Jones, M. F. “Internet reference services for distance education: Guidelines comparison and implementation.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 3/4 (2005): 19-32.
One of the important observations made by Jones is that while the guidelines discussed have variations, they are due to institutional culture, environment and resources. While she focuses solely on the here and now, and usefully so, it might have been better if in her literature review she had discovered the common ancestry of the guidelines that she mentions. Indeed the Medical Library Association has no guidelines of its own, but refers to the ACRL guidelines and has a trail of references that lead to a Pew Health Professions Commission list of “Twenty one Competencies for the Twenty-First Century.” M. Horan


Association of College and Research Libraries. Distance Learning Section. Guidelines Committee. “Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services.” College & Research Libraries News 65, no. 10 (November 2004): 604-611.
This update of the Guidelines was approved by the ACRL Board of Directors in June 2004. The Introduction was revised to include general updating and clarification of recipients of distance learning library services. One of the changes was to insert the closing guidelines committee members subsection into “Revising the Guidelines.” None of the other sections of the document have been modified since the 2000 version. These guidelines are the culmination of ACRL documents beginning in 1963, continuing through 1967, 1981, 1990, 1998, and 2000, all of which sought to provide guidelines for the provision of equivalent library resources and services to higher education students in remote locations. A. Slade / P. Ortega.

Grace, Claire and Bremner, Alison. “Getting the Value from Evaluation: Where to Get the Data and What You Can Do With It.” VINE: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, 34.4 (2004), 161 -165; ABI/INFORM Global.
Established in the 1960’s, The Open University served over 200,000 students in 2004, almost all of whom are distance learners. The need to be accountable in the face of rising costs justify new initiatives and predict user needs. The Open University’s library staff adopted a business reporting model to interpret the data they collected from various sources. This coincided with a more robust data gathering initiative (both quantitative and qualitative). This case study documents the effect these changes in reporting and data gathering have had on the libraries’ operations, planning, and culture. While timely and substantive, the authors assume greater familiarity with the business reporting model than is warranted. However, it is intriguing to have predictive data to respond to the “quickly changing environment” of distance services and the reported success in using business reporting to forecast change and improve library services deserves to be considered by other libraries. E. Bentsen

Jerabek, J. Ann. “They Give Credit for That? Accreditation, Assessment, and Distance Learning Library Services.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 3 (2004): 79-86.
As key components of colleges and universities, academic libraries are required to meet standards set by regional accrediting bodies. Since distance education is now addressed in the accreditation process, librarians must be familiar with the standards set for distance services and be able to demonstrate how their libraries are meeting the appropriate requirements. The author examines recent developments in accreditation standards and highlights how closely they can be related to the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. Observing the ACRL Guidelines should result in activities and assessments that are extremely useful in preparing for accreditation reviews. The accreditation process should serve as an excellent opportunity to evaluate and improve library services for distance learners. J Brandt.

Lessin, Barton M., Barbara K. Redman, and Nancy A. Wilmes. “A Usage Survey of Standards and Guidelines Affecting Library Services to Distance Education Nursing Programs.” Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 1 (2004): 55-78.
The standards and guidelines issued by professional organizations are intended to provide guidance to those who set up and administer academic programs and support services. The authors of this article investigated program administrators’ and librarians’ level of knowledge about the standards for academic nursing programs, library services for distance learners, and information literacy competency. They identified relevant standards or guidelines and sent a survey to the selected test group. They were attempting to identify the level of knowledge about the standards, and also whether they were being applied by those in the test group. The study results were supportive of their expectation that each surveyed group would be at least somewhat familiar with standards issued by their own professional organizations, but not as familiar with those of the other group being surveyed. For example, the librarians would be at least somewhat familiar with standards for library service, but not as familiar with standards for administration of nursing education programs. The authors describe characteristics of several sets of standards, and include a tabular comparison of Use and Non-Use Rates for Guidelines and Standards. J. Marshall.

Parnell, Stephen. Quality Assurance and an Expanded Role for the Library in Distance Education. Paper presented at the 21st ICDE Conference, Hong Kong, 18-21 February 2004. Online. Available: http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/about/papers/Parnell_ICDE2004.pdf (in pdf format)
Described in this article are the measures of quality assurance of the initiatives offered to distance education students served by the UniSA (University of South Australia) Library. The Library adheres to The International Organization for Standardization principles that distance students should be entitled to equivalent services as on campus students. Quality within the Library’s The Flexible Delivery Service (FDS) is measured in an annual student survey to both on-campus and distance users. At the national and international level, the Australian Universities Quality Agency serves to ensure the provision of quality higher education to both on-campus and distance students. The Library strives to operate within the parent institution’s framework of quality assurance and the University is dedicated to integrating quality library services into teaching and learning through an increased role in providing information literacy. M. Thomas.


Association of College and Research Libraries. Distance Learning Section. Guidelines Committee. “Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services: A Draft Revision.” College & Research Libraries News 64, no. 4 (April 2003): 265-271.
These revisions are the work of the Distance Learning Section Guidelines Committee of ACRL and present that committee’s draft revisions to the Guidelines’ “Introduction” and “Revising the Guidelines” sections. The Introduction was revised to include general updating and clarification of recipients of distance learning library services. One of the changes was to insert the closing guidelines committee members subsection into “Revising the Guidelines.” None of the other sections of the document have been modified. They update the most recent revisions of the guidelines which were published in 2000. These guidelines are the culmination of ACRL documents beginning in 1963, continuing through 1967, 1981, 1990, 1998, and 2000, all of which sought to provide guidelines for the provision of equivalent library resources and services to higher education students in remote locations. P. Ortega.

Tuñón, Johanna. “The Impact of Accreditation and Distance Education on Information Literacy.” Florida Libraries 46, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 11-14.
Accreditation standards provide impetus for developing and integrating information literacy instruction into the curriculum. The author discusses the effects of the new Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) standards on library instruction at Nova Southeastern University (NSU). At NSU, the library’s distance education unit took over responsibility for library instruction, both on and off campus, resulting in a greater array of instructional options for all students. The author discusses various approaches to instruction, such as one-shot instruction sessions, for-credit courses, and integration of library skills into required courses, emphasizing that there is no single optimal solution. Rather, the nature of individual institutions, programs, departments and libraries will determine the most effective method of offering library instruction. Finally, the author discusses the importance of assessment in meeting new accreditation standards. It is no longer enough to simply offer library instruction; institutions must be able to demonstrate that students are actually learning. J. Markgraf.


Brownlee, Dianne and Frances Ebbers. “Separate But Unequal? Do Web-Based Services Fulfil Their Promises?” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 61-67. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 83-91.
The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services, as well as guidelines from various accrediting bodies, pose challenges for libraries as they attempt to provide their patrons with the equitable access these guidelines recommend. The authors describe the institutional distance learning environment at St. Edward’s University. Background information and a summary of key components of the ACRL Guidelines are provided. Although many libraries have devoted significant resources to meet these guidelines, the authors contend that objective measurement of these services is difficult. They contend that one of the most challenging areas of the guidelines is provision and evaluation of library instruction programs. Nonetheless, they believe libraries must continue their commitment to meeting the guidelines, and to find new ways to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of those services. A. Prestamo.

Cother, Christine and Stephen Parnell. “Quality Assurance and Models of Service in an Environment of Change.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 151-163. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 189-206.
The University of South Australia Library (USAL) supports two distinct and competing user groups: its University’s 25,000 students, as well as another 13,500 Open Learning Australia (OLA) students. OLA was founded in 1991 as a private company, and charged by the Commonwealth of Australia with providing quality education for students throughout Australia and beyond. USAL entered into a contract with OLA to provide library services. Building on its history of a strong commitment to quality assurance (QA), the USAL must now meet OLA contractual obligations, as well as guidelines other emerging bodies such as the Australian Universities Quality Agency. In this context, the authors define and discuss the importance of structured QA, the matrix used for QA evaluation, and standards for risk management. Readers are reminded that QA should not only be applied to provision of services, but also to the integration of these services in course delivery. Types of quantitative data needed to support QA are presented. In conclusion, the authors remind readers that QA is an important tool to insure continuous improvement in libraries services and support. A. Prestamo.

Frederiksen, Linda. “Grading Outselves: Using the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services to Develop Assessment Strategies.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 259-264. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 333-339.
The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services can provide a framework for evaluation of library services. The challenge remains, however, to determine what should be evaluated and the proper tools to use. This paper explores various definitions and models of assessment, and examines some specific strategies and tools for evaluation. This literature review includes not only pertinent assessment sources from the library literature, but draws from the broader context of evaluation in the social sciences as well. The authors then present background information on the ACRL Guidelines, along with some examples of how elements of these guidelines might be incorporated in an evaluation project. A. Prestamo.

Gover, Harvey. “Articulating the Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services of the Association of College and Research Libraries Outside the Library Profession.” Higher Education in Europe 27, no. 3 (2002): 269-272.
The Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services of the Association of College and Research Libraries may be viewed as a Bill of Rights for distance learning students and faculty. These Guidelines contain ten precepts that can be defined in terms understandable to both librarians and academic administrators. The ten precepts explained are: superior academic skills; lifelong learning skills; equivalent teaching and learning results through equivalent library services; responsible institutional support through separate funding; technical linkages; compliance with national, regional, and professional accreditation programs; library involvement in program development; program accountability through outcomes assessment; equivalent services through innovative approaches; and resources and services consistent with a broader institutional mission. S. Heidenreich.

Gover, Harvey R. “To Still Live Our Ideals.” Keynote paper presented at the AAOU Pre-Conference Seminar on “Outreach Library Services for Distance Learners,” February 20, 2002, New Delhi, India.
The status of international and transnational distance learning is studied. Distance learning leaders from around the globe are quoted and examples of innovative educational institutions and corporations are presented. Based on the study, essential elements for institutions of global or transnational education are listed. Socio-cultural based elements include: international peace, prosperity and understanding, successful communication and cooperation among peoples and nations, international strategic alliances, and a culture of shared leadership. Quality assurance elements include: evaluation, standards, an international exchange of knowledge, Internet access, and teaching of lifelong learning skills. Many more elements are also listed. Next, the success, importance and moral force of the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services are discussed. The philosophical precepts on which the moral force of the Guidelines is based are listed and explained. J. Wheeler.

Lessin, Barton, Rhonda McGinnis, and Rick Bean. “Guidelines and Standards Applicable for Library Services to Distance Education Business Programs.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 155-205, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 155-205.
Analyses of four sets of guidelines applicable to libraries providing services to distance education business programs comprise the primary content of this article. The guidelines examined are: (1) Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business [AACSB] Accreditation Standards and AASCB Quality Issues in Distance Learning Guidelines; (2) Association of College and Research Libraries [ACRL] Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services; (3) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education; and (4) AACSB Achieving Quality and Continuous Improvement Through Self-Evaluation and Peer Review. The complete texts of the second and third sets of guidelines are included in appendices. Additionally, the authors report on a survey they conducted to determine familiarity with, and application of the ACRL Guidelines. The authors conclude that these guidelines provide an excellent framework for librarians to use in planning, evaluating, and lobbying for support for quality library services to support distance learning. A. Prestamo.

Ludwig, Logan. Essential Library Support for Distance Education. Medical Library Association (MLA) Position Statement. 2002. Online. Available: http://www.mlanet.org/government/positions/disteduc_2.html
Many medical schools, hospitals, companies, professional associations, and healthcare organizations are very involved with distance medical education. Distance medical education is delivered by a variety of means including broadcast, cable and two-way interactive TV, audio graphic systems, videotaped lectures, online Internet chats, and e-mail. Students participating in these programs have the right to the same support services, including library services, as students in traditional campus settings. Providing services to distant students is more labor intensive and costly than providing services to on-campus students. Health science libraries furnish their distance users with services through a variety of methods which include: providing electronic resources, offering intercampus lending arrangements, purchasing core collections from other schools for one-time programs, partnering with public libraries, and providing toll-free phone numbers, e-mail reference service, and book and document delivery services. The Medical Library Association and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries supports the collaborative efforts of health care professionals, researchers, public officials, and the lay public to advance distance medical learning activities. S. Heidenreich.

Tumlin, Markel D. “Serials for Distance Education Research Projects: What Are We Missing?” Serials Review 28, no. 3 (Autumn 2002): 206-212.
Distance education students have research and resource needs that are difficult for librarians to meet. Issues related to using periodical indexes, locating appropriate citations, acquiring copies of needed articles, and incorporating the ideas from the articles into a research paper are all heightened when the student is remote from the librarian and the library collection. The author discusses several factors inherent in distance learning that make it difficult to achieve the equivalency in services that is recommended in the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. Research in serial publications is complicated even for on-campus students, and the complications are more tangled for those who are at a distance. The author covers issues related to instructional, reference, and access services; providing equivalent services will not be possible without extra funding. J. Marshall.

Vare, Lynn S. “A Study of Tertiary Library Services for Distance Education in New Zealand Institutions: Do We Need National Guidelines?” New Zealand Libraries 14 (2002): 255-261. Condensed version of Library Services for Distance Education in New Zealand Tertiary Institutions: Do We Need National Guidelines? MLIS project, Victoria University of Wellington, 2002. 81 pp.
Twelve essential services, as identified in the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services and Canadian Library Association’s (CLA) Guidelines for Library Support of Distance and Distributed Learning in Canada, were selected to form the basis of a survey of 33 New Zealand public tertiary institutions. The survey sought to determine the extent to which these libraries were providing the 12 identified services, and whether there was a need to develop national guidelines in New Zealand. Twenty-five of the 33 institutions surveyed were providing distance courses. The survey found that the majority of libraries provided most of the essential services, but that the levels of services offered differed greatly. Some institutions provided no services for off-campus students whatsoever. Based on the findings, the author recommends the development of national guidelines for New Zealand, as well as the creation of a special interest group within Library Information Association New Zealand for distance library services. A. Prestamo.


Indian Library Association. Sectional Committee on Distance Education. Guidelines for Library Services to Distance Learners. Approved by the Council of Indian Library Association on 28th July, 2001.
Realizing the growth in popularity of the flexibility that distance learning programs make available, the Indian Library Association, through the Sectional Committee on Distance Education, has drafted and approved Guidelines for Library Services to Distance Learners. These generic Guidelines apply to the library’s significant role in the facilitation of learning and information literacy through the provision of library resources to the open universities and correspondence course institutes that serve distance learners on the continent of India. The mission scope, target groups, and definitions are outlined. The details of the Philosophy, Management, Finance, Personnel, Facilities, Resources, Services, Documentation & Research, Publicity, and Library Education components are described in outline format. The author states that implementation may take place through entering into a Memo of Understanding with India’s Distance Education Council. The document includes a list of the members of the Committee on Distance Education. M. Thomas.

Kennedy, David. “New Standards or Old? An Issue for Teachers Supporting Distance Learners.” Vine (London), no.122 (March 2001): 48-53.
Online distance education is defined as educational material delivered to students in text form, both electronic and print, and tutorial support offered through information and communications technology. Standards for distance education should be meaningful, measurable, able to be monitored, and manageable. Guidelines for distance education teaching standards have already been written by groups such as the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, the Open and Distance Learning Quality Council (UK), the South African Institute of Distance Learning, the Indira Gandhi National Open University of India, and the University of Wisconsin-Extension (USA). Individual educational institutions should also set their own standards for distance education teaching and support services. Five areas to address for instructional standards are: communication, support before the course begins, support with the learning process, support with the content of the course, and support with the assessable component of the course. Distance education teachers and students should have a contract, formal or informal, that specifies participation expectations for each side. Collaboration between teachers, academic support services, and students should be reflected in distance education standards. S. Heidenreich.

RUSA Business Reference and Services Section. “Serving Business Distance Education Students: A Checklist for Librarians.” Reference and User Services Quarterly 41, no. 2 (Winter 2001): 144-158.
The Business Reference and Services Section (BRASS) surveyed librarians serving business Distance Education (DE) students to investigate if some unique aspects existed and were attention-worthy enough to create new guidelines. The results revealed some key points: MBA was the most common type of distance education, the home institution’s own state was the most commonly cited location for offering DE to the business students, and library services to distance students varied among different institutions. The predominant view in the survey was that there were no unique issues, but some comments indicated otherwise. By acknowledging issues unique to libraries and librarians serving business distance students and emphasizing important issues and challenges, BRASS developed a checklist, complementing the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. To better serve the business distance students, a virtual library tailored to their needs, is absolutely important. Coordination of existing library services (e.g. circulation, document delivery, reference assistance) should be adequate to support distant access. Access to electronic resources necessitates licensing and technical support issues. Relationships need to be fostered with faculty who are instrumental in promoting library services to the distance students. Serving international distance students is more challenging as issues revolving access to local library resources in students’ own country, technical problems, cultural communications barriers need to be resolved. The need to develop and promote a content-rich, user-friendly website specifically for the distance students and to have this as a link from the business school’s web page is paramount. A need for building partnerships and cooperative agreements with other libraries is essential. Future recommendations included accreditation standards, information literacy, copyright, and licensing which were identified as key areas of concern. M. Chakraborty.

Slade, Alexander L. “Quality Assurance in Library Services for Distance Learning: International Perspectives for Library Administrators.” Advances in Library Administration and Organization 18 (2001): 225-244.
The distance education literature has been largely silent on the topic of library services, leaving it to librarians to articulate the need for library services. American library initiatives and guidelines for quality service have extensively documented, but information on initiatives in other countries has been limited. The author’s stated purpose in this article is to highlight efforts that focus on quality assurance for library services outside the US. Four factors that have fostered differences in library services and quality assurance efforts in the US from those efforts in other countries: (1) the influence and requirements of regional accrediting agencies; (2) national guidelines; (3) greater access to other libraries in the US; and (4) prevalence of the extended campus model in the US. Overviews and histories of guidelines from Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom are presented. In addition, summaries of quality assurance efforts at three individual institutions are provided. The author notes that the international literature documents library contributions to distance learning through a shift from physical to electronic libraries, through collaborative efforts to integrate access to information technologies within the learning environment. In developing countries, however, the literature emphasizes barriers to services. To foster improvement in quality assurance for library services a list of twelve action items for university and library administrators. The author concludes that librarians in most countries are working toward quality assurance, even though these efforts are manifested in different ways. As we move toward the ideal of a totally electronic delivery and support system, new benchmarks for quality should emphasize inclusion of librarians in course development, and instruction, training, and support for students and faculty to empower them to derive the greatest benefit from the available services and resources. A. Prestamo.


Association of College and Research Libraries. Distance Learning Section. Guidelines Committee. “Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services.” College & Research Libraries News 61, no. 11 (December 2000): 1023-1029.
The most recent revision of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services were approved by the ACRL Board of Direction and the American Library Association’s Standards Committee in 2000. This latest revision updates earlier versions of guidelines adopted in 1990, 1981, and 1963. Factors driving the revision included these critical factors: non-traditional study becoming a more commonplace element in higher education; an increase in diversity of educational opportunities; an increase in the number of unique environments where educational opportunities are offered; an increased recognition of the need for library resources and services at locations other than main campuses; an increased concern and demand for equitable services for all students in higher education, no matter where the “classroom” may be; a greater demand for library resources and services by faculty and staff at distance learning sites; an increase in technological innovations in the transmittal of information and the delivery of courses, the decrease in central campus enrollments, the search for more cost-effective sources for post-secondary education, and the appearance and rapid development of the virtual or all-electronic university, having no physical campus of its own. A presentation of definitions and philosophy serve as an introduction to the guidelines, which are divided into the following areas: Management, Finances, Personnel, Facilities, Resources, Services, Documentation, and Library Education. Each of these sections enumerates minimal goals and objectives that libraries should meet. The final section, Revising the Guidelines, provides a description of the revision process, and provides a context for these revisions. A. Prestamo.

Australian Library and Information Association. Distance Education Special Interest Group (DESIG). “Guidelines for Library Services for Offshore Students: Amended Draft.” DESIGnation, no. 19 (June 2000): 6-7.
This one-page document summarizes Guidelines proposed by the Distance Education Special Interest Group (DESIG) of the Australian Library and Information Association [ALIA] in 2000. Following brief definitions, the document states that services available to offshore students should mirror those available to distance education students residing in Australia. These services include: postal loans service, table of contents service, photocopy service, fax service, information services, library electronic resources, and information literacy programs. The document states that these proposed guidelines should be forwarded to the DESIG membership for feedback, and then to ALIA for endorsement. A. Prestamo.

Canadian Library Association. Library Services for Distance Learning Interest Group. Guidelines for Library Support of Distance and Distributed Learning in Canada. 2000. Online. Available: http://www.cla.ca/Content/NavigationMenu/Resources/PositionStatements/Guidelines_for_Libra.htm
The Canadian Library Association’s (CLA) Guidelines for Library Support of Distance and Distributed Learning in Canada (2000) update earlier guidelines originally adopted in 1993. The introduction state that the CLA Guidelines were modeled on the ACRL guidelines, but are somewhat narrower in scope to better outline issues and recommendations appropriate to the Canadian context. The guidelines begin with definitions and parameters and a description of the overriding philosophy. The guidelines themselves are divided into the following sections: Finances, Administration, Personnel, Facilities, Resources, Services, Publicity, and Professional Development. Each section outlines minimal recommended elements, as well as examples of activities that meet the guidelines. The document concludes with a history of the development and revision process. A. Prestamo.

Caspers, Jean, Jack Fritts, and Harvey Gover. “Beyond the Rhetoric: A Study of the Impact of the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services on Selected Distance Learning Programs in Higher Education.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 83-97. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 127-148.
Several efforts are currently under way to track the usefulness of the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. The authors sought to determine whether the Guidelines have had significant impact on libraries and institutions in the services provided, the organization and support for the services, and for the success of these programs. Ongoing data collection activities are described and the results gathered thus far are reported upon. The paper includes a detailed review of recent literature on related issues; the history and development of the Guidelines as they have evolved from their inception in 1963 to the most recent revision completed in 1998; a report on the Guidelines dissemination efforts both during and after revision, including articles and papers or presentations at library and other professional conferences; and research methodology, including phone, postal, and e-mail surveys. A. Prestamo.


Cardinal, Debbie. “Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services.” In Distance Learning ’99: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 4-6 1999, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1999, 79-83.
Subtitled “Why Do We Need the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services?” this paper begins with a scenario illustrating the concept of victim and provider libraries. This is followed by a brief overview of the ACRL Guidelines. The author continues with a reconciliation of the ACRL Guidelines with the North Central Association’s Guidelines for Distance Education. The paper concludes with a list of activities that institutions can promote, both within the library and in the larger campus context. Many of these suggestions were directed toward institutional administrators rather than librarians, and delineate what libraries, as a rule, are prepared to offer to their institutions. A. Prestamo.

Ebbinghouse, Carol. “Library Standards: Evidence of Library Effectiveness and Accreditation.” Searcher: The Magazine for Database Professionals 7, no. 8 (September 1999): 20-27.
In her position as Library Director Western State University College of Law, author Carol Ebbinghouse had the unenviable fortune to have two accreditation teams visit in the same week. The article begins with a discussion of why accreditation matters in various settings and contexts. A brief description of the accreditation process is followed by a list of specific criteria on which the library was evaluated as part of this larger process. The author also discusses the challenges and promises offered by the growth of distance learning programs, and states her intention to expand on these in future articles. The article concludes with a lengthy list of Web links for Standards and Guidelines that might be pertinent to diverse types of libraries. A. Prestamo.

Gover, Harvey and Jean Caspers. “Key Concepts in the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services.” FID Review 1, no. 2/3 (1999): 50-52.
Three of the primary participants in the 1998 revision of the ACRL Guidelines provide a brief overview of the latest revision. The authors state that the 1998 revision represents a real departure from earlier versions, including the title itself to Distance Learning Library Services, recognizing that some institutions may no longer have a physical campus. They stress that the latest Guidelines focus on providing services that are “at least equivalent” rather than merely “adequate.” The remainder of the article focuses on problems associated with providing certain services directly to distance learning students in this “at least equivalent” manner. A. Prestamo.