinck. Adelaide: University of South Australia Library for Librarians of the Australian Technology Network, 2001, 19-27.
In 1999, Curtin University of Technology adopted its Information Literacy Policy, ensuring that information literacy concepts be integrated into coursework and that all its graduates would be information literate. The Library, realizing its responsibility in the delivery of information literacy opportunities, established the InfoTrekk program, which is a self-paced, generic series of modules using Step-by-Step Guides, which aim to instruct the user in the principles of searching for, evaluating, referencing, and using library resources. The designers adhered to certain guidelines, such as using simple explanations, avoiding campus-specific information, and a minimum of graphics and hotlinks. Infotrekk has been well received among the teaching faculty as a course requirement for first-year students and senior students alike. Local students reacted positive to the module and ACRL’s Instruction Section’s Emerging Technologies in Instruction reviewed the program as “among the best in our profession.” Future developments focus on Infotrekk Plus, which builds upon the original content and design guidelines with emphasis on specialized resources. M. Thomas.

Dorner, Jennifer L., Susan E. Taylor, and Kay Hodson-Carlton. “Faculty-Librarian Collaboration for Nursing Information Literacy: A Tiered Approach.” Reference Services Review 29, no. 2 (2001): 132-140.
The librarians at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana, worked with faculty and healthcare professionals to design and implement a tiered approach for teaching information literacy skills to nursing students. The article described how the undergraduate information literacy training was tied to two required English classes. Just as importantly, additional training was tied to required classes in the School of Nursing’s undergraduate degree program, the RN completion program, and the master’s degree program. The first of these modules to be developed collaboratively with the nursing faculty was Nursing 605. However, at the time of the writing of the article, full implementation was still a couple years away. J. Tuñón.

Drew, Heather, Wendy Abbott, and Debbie Orr. “What a Web We Weave: Evaluating the Flexible Delivery of Information Literacy Education.” In Information Online 2001: Digital Dancing: New Steps, New Partners: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Information Online Conference & Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 16-18 January 2001. Sydney: Information Specialists Division, Australian Library & Information Association, 2001, 395-417. Also online.
The web-based instruction programs used at three Australian universities were examined and evaluated to determine their effectiveness in meeting the information literacy needs of students. These programs were evaluated using standard two of the Association of College and Research Libraries information literacy standards that deals with students’ ability to access information in an effective and efficient manner. A number of qualities of good web-based instruction programs were identified and were also used to evaluate the programs. A survey instrument was developed and used to evaluate one of the three Australian university web-based literacy programs. Two versions of the survey were administered, one for students and one for library staff. From the survey results several issues related to web-based information literacy programs were identified including the usefulness and relevance of the program to specific courses, the customization of a program to institution specific resources, and the staff time needed to develop and maintain a program. Four appendices provide information about the three information literacy programs and the methods used to evaluate them. S. Heidenreich.

Erasmus, Sandra. “Information Literacy and Distance Education: The Challenge of Addressing the Lack of (Basic) Information Skills in a Lifelong Learning Environment: A Case Study.” Mousaion 19 no. 2 (2001): 15-22.
The Gold Fields Library and Information Centre as a part of Technikon Southern Africa has developed a number of information literacy initiatives in South Africa. An instructional librarian began working in 1998 to develop the Information User Education (UE) Project. The librarians developed novice, intermediate, and advanced research levels for instructional materials and services. Instructional materials included a comic book, handouts, and pamphlets. The materials were offered in conjunction with training sessions. In addition, a Web presence was provided for Level 1 students, and more specific materials were developed for Levels 2 and 3. Other initiatives by librarians included the development of posters, working with faculty, and serving on committees concerned with assessment issues. J. Tuñón.

George, Rigmor, Holly McCausland, and Dale Wache. “Information Literacy: An Institution-Wide Strategy.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 4 (December 2001): 278-293.
The authors discuss how information literacy is a fundamental factor in helping students become lifelong learners and thereby prepare to work in today’s knowledge society. They discuss how, in order to achieve this objective, information literacy needs to be implemented as an institutional strategy at the curriculum level of institutions of higher education. The authors go on to describe how a curriculum-based approach was used to integrate information literacy into the curriculum and assessment at the University of South Australia. A database called QILLL (Quality Information for Lifelong Learning) was developed with information and exemplars of practice to provide generic and field-specific resources for both teachers and learners. The database improved information literacy and its end product, lifelong learning, at both the academic program and course level at the University of South Australia. J. Tuñón.

Hansen, Carol. “The Internet Navigator: An Online Internet Course for Distance Learners.” Library Trends 50, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 58-72.
The Utah Academic Library Consortium (UALC), which cooperatively purchases and provides a variety of resources and services to institutions in Utah, also cooperatively developed an online information literacy course entitled Internet Navigator. The course started originally in 1995 and was revamped in 2000 to better address changes occurring in the Web at the time and to move the delivering of content online. The challenges of administering and funding a multi-institutional online course are described. A project director, content development team, maintenance team, graphic artist, and programmer all participated in the development of the revised course. These diverse groups used an Intranet to improve communications between all these players via the Web. The authors conclude that a strategic plan for updating and revising the course is critical to the on-going success of any such endeavor. J. Tuñón.

Hosein, Sharida. “Developing Information Literacy Programmes for Distance Learners: Accepting the Challenge at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.” In Distance Education in Small States, July 27-28, 2000, Ocho Rios, Jamaica: Conference Proceedings. Distance Education Centre, University of the West Indies, 2001, 193-198.
Providing information literacy training for distance students presents special challenges. The University of the West Indies (UWI) St. Augustine has been providing library training to on-campus students since 1964. The library, however, only started to provide distance students with the “Guide for Finding and Using Information” more recently. Nineteen student practitioners in Trinidad and Tobago in the Postgraduate Diploma Programme in Primary Care and Family Medicine attended classes in the Faculty of Medical Sciences in St. Augustine and received library training while there. However, the library also supported distance students who live on other islands and who could not come to campus so easily. At the time of the writing of the article, the library did not yet have a strategy for supporting these other students except to send them copies of the library guide. J. Tuñón.

Macauley, Peter. “Menace, Missionary Zeal or Welcome Partner? Librarian Involvement in the Information Literacy of Doctoral Researchers.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 2 (2001): 47-65.
This study looks at the question of the attitudes of doctoral candidates and supervisors toward librarians’ information literacy training efforts. Nearly 2,000 doctoral students and supervisors from four Australian universities were surveyed, and a sample of more than seventy individuals that participated in the survey were then interviewed. Nearly half of doctoral students surveyed indicated that they felt deficient in information literacy skills, and more than half had not received any library training. More than 50% of the doctoral students and even higher percentages of supervisors thought that librarians should work with their doctoral supervisors to assist in helping students develop information literacy skills. There were significant differences, however, between the opinions of doctoral researchers in the Sciences and those in Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities. Those not in the sciences were more likely to see librarians as being of assistance in the research process while those in the sciences were more prone to consider librarians to be “meddling”. The author concludes that the majority of doctoral candidates and supervisors perceived librarians’ information literacy training as useful but had not yet come to be regarded as equal partners in the research process. J. Tuñón.

McGill, Lou. “Any Which Way You Can: Providing Information Literacy to Distance Learners.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 2 (2001): 95-113.
The University of Leicester’s University Library established the Distance Learning Unit in 1999 as a formal method to provide information literacy training for the university’s 6,000 distance students. The unit was able to accomplish this in a number of ways including through email, telephone, individual face-to-face help and group training sessions, Web sites and, tutorials, and print materials. The support of academics that marketed library services in their courses proved instrumental to the success of the Distance Learning Unit. The article describes challenges that faced the Distance Learning Librarian and solutions implement. Perceived trends and possible future developments were also discussed. J. Tuñón.

Manuel, Kate. “Teaching an Online Information Literacy Course.” Reference Services Review 29, no. 3 (2001): 219-228.
While academic librarians have been creating Web-based tutorials in support of their institutions’ distance education programs for some time, there are relatively few for-credit, distance education, information literacy courses for undergraduate students. The author describes her experience in developing such a course (LIBY 3200) for distance education students at California State University, Hayward. Findings from her experience teaching LIBY 3200 suggest that many students are less prepared to function &endash; technologically and cognitively &endash; in a Web-based distance education environment than might be predicted. Design and delivery of course content proved time-consuming and teaching methods had to be adapted to help the students become autonomous learners, capable of self-directed learning. F. Devlin.

Needham, Gill, Jo Parker, and Kirsty Baker. “Skills for Lifelong Learning at a Distance: Information Literacy at the Open University.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 2 (2001): 67-77.
The Open University has worked hard to provide its students with access to digitized resources, but it also came to realize that it needed to provide students with the training to build the necessary information literacy skills. As a result, an increasing amount of effort by librarians there began to be directed toward the daunting task of trying to reach the university’s 180,000 students with library training. To accomplish this, the library opened an Information Literacy Unit (ILU) in 2002. The article discusses ILU’s efforts to (1) raise awareness of the importance of information literacy skills, (2) help staff feel confident in their own information skills, (3) integrate information literacy skills into the curriculum, (4) develop both generic and program- specific instructional materials as well as stand-alone information literacy courses, and last but not least, (5) promote research on how distance learners were different from on-campus students in terms of the information literacy skills that they possessed. J. Tuñón.

O’Hanlon, Nancy. “Development, Delivery, and Outcomes of a Distance Course for New College Students.” Library Trends 50, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 8-27.
At Ohio State University, the Libraries’ Office of User Education partnered with University College to offer a four-week online information literacy course to freshmen and transfer students as an alternative for a traditional, face-to-face library class. The asynchronous course, entitled “Internet Tools and Research Techniques”, used net.TUTOR modules, online open book quizzes, six self-graded online worksheets, and a capstone activity. Students liked the flexibility of the online format, and the librarians felt that there was little benefit in mandating that students maintain a strict schedule for completing assignments. The authors noted that biggest problem experienced entailed contacting the students enrolled in the class, but this issue was eventually resolved by requiring students to register in person for the class. J. Tuñón.

Orr, Debbie and Margie Wallin. “Information Literacy and Flexible Delivery: Are We Meeting Student Needs?” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 192-203.
Because three quarters of Central Queensland University’s (CQU) students do not attend class on campus, the library developed a Teaching and Learning Plan that could address and support the university’s strategic plan for promoting flexible learning. The librarians hoped to provide a framework of guidelines that would provide structure for the learning process. They wanted students to learn recursively to gather, analyze, evaluate, and use information and to reflect and evaluate in order to transfer these skills to other contexts. In order to find out if CQU’s generic information literacy programs were effective, 50 students were surveyed. The CQU librarians used the input from these students in 2002 to come up with a generic training framework to that would be used for a specific science class. Previous efforts to use electronically mediated tutorials at CQU were then discussed. The article concludes that libraries need to “realign traditional services” by focusing more on student needs and less on the simple transmission of information. J. Tuñón.

Virkus, Sirje. “Library and Information Literacy Services in Open and Distance Learning.” In OPEN 2001: Knowledge, Information and Democracy in the Open Society: The Role of the Library and Information Sector: Proceedings of the 9th International BOBCATSSS Symposium on Library and Information Science, Vilnius University, Vilnius Lithuania, January 29-31, 2001, edited by Agné Antanaityté. Vilnius : <printed by Senamiescio spaustuve>, 2001, 376-383.
An extensive overview of open and distance learning, and the role of the libraries therein are presented. No uniform definition of ‘open’ and ‘distance learning’ exists, and several synonyms are used interchangeably to describe the viable alternative to face-to-face education. The definitions vary geographically but share some common characteristics (e.g. flexibility, convenience, mixed-method use, geographic distance between the instructor and the student). Libraries serving a diverse distance clientele must overcome challenges to provide excellent services. The second part of the article is a literature review mostly based on the Annotated Bibliographies (1991, 1996, 2000). The four basic models for providing library services to distance students are highlighted: 1. on-site collections and resources at remote centers; 2. interlibrary loan and resource sharing among institutions; 3. document delivery to the distance student from the library at the parent institution; and 4. remote access to electronic resources. Collaboration and partnership (a.k.a. ‘networked learner support’), a relatively new topic in the US literature, was widespread in the UK, and is a prevalent theme in all literature now. In the US, copyright issues are significant. Information literacy has become an integral part of distance learning, and is beginning to spread in the US literature, although it was eminent in Australia and South Africa. The article concludes stating the obvious shift in the 1990s from access to physical libraries and print resources to more electronic libraries and electronic resources. New methods and innovative services are required by the libraries to provide equitable services to distance learners. M. Chakraborty.


Appleton, Margaret and Debbie Orr. “Meeting the Needs of Distance Education Students.” In Information Literacy Around the World: Advances in Programs and Research, edited by Christine Bruce, Philip C. Candy, and Helmut Klaus. Wagga Wagga, N.S.W.: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University, 2000, 11-24.
The librarians at Central Queensland University (CQU) use a variety of technologies to deliver information literacy programs to CQU’s students on and off campus. The relative merits of a number of these technologies are discussed in this article. Videoconferencing had the advantage of delivering synchronous communications to locations with the appropriate hardware but required teaching/learning strategies that needed to actively involve students. Computer-assisted learning programs provided an effective method for individualized and self-paced learning for specific applications like database searching either for students who could not visit a library or for large on-campus groups. Web-based courses and tutorials had the advantage of being interactive and supporting powerful multimedia capabilities. Virtual workshops using desktop videoconferencing (CUSeeMe) were offered as alternatives to having students attend residential school programs. When technologies were used to deliver instruction, the librarians found that it became particularly important for librarians to promote learning communities, find effective methods of promoting interactivity, provide authentic tasks, and encourage knowledge construction rather than knowledge transmission. The authors emphasize in the article that librarians need to consider the diverse needs of learners when assessing the potential merits of emerging technologies. J. Tuñón.

Dewald, Nancy, Ann Scholz-Crane, Austin Booth, and Cynthia Levine. “Information Literacy at a Distance: Instructional Design Issues.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 26, no. 1 (January 2000): 33-44.
Design issues are important considerations when developing effective information literacy programs for distance students. No one technology meets all the needs of students. Four factors need to be considered when selecting a technology to use: (1) the technological know-how needed by both instructors and students, (2) the technological infrastructure available to support the technologies at the academic institution, (3) the relationship between the librarian and the class instructor that defines the librarian’s relationship to students, and (4) pedagogical objectives that define the ultimate objectives for the learning experience. Last, but not least, the authors note that assessment is also an important part of the process. Methods for incorporating active learning into distance information literacy credit courses, course-integrated instruction, and Web-based tutorials are then discussed in the article. J. Tuñón.

Fjällbrant, Nancy. “Information Literacy for Scientists and Engineers: Experiences of EDUCATE and DEDICATE.” Program 34, no. 3 (July 2000): 257-268.
EDUCATE (EdD User Courses in Information Access through Communication Technology) and DEDICATE (Distance Education Information Courses with Access Through Networks) were programs funded by the European Union and offered in Europe in the mid to late 1990s to help address the need for information literacy training for scientists and engineers. EDUCATE was developed to address subject-related issues of information literacy for scientists and engineers. The program resulted in the development of INTO INFO programs that provided pathfinders to help individuals learn about how to access and use relevant resources in science and engineering. DEDICATE was developed to train librarians so that they could design information literacy programs at their institutions. At the time of the writing of this article, the program was proved successful at the five test sites established in Central and Eastern Europe. J. Tuñón.

Fjällbrant, Nancy. “Networked Information Literacy: The European EDUCATE and DEDICATE Projects.” New Review of Information Networking 6 (2000): 53-60.
Two projects by the Union Telematics for Libraries, EDUCATE and DEDICATE, were designed to promote networked information literacy in Europe. EDUCATE or End-user Courses in Information Access through Communication Technology was a project developed by six European universities. It ran from 1994 to1997 as a multi-media information portal that could be used in subject-specific information literacy courses or by individuals as self-paced units. DEDICATE or “Distance Education Information Courses Through Networks” followed from 1998 to 1999 and was concerned with training the trainers to develop specialized information literacy courses at member institutions. Both projects were successful. EDUCATE resulted in a number of follow-up projects including DEDICATE while the DEDICATE Project was successful in bringing about networked courses that promoted continuing professional development. J. Tuñón.

Heller-Ross, Holly and Julia Kiple. “Information Literacy for Interactive Distance Learners.” In Teaching the New Library to Today’s Users: Reaching International, Minority, Senior Citizens, Gay/Lesbian, First-Generation, At-Risk, Graduate and Returning Students, and Distance Learners, edited by Trudi E. Jacobson and Helene C. Williams. The New Library Series, Number 4. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000, 191-219.
A comparison of three different institutions’ approaches to library services for distance students demonstrated that similar goals have been addressed in a variety of ways. The critical issues facing information literacy librarians at University of Maine (UNET), Nova Southeastern University, and Plattsburgh State University were examined in this article. The issues identified fitted into the three general categories of (1) administrative/ organizational issues, (2) information literacy/pedagogical issues, and (3) instructional technology/logistical issues. The article describes how different approaches developed from differing practical experiences, library philosophies, and levels and types of technology used to deliver distance education at the academic institutions. While librarians adapted their instruction to meet the demands of the delivery methods utilized at their academic institutions, the authors conclude that each library’s ultimate objective is to get the resources needed to successfully deliver instruction for all students both on and off campus. J. Tuñón.

Macklin, Alexius Smith, Leslie J. Reynolds, Sheila R. Curl, and Brent Alan Mai. “Distance Education in Virtual Classrooms: The Model and the Assessment.” In National Online Meeting Proceedings – 2000: Proceedings of the 21st National Online Meeting, New York, May 16-18, 2000, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2000, 407-412.
In order to teach students how to access online information effectively, the library faculty at Purdue University developed a required, one-credit distance education course for undergraduate students in the School of Technology. Two versions of the course were developed. The section taught face-to-face was developed in 1994 while the other online section was added in 1998 using WebCT. The librarians incorporated Problem Based Learning into the design of both versions of the course. Students used case studies that they worked on collaboratively in class or online. The librarians conclude that when students have a real information need, they are more likely to become information literate because they are more motivated about learning how to locate relevant information. Also, based on an assessment of the two methods of delivery, the authors conclude that students in synchronous and asynchronous classes learned the skills equally well. The authors note, however, that the techniques for engaging students proved easier in the traditional, synchronous classrooms than online. J. Tuñón.

Perrone, Vye Gower. “The Changing Role of Librarians and the Online Learning Environment.” Paper presented at Distance Education: An Open Question? an international conference sponsored by the University of South Australia in conjunction with the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) held at the University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, 11-13 September 2000. Online. Available: http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/cccc/papers/refereed/paper34/Paper34-1.htm
In order to promote information literacy and provide library service, librarians at the University of Waikato in New Zealand served as Information Coaches for several different online classes. Information coaches reviewed research outlines, provided personal feedback to students, and monitored course discussions. With access to course readings, lectures, and discussion, librarians expanded their roles within a course and enhanced their ability to address information literacy skills. Factors that contributed to the success of the information coaches include specific research assignments for the students, participation in class discussions, including course instructors in communications, and developing a relationship with the course instructors. J. Brandt.

Vihnanek, Elizabeth M. “Integrating Information Literacy into Distance Education Classes.” In Proceedings of the 7th Annual Distance Education Conference, January 25-28, 2000, Austin Texas. Center for Distance Learning Research, College of Education, Texas A&M University, 2000, 193-197.
The Hunter Library faculty at Western Carolina University (WCU) worked to find ways educate the faculty about information literacy skills and to integrate information literacy into distance courses when the university decided in 1995 to begin developing distance education courses. The article discusses the challenges that the WCU librarians encountered when working with faculty, developing library Web pages, and finding a variety of solutions for delivering bibliographic instruction to various academic programs at WCU. Methods utilized included the use of WebCT, pre-taped video presentations, and the North Carolina Information Highway (NCIH) for two-way interactive sessions. The author notes that these efforts to meet the information needs of distance students had another and equally important result &endash; that of improving services for the traditional WCU students on campus as well. J. Tuñón.

Wright, Carol A. “Information Literacy Within the General Education Program: Implications for Distance Education.” Journal of General Education 49, no. 1 (2000): 23-33.
This article discusses how information literacy plays important in the undergraduate education process both because it promotes the skills and competencies needed for research-based learning in undergraduate students and because it is a skill that is universally used in all academic disciplines. Moreover, information literacy promotes higher-level thinking and can be used to enhance active and collaborative learning in a learner-centered process as well as promoting constructivist learning. The author argues that both librarians and faculty share the responsibility of promoting information literacy, particularly in the new electronic environment. She goes to on to describe how participation in the Innovations in Distance Education project acted as a catalyst at Penn State University Libraries for providing access to remote databases, access to interlibrary loan, and information literacy training for distance students. The author concludes that the complexities of the changing library environment simply make it increasingly important for librarians to find ways to partner with curriculum planners. J. Tuñón.


Nowicki, Stacy. “Information Literacy and Critical Thinking in the Electronic Environment.” Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems 13, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 25-28.
Acquiring the skills for searching, accessing, evaluating, and effectively using resources, particularly online resources, are important steps in understanding how to manage the research process. The article discusses how the acquisition of these information literacy skills entails individuals learning how to learn to effectively use virtual libraries. The author argues that abstract thinking, problem solving, and inference are important parts of critical thinking and all contribute to being information literate. She goes on to conclude that librarians need to find ways to incorporate information literacy into class curriculums. It is equally important that librarians to play a pivotal role in ensuring that students develop the necessary skills needed to meet the demands of an information-based society. J. Tuñón.