2004

Chakraborty, Mou and Shelley Victor. “Do’s and Don’ts of Simultaneous Instruction to the On-Campus and Distance Students via Videoconferencing.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 73-84. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 97-112.
This practical article discusses the evolution of library instruction for distance students in courses offered by the Speech-Language Pathology and Communication Disorders Department at Nova Southeastern University (NSU). The university started offering distance education through compressed video in 1994 and now has an extensive videoconferencing network: about 60 rooms on the network, both at the main campus and various off-campus locations. One of the NSU librarians traditionally offered one-hour bibliographic instruction (BI) sessions to students taking classes offered by this department. She continued this collaboration by adapting her BI program to fit the needs of the students and the instructor’s course requirements in two ways. First, the course was being offered in person at the main campus and through videoconferencing at some of the off-site locations. She used videoconferencing software and hardware to present to the off-campus students simultaneously with the on-campus students. She also expanded her BI session into a three-part class, which incorporated comments she had received from previous students and appropriate assignments. She shares some of the challenges she faced with this teaching format, along with recommendations and solutions. E. Onega.

Collins, Kathleen M. T. and Robin E. Veal. “Off-Campus Adult Learners’ Levels of Library Anxiety as a Predictor of Attitudes Toward the Internet.” Library and Information Science Research 26, no. 1 (2004): 5-14.
Questionnaires were administered to K-12 educators returning to school for postsecondary education and living more than 50 miles from campus. The results indicate that components of library anxiety such as a student’s self-perception of inadequate library skills correlate with the least positive attitudes toward educational use of the Internet. Other studies have also found a relationship between high levels of library anxiety and computer anxiety. This suggests that library instruction should include both knowledge-based and hand-on computer instruction to reduce library anxiety and overall attitudes toward the library. I. Frank.

Ivanitskaya, Lana, Ryan Laus, and Anne Marie Casey. “Research Readiness Self-Assessment: Assessing Students’ Research Skills and Attitudes.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 125-136. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 167-183.
Librarians at Central Michigan University (CMU) created an online assessment tool for their distance students. CMU offers degree programs and courses to students in over sixty centers throughout North America as well as through the web. The librarians involved with instruction for distance students believed that students perceived their research skills were better than they actually were and that the Internet provides more useful information than it does. The librarians wanted an assessment tool that they could use to more effectively reach students with user education. They began their work with a literature review and focus groups to determine key skills and attitudes that should be assessed. They, then, agreed on an assessment format: multiple choice questions about terminology, identifying plagiarism, etc.; hands-on problems to determine facility with databases and searching; and attitudinal measures to explore how and why students use the research methods they do. Since this assessment tool was being created in-house, they also addressed technical and scalability issues, as well as portability from one set of students to another. The librarians believe this tool, the Research Readiness Self Assessment (RRSA) is useful because it provides immediate feedback for students, works as both a pretest and a posttest, is adaptable to different levels and disciplines of students, and is easy for the library to maintain and administer. E. Onega.

Jones, Marie F. “Creating a Library CD for Off-Campus Students.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 137-149. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 185-202.
Originally delivered as a hands-on workshop, this paper describes the theory behind and process of creating a CD including instruction and library information for off campus students at East Tennessee State University. Some of the tutorials are also available online, but the author wanted to accommodate those students with limited bandwidth as well. Based soundly in theory, each tutorial on the CD includes Gagne and Brigg’s nine events of instruction. Software used to create the CDs is discussed, as are several tips and suggestions for some advanced PowerPoint features. The author concludes with lessons learned from the project, detailing what would be done differently the next time. P. Pival.

Sochrin, Sheri. “Learning to Teach in a New Medium: Adapting Library Instruction to a Videoconferencing Environment.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 321-330. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 429-442.
With nine remote campuses in eight states, Springfield College librarians faced challenges in providing library instruction to users located away from the main campus. After exploring a variety of remote instruction services, they opted for live videoconferencing as the best compromise, offering both personal interaction and live access to electronic resources. All courses offered at the remote campuses fell under one program, and the library targeted the first required class as the optimal way to make contact with the students. The instruction sessions were well received, but the librarians had to adapt traditional teaching styles to meet the limitations of the system. The largest problem the library faced was new equipment and lack of training and experience on the part of all users, compounded by lack of technical support during class hours. Other problems include time lags, the inability to see well enough to read facial cues, and classrooms not shaped optimally for videoconferencing. C. Biles.

2003

Cipkin, Christopher. “Using a Virtual Learning Environment to Integrate Information Skills into the Curriculum: A Subject Librarian’s Experiences.” SCONUL Newsletter, no. 27 (Winter 2002): 7-10. Also online. Available: http://www.sconul.ac.uk/pubs_stats/newsletter/27/ARTICLE2.PDF (in pdf format)
As a librarian and the music subject specialist, the author describes using Blackboard to develop four units on library and information skills for first and third year musicology students at the University of Reading. With the success of this initiative, the music program now includes library and information technology skills as stated learning outcomes. The course material and worksheets for assignments are on Blackboard. Assignments include developing an annotated bibliography, accessing and critiquing material found via online databases and websites, and preparing a literature review. Handouts with access and support information were distributed in the students’ first face-to-face class meeting. Most students managed to complete the material with little intervention, though some students did contact the library for help. Anecdotal feedback indicates that both the students and their academic tutors were pleased with the course. I. Frank.

2002

Arnold, Judith, Jennifer Sias, and Jingping Zhang. “Bringing the Library to the Students: Using Technology to Deliver Instruction and Resources for Research.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 19-25. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 27-37.
The librarians at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia, used various technologies to delivery bibliographic instruction and document deliver to their distance students. PowerPoint and SnagIt were used to create library presentations, which were then saved to a CD with the help of Adaptec’s Easy CD Creator. Completed CDs were mailed to Marshall University’s distance students. The issue of resource access was addressed when the librarians developed a Web-based, searchable database of the university’s full-text online journals. Another Web-based database of Marshall University journals called MU JOURNALS was developed to provide students with information about how to access print resources. The librarians used new technologies to address automated and unmediated document delivery services as well. ILLIAS software was used for the library’s IDS Express. This provided a method for students to download and view or save electronically delivered articles. Last but not least, the Marshall Ingenta Gateway permitted university patrons to order from Ingenta’s journal article database at no cost to them. J. Tuñón.

Cipkin, Christopher. “Using a Virtual Learning Environment to Integrate Information Skills into the Curriculum: A Subject Librarian’s Experiences.” SCONUL Newsletter, no. 27 (Winter 2002): 7-10. Also online. Available: http://www.sconul.ac.uk/pubs_stats/newsletter/27/ARTICLE2.PDF (in pdf format)
As a librarian and the music subject specialist, the author describes using Blackboard to develop four units on library and information skills for first and third year musicology students at the University of Reading. With the success of this initiative, the music program now includes library and information technology skills as stated learning outcomes. The course material and worksheets for assignments are on Blackboard. Assignments include developing an annotated bibliography, accessing and critiquing material found via online databases and websites, and preparing a literature review. Handouts with access and support information were distributed in the students’ first face-to-face class meeting. Most students managed to complete the material with little intervention, though some students did contact the library for help. Anecdotal feedback indicates that both the students and their academic tutors were pleased with the course. I. Frank.

Dunlap, Steven. “Watch for the Little Red Light: Delivery of Bibliographic Instruction by Unconventional Means.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 221-225. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 279-285.
The librarian at Golden Gate University describes how he was able to use three technologies to reach distance students in the university’s CyberCampus. He began providing information in online forums in various Web-based classes and using closed circuit broadcast and video conferencing for online training for short overviews of resources and services available to distance students. Because synchronous library training was no longer an option at Golden Gate University, these technologies allowed the librarian to reach a greater number of students than would be possible otherwise. The author concludes that librarians must be flexible, plan carefully, have at least intermediate computer skills, and work collaboratively with faculty in order to be able to successfully work in these new technological frontiers of library instruction. J. Tuñón.

Garnsey, Margaret R. “What Distance Learners Should Know About Information Retrieval on the World Wide Web.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 77 (2002): 19-30, and Distance Learning: Information Access and Services for Virtual Users, edited by Hemalata Iyer. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 19-30.
The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular way to deliver courses to distance education students. The Internet also offers these students access to information that can be used to meet their research needs. Students need to be taught how to search the Internet successfully and how to evaluate the information they find. When using search engines students need to understand that no one search engine will index all documents found on the Internet. Different search engines offer different options for searching, especially when searching involves multiple terms. Numerous studies have been done to compare Internet search engines and their effectiveness in returning relevant documents and data. The quality of the information retrieved is another area of concern and distance education students need to be taught how to evaluate the information retrieved by search engines. In general the criteria used to evaluate print sources can be applied to the evaluation of information obtained by using Internet search engines. These are grouped into criteria used to evaluate site quality and criteria used to evaluate the quality of the information on the site. S. Heidenreich.

Henner, Terry. “Bridging the Distance: Bibliographic Instruction for Remote Library Users.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 21, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 79-85.
As students indicate a desire for Web-based bibliographic instruction due to the flexibility and the self-paced structure, librarians can respond by using several different technologies. Video capture programs can produce a full motion video of a bibliographic instruction session that can then be presented on a computer desktop. Audio can be recorded to accompany the video presentation. Synchronous videoconferencing can be done using a reasonably priced, easy to use videoconferencing system. In Nevada, a statewide PicTel videoconferencing network uses a compressed video system run over T1 lines and shown in “smart” classrooms equipped with specialized teaching stations. Desktop conferencing systems, such as Microsoft NetMeeting, are an alternative to videoconferencing systems. These systems transmit over the Internet and do not require dedicated compression hardware and video monitors. Microsoft NetMeeting is available at no cost and has minimal hardware requirements. Details are provided about Microsoft NetMeeting’s features as well as some of the problems that may be encountered when using this system. S. Heidenreich.

Holmes, Katherine E. “A Kaleidoscope of Learning Styles: Instructional Supports that Meet the Diverse Needs of Distant Learners.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 287-294. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 367-378.
Before starting to design their library tutorial, the university librarians at Lesley University examined several learning style theories including theories by David A. Kolb and Nishikant Sonwalkar as well as research based on Kolb’s findings. The librarians learned that accommodators (what Kolb terms people who prefer to learn from people rather than objects) appeared to have the most difficulties in online classes. Based on these conclusions, the librarians then examined various library tutorials to locate ones that personalized the interactions with students. The three identified as particularly useful were the Blais Tutorial from the Libraries of Claremont Colleges, MAGS (Magician) Tutorial from the University of California Riverside, and TILT from the University of Texas. It was concluded that Sonwalkar’s theory that instruction needs to shift away from static approaches and begin providing students with alternative methods of receiving and absorbing information in more personalized, interactive learning environments had important implications for the design of library instruction tools. Armed with these conclusions, the librarians hope that Lesley University will be able to build a library tutorial that is a “kaleidoscope through which students can bring into focus the multiple options of their library research.” J. Tuñón.

Kinder, Robin. “Instructional Services for Distance Education.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 77 (2002): 63-70, and Distance Learning: Information Access and Services for Virtual Users, edited by Hemalata Iyer. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 63-70.
Library instruction for distance learners is an area that has been overlooked, contends the author. Despite recommendations in the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services to provide instruction for distant students in the use of library resources, current efforts have not been adequate. Relying on reference services and existing, largely passive, Web pages falls short of what the author suggests must be instruction that is “purposefully programmed and designed with the same commitment given to traditional class instruction.” The importance of having a dedicated distance education liaison librarian as an advocate for student-oriented distance education library services is emphasized. J. Markgraf.

Ronayne, Betty and Debbie Rogenmoser. “Library Research Instruction for Distance Learners: An Interactive, Multimedia Approach.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 187-196.
The library at California State University, Sacramento (CSUS), developed a pilot program for distance learners in the fall of 1998 that was extended to all distance learners the following year. The design and promotion went smoothly, but the librarians found that the bulk of their work entailed maintenance of the Web pages. They taught one-shot sessions via interactive television (ITV) and found that team-teaching worked well in this environment due to the passive position played by ITV audiences. The librarians conclude that collaboration and teamwork worked well in their setting but that they are also the best approach no matter what technology is used. Successful library instruction should go always beyond a course’s objectives to also help students cope with broader issues they might encounter with academic bureaucracy and new technologies. J. Tuñón.

Ruttenberg, Judy and Elizabeth Housewright. “Assessing Library Instruction for Distance Learners: A Case Study of Nursing Students.” In Managing Library Instruction Programs in Academic Libraries: Selected Papers Presented at the 29th National LOEX Library Instruction Conference, edited by Julia K. Nims and Eric Owen. Library Orientation Series, No. 33. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press, 2002, 137-148.
A California State University, Fullerton, pilot study measured the effectiveness of bibliographic instruction program offered to nursing students residing off-campus and to those studying on-campus. 45 of 57 nursing students responded to a pre/post -test and user satisfaction survey was given at then end of a month-long library instruction module. The same bibliographic instruction session was simultaneously given to on-campus students and was delivered via NetMeeting to the distance students. Results revealed that the control group, the on-campus and off-campus all showed improvement in their post-test scores, as all participants benefited from the bibliographic instruction sessions; however, the satisfaction portion of the survey revealed a slight difference in satisfaction levels among distance versus on-campus students. The authors will use the results and evaluation of this study to further improve real-time instruction and to implement improved technology for electronic delivery. Included in the appendices are the Library skills test and the Satisfaction Survey. M. Thomas.

Tuñón, Johanna. “Creating a Research Literacy Course for Education Doctoral Students: Design Issues and Political Realities of Developing Online and Face-to-Face Instruction.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 397-405. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2003): 515-527.
This case study examines the instructional design process for online and traditional face-to-face versions of an elective one-credit library research class that was offered to doctoral education students at Nova Southeastern University. After describing the instructional design process and implementation methods used for WebCT and for the face-to-face class at the 2001 Summer Institute for students in the Higher Education EdD program, the author evaluates the success of the implementation of the synchronous and asynchronous versions of the information literacy course that she designed and taught. In her summative assessment of the pros and cons of the two delivery methods, the author concludes that neither method was clearly superior. The online version allowed the content to be delivered sequentially and developmentally with weekly activities while the all-day traditional class had the advantage of allowing face-to-face interactions and hands-on activities. However, rather than finding a “silver bullet” that would provide the answer to how to design effective information literacy courses, the article points out a more pragmatic and mundane truth: University politics can often play the critical role in the design decisions made that impact library courses taught both on and off campus. J. Tuñón.

Wakaruk, Amanda. “Creating a Distance Education Tool-Set for Course Based Business Information Instruction.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 131-140, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 131-140.
The librarian at Old Dominion University describes the suite of distance learning tools she developed for the students in the College of Business and Public Administration. She collaborated with instructors to provide videoconferencing although she had difficulties with the legibility of Web pages and image files in this medium. Course-based research guides were posted on the Web and had the advantage over more traditional print handouts of also permitting students to access hotlinks to various business resources online. Web-based tutorials like the multi-module Industry and Company Tutorial worked well as a supplement for on-campus instruction and a tutorial for the online students. In addition, the librarian was also able to link between various tools as well as using asynchronous communications via email to bridge between the various Internet business tools and library services. J. Tuñón.

2001

Fourie, Ina. “The Use of CAI for Distance Teaching in the Formulation of Search Strategies.” Library Trends 50, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 110-129.
The Department of Information Science at the University of South Africa (Unisa) developed computer-assisted instruction tutorial for distance students so that they would know how to prepare search strategies. Because students participated via correspondence courses, Unisa first developed a tutorial to the students in 1992 using the DOS system, but the tutorial later migrated to Windows 3 and finally in 1998 to Windows 95. The author describes how the situation was analyzed and how learning content, technologies, and outcomes were determined for the instructional design process. Although the summative evaluation had not been completed at the time of the writing of the article, the author concludes that CAI had proved to be an effective method for teaching Unisa online distance students how to develop computer search strategies. J. Tuñón.

Hricko, Mary. “Developing Library Instruction for Distance Learning.” Paper presented at the 6th Annual Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference, Murfreesboro, TN, April 8-10, 2001. ERIC ED 463 729. Also online. Available: http://www.mtsu.edu/~itconf/proceed01/24.pdf (in pdf format)
Videoconferencing, computer-mediated instruction, and Web-based instruction are all methods used by Kent State University librarians to provide bibliographic instruction to distance education students. Videoconferencing uses a system of sending compressed audio and video signals over a dedicated line. Issues to consider when using videoconferencing include: instruction planning, having library staff at remote locations to assist students, completing a trial run of the presentation, and presenting course material in segments during the session. Guidelines for videoconference sessions are detailed. Computer-mediated instruction is done in real time but also requires a great deal of planning and preparation time. Kent State University librarians developed three subject-specific sessions to use via computer-mediated instruction. In this learning environment, interaction is extremely important and different types of interaction are listed and discussed. Web-based instruction can be as simple as “how-to” guides or as complex as course tutorials. When developing Web-based instruction clear objectives should be stated and attention should be given to page design, use of images, and the placement and use of hyperlinks. Regardless of the method chosen for distance education bibliographic instruction it is vital for librarians to collaborate with faculty. S. Heidenreich.

Race, Stephanie F. and Rachel Viggiano. “It’s Not BI, It’s VI – Virtual Instruction for Distance Learners.” In National Online 2001: Proceedings of the 22nd National Online Meeting, New York, May 15-17, 2001, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2001, 377-383.
The Florida Distance Learning Reference and Referral Center (RRC) started providing learning research support to distance students at 73 colleges and universities throughout Florida in 1997. Students were able to contact the librarians by toll-free phone, email, and Web forms. The RRC librarians provided bibliographic instruction at sites or to individuals via phone and email. However, to reach students who took classes online, the RRC began to consider the possibility of using chat software in 2000 and went live with RRChat in May of that year. At the time of the writing of the article, about 130 students had been instructed using chats. Problems included software limitations for collaborative browsing with students and difficulties marketing the services to students and faculty throughout the Florida system. Since distance students seem to miss the social interactions found in traditional classrooms, the RRC planned to eventually offer open sessions on a variety of topics and create a gathering place where distance users could meet online. J. Tuñón.

Viggiano, Rachel and Meredith Ault. “Online Library Instruction for Online Students.” Information Technology and Libraries 20, no. 3 (September 2001): 135-138.
Librarians at the Florida Distance Learning Library Initiative’s Reference and Referral Center (RRC) used chat rooms to offer online bibliographic instruction synchronously to distance learners throughout the state of Florida. ConferenceRoom Professional Edition chat software produced by WebMaster was utilized. The RRC offered RRChat as a pilot service in April of 2000 for real-time reference assistance. Instructional services were used for one-on-one reference help and were used particularly for troubleshooting technical problems for students with only one telephone line. The librarians also offered instructional sessions using chat software. These instructional chat sessions were found to work best when two librarians worked as a team: one to lead the class and the other to help with individual problems and off-topic questions. The authors note that classes that were limited to less than ten students per session also proved more effective. ConferenceRoom software, however, did have some disadvantages. Although it permitted librarians to “push” URLs to students, it was limited by the fact that it did not permit collaborative browsing. Less technologically savvy students often found it overwhelming to try to learn how to use both online databases and chat software simultaneously. Nevertheless, at the time of the writing of the article, the RRC planned to continue to use chat software for bibliographic instruction. J. Tuñón.

2000

Barsun, Rita. “Computer Mediated Conferencing, E-Mail, Telephone: A Holistic Approach to Meeting Students’ Needs.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 19-27. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 31-44.
The librarian at Walden University discusses the merits of Computer-Mediated Conferencing (CMC) for library instruction in an online orientation course, Psych8000. The article describes how library training was integrated throughout the course. The librarian first contacted students by letter, but email and a toll-free number were used throughout the course for communication. Messages were also posted at teachable moments that were tied to the course’s weekly objectives and activities. The librarian helped students learn about the strengths and weaknesses of various resources and provided individualized advising for the students’ library assignments. Emphasis was put on the social objectives of building community and fostering ownership in the process. The author concludes that the online barriers of an online technology like Computer-Mediated Conferencing for effective library training can be surmounted if librarians devote enough time and effort in helping students via use of a communications network that includes a wide array of tooling that includes email, telephone calls, and face-to-face interactions. J. Tuñón.

Gibson, Craig and Jane Scales. “Going the Distance (and Back Again): A Distance Education Course Comes Home.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 233-244, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 233-244.
GenEd300 is a general education course delivered students on the main campus, but it evolved from an earlier 1995 course on research and Internet skills offered to Washington State University’s (WSU) distance education social science majors. The original course used a video- and course-guide format used by the Extended Degree Program. The conceptual framework was introduced via videos and course guides, but exercises and case studies were used to test understanding. A grant in 1997 made it possible for the librarians at Washington State University to transform the course into a tutorial that could be used as part of the general education curriculum. The new product was linked to specific WSU research-oriented courses and officially included in the General Education program in the fall of 1998 as GenEd300. The authors conclude that the history of the course’s evolution demonstrates how strong administrative support and collaboration can make it possible to integrate a library course into the university’s curriculum. J. Tuñón.

Henning, Mary M. “Closing the Gap: Using Conferencing Software to Connect Distance Education Students and Faculty.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 157-165. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 233-246.
The University of Wyoming Libraries partnered with Sheridan College Library and Denison Memorial Library at the University of Colorado in using CU-SeeMe, desktop videoconferencing software, to promote learning outreach and communications for the rural states of Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska. CU-SeeMe technology allowed users on both ends to see shared materials as well as communicate. Librarians assessed the effectiveness of this emerging technology for providing library training and support to distance students in a medical technology cohort. They experienced a number of technology glitches, particularly when working with more than a couple of students at a time. The author concludes that the technology was still immature at the time of the writing of the article, but she points out that it may have potential for library applications in the future. J. Tuñón.

Holmes, Katherine and Cynthia Farr Brown. “Meeting Adult Learners, Wherever They May Be: If It’s Thursday, It Must Be Thermopolis!” In Teaching the New Library to Today’s Users: Reaching International, Minority, Senior Citizens, Gay/Lesbian, First-Generation, At-Risk, Graduate and Returning Students, and Distance Learners, edited by Trudi E. Jacobson and Helene C. Williams. The New Library Series, Number 4. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000, 221-235.
Collaboration between a librarian, Katherine Holmes, and a faculty member, Cynthia Brown, at Lesley College resulted in library research skills being taught in a single class. Eventually, however, their partnership expanded to incorporate library instruction in the core courses for an entire academic program. The two started by co-teaching the Educational Research and Evaluation course, but this expanded when the faculty and librarians collaborated to include technology and library literacy into the core curriculum for Lesley’s School of Education. Because classes met at 125 sites for intensive weekend classes, faculty would take library videos and handouts to support this curriculum. The videos, entitled “Look Over My Shoulder”, modeled how to search Web-based resources utilizing PowerPoint slides, captured transcriptions of computer transactions, video clips, and narrated voiceovers. Because of the limitations of so many off-campus classes offered during the same weekends, instructors acted “‘in loco librarian'”. The authors conclude that it is important that library training take a system approach to searching rather than providing instruction that only focuses on how to use specific tools. J. Tuñón.

Jayne, Elaine Anderson. “The Librarian as Bricoleur: Meeting the Needs of Distance Learners.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 161-170, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 161-170.
The article focuses on the tools used to reach the Western Michigan University’s (WMU) adult learners via the off-campus library program. Librarians’ tools were compared to the French term for handyman &endash; bicoleur &endash; because librarians utilize useful resources that happen to be at hand to design comparable services for distance and on-campus students. The tools used by WMU librarians were described in more detail. First of all, library staff would make a circuit around to various distance sites to provide one-shot library training sessions. Follow-up truncated sessions by librarians were then marketed to instructors via flyers and follow-up phone calls. Librarians offered Open Labs that provided drop-in help sessions for students and distributed a Library Guide for Continuing Education Students. Students were encouraged to obtain reference research assistance by calling the continuing education librarians at regional centers rather than completing a form as had been done in the past. Last but not least, a one-credit library skills class was offered via Continuing Education. WMU librarians hope to be able to create crossover tools in the future that can be used for students both on and off campus as well as to an increasing number of traditional students who choose to take classes remotely. J. Tuñón.

Jobe, Margaret M. and Deborah S. Grealy. “The Role of Libraries in Providing Curricular Support and Curricular Integration for Distance Learning Courses.” Advances in Librarianship 23 (2000): 239-267.
Information literacy and information self-sufficiency are important skills for distance students. This article examines the role of librarians in collaborating with academic programs in higher education to better support the library needs of distance students. After a thorough examination of the history of library services and the current challenges, the authors conclude that there is a basic paradigm shift from a library being seen as a building to a collection of services that students can access from anywhere. Providing bibliographic instruction and reference services to students in this new environment will present an increasingly important challenge if libraries are to meet the challenges presented by the nontraditional learning environments that technology and market forces have introduced. J. Tuñón.

Pival, Paul R. and Johanna Tuñón. “Innovative Methods for Providing Instruction to Distance Students Using Technology.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 231-238. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 347-360.
This article examines various technologies that librarians can use to deliver bibliographic instruction to distance students including collaborative group software called NetMeeting, videoconferencing, streaming media, and a course-management software for Web-based courses called WebCT. Of the two synchronous technologies discussed, compressed video was found to work well in “talking head” situations, but it was not so effective when training students how to use online databases. NetMeeting provided usable images at distance sites, but students had few opportunities to interact with the librarian doing the training. Streaming media provided students with a multimedia medium asynchronously, but students seemed to feel that this approach lacked interactivity. The authors conclude that WebCT was the technology that was easiest to work with and the most versatile for librarians’ instructional purposes. J. Tuñón.

Zilius, Pamela and Deborah Tenofsky. “Remote Real-Time Library Instruction via Cable Television.” Research Strategies 17, no. 2/3 (2000): 231-236.
In 1996, the University of Michigan Science librarians undertook a pilot program that utilized the institution’s cable television system (UMTV) to offer synchronous, point-of-need library instruction. The library was looking for a way to expand library instruction beyond face-to-face interactions in the classroom. As a result, Biology 301 (Writing for Biology) was selected to use for the University of Michigan librarians to pilot their project because the class was large, students were required to do two research papers, and the professor was interested in working with the librarians on the project. Faculty and teaching assistants were provided with an orientation, students were offered optional sessions at the library, and librarians were available during class lectures to answer students’ questions via the cable television system. In the assessment, the authors conclude that students were not very positive about the pilot, but they attributed this to resistance to a new technology. J. Tuñón.

1999

Tuñón, Johanna. “Integrating Bibliographic Instruction for Distance Education Doctoral Students into the Child and Youth Studies Program at Nova Southeastern University.” Ed.D. practicum report, Nova Southeastern University, 1999. ERIC ED 440 639.
This doctoral practicum describes the author’s efforts to integrate bibliographic instruction into the curriculum of doctoral education students in the Child and Youth Studies (CYS) Program at Nova Southeastern University. Until then, EdD students at NSU had not been receiving more than one-shot introductions to library resources and services to help them in the writing of their literature reviews. The librarian was able to successfully work with the CYS program to provide library instruction through a three-pronged approach that included an initial introduction for students at their cluster sites when they entered the program, a second, more advanced session at the sites when they started preparing to write their literature reviews, and a third optional session when students came to Fort Lauderdale for their Summer Institute. In formative and summative assessments, the author concludes that providing instruction in several separate activities that permitted learning to build sequentially and developmentally proved to be a successful strategy. J. Tuñón.

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