2005

Cervone, H. F. “Open source software to support distance learning library services.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 3/4, (2005): 147-158.
Cervone defines what open source software is and what it can do for the distance learning library and its clients. In addition, he covers some of the issues necessary to consider when making the decision to choose open source or turnkey software. Cost, control, licensing and support issues are covered. M. Horan

Welburn, William C. “Thwarted Innovation in Context: Implications for Libraries, Library and Information Science Education, and Emerging Practice.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 2, no. 1 (2005): 51-61.
A discussion of Zemsky and Massy’s 2004 report, Thwarted Innovation: What Happened to e-learning and Why, indicates budgetary support, course development, student enthusiasm, and pedagogical innovation for e-learning have not risen to predicted levels. While addressing these issues in terms of professional library education, the author draws upon C. P. Snow’s The Two Cultures to emphasize the danger that online learning will contribute to the development of unequal, divergent cultures in higher education. Many LIS programs have created dual tracks that distinguish between on-site and distance students, contributing to a cultural divide within these programs, rather than integrating both groups in a virtual community. Since corporate training models have embraced online teaching more thoroughly, the further development of e-learning should see increased opportunities for professional development and collaborative learning. The author challenges libraries to explore how to create a sense of the online library as a place for academic study and how to translate the physical community into a virtual one. J. Brandt.

2004

Black, Nancy E. “Blessing or Curse?: Distance Delivery to Students with Invisible Disabilities.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 33-45. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 47-64.
Students with learning disabilities are increasingly entering post-secondary education and some of those students will also be distance students. Librarians have already removed barriers for distance students in using the library for research and can adapt their experience to also work with students that have learning disabilities. The author includes a discussion of three studies that determined how beneficial instructional computer technology was to students with learning disabilities. Technology often benefited these students, even when the technology was not specifically designed for them. The pros and cons identified in the studies should be considered when librarians design web pages and seek ways to integrate technologies adapted for people with disabilities. In practical terms, librarians should assume that some distance students will have learning and other disabilities and be ready to help these students by working with people in their institutions that are knowledgeable about special needs and accommodations for students with disabilities. Librarians should also be aware of legislation, technology, and information from disciplines such as psychology and education that may affect our services. E. Onega.

Cooke, Nicole A. “The Role of Libraries in Web-Based Distance Education: An Account and an Analysis of the Impact of Web Technology on Distance Learning – What Remains Unchanged, What is Changing.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 4 (2004): 47-57.
The impact of Web-based instruction is described, including an overview of its history, benefits, challenges, and effects on libraries. The dramatic increase in the number distance learning programs since the implementation of Web-based courses is described. An important benefit of online courses highlighted is the expansion of educational opportunities to non-traditional students. The effect of Web-based instruction on teaching strategies and learning environments is considered both a challenge and a potential benefit, as traditional, teacher-centric lectures are superceded by student-centered, self-paced learning environments. Other concerns raised by online education programs include quality control, evaluation, and academic integrity. Challenges to libraries highlighted include providing equitable service to distance learners, staffing issues, and the demand on financial resources. The author outlines likely changes in store for libraries, including a growing number of distance learners and minority students, an increased need for library marketing, and an enhanced role for collaboration with faculty and administrators. J. Brandt.

Jurkowski, Odin L “Academic Library Web Sites and Distance Education: A Content Analysis.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 3 (2004): 29-50.
The content of seventeen academic library websites is analyzed for features of interest to distance learners. Statistical analysis indicates a significant correlation exists between the size of the institution and the number of features on its website. No significant relationship was found between the number of features and the amount of distance education offered by the institution. Library websites for colleges and universities that were primarily distance education institutions offered fewer features than institutions that offered less distance learning. The author concludes many institutions are jumping into distance education unprepared and are not offering the full range of web-based services needed by distance learners. A coding sheet for website features is included in the appendix. J Brandt.

MacMillian, Don. “Web-Based Worksheets in the Classroom.” Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning 1, no. 2 (2004): 43-51.
Web-based worksheets are brief learning guides developed for library instruction delivered in lecture classrooms, interactive computer labs, and online tutorials. The advantages of web-based presentations versus PowerPoint slides are discussed. General pedagogical benefits are described, and specific advantages for students, instructors and libraries are highlighted. The ease of updating content, flexibility of design, possibility of reuse by other library staff, and bandwidth savings are listed as significant benefits. Exposure to the same content and layout in an online demonstration, print handout, and hands-on exercise increases the likelihood students will return to the material at their point of need. Effective design principles are discussed, and a list of specific design tips is provided. J Brandt.

2003

Kelley, Kimberly B. and Gloria J. Orr. “Trends in Distant Student Use of Electronic Resources: A Survey.” College & Research Libraries 64, no. 3 (May 2003): 176-191.
The results of a University of Maryland University College (UMUC) survey of student library use and satisfactions are presented. Because UMUC’s students take the majority of their classes online as opposed to in a traditional face-to-face classroom, the survey results elucidate library use by distance learners. The findings confirm other studies and observations suggesting that students prefer using online resources to physical library buildings and collections. In exploring eight research questions about library and web usage, the authors found that students ranked full-text library databases and off-campus access to the library catalog as the most useful library services provided. Respondents also indicated a preference for web-based delivery of library instruction over other methods of instruction, and found web-based information about library services more useful than other formats. Other questions revealed that access to more full-text information would compel students to use library services more often and that the students in this study reflect national trends in exhibiting an increased reliance on the free Web resources. The results of this survey are compared to results of a similar survey conducted five years earlier. J. Markgraf.

Shank, John D. and Nancy H. Dewald. “Establishing Our Presence in Courseware: Adding Library Services to the Virtual Classroom.” Information Technology and Libraries 22, no. 1 (March 2003): 38-43.
Supplemental course software packages (courseware) such as Blackboard and WebCT have been integrated into nearly one in five college courses. While many libraries have generally not participated in the development and implementation of courseware, the authors assert the importance having a library presence in this domain. Benefits to libraries include the ability to distribute resources (such as research guides and websites), extra communication tools, and a potential medium for assessment. The paper discusses options librarians have when working directly with individual faculty members, including online instruction, specialized pathfinders, links to databases recommended for specific assignments, guides to appropriate style sheets, access to an individual librarian, tutorials, quizzes, and student questionnaires. Working directly with faculty on specific courses is very time-intensive. The authors also discuss more general options including adding resources into the university’s general courseware interface, including links to the OPAC and databases, global pathfinders, a virtual reference desk, and document delivery services. J. Brandt.

2002

Burgstahler, Sheryl. “Distance Learning: The Library’s Role in Ensuring Access to Everyone.” Library Hi Tech 20, no. 4 (2002): 420-432.
Libraries can take specific steps to ensure that all distance learning students and instructors, whether disabled or not, enjoy full access to electronic resources. The assumption is often made that internet-based options eliminate all barriers of time, distance, and physical disabilities; however, the author demonstrates that current assistance technology cannot provide full access to web resources which have not been created according to principles of “universal design.” For example, assistive technology for the blind do not give access to pictures and scanned documents saved in image form; deaf individuals are denied the content of audio output if no captions are provided. As the author points out, libraries have not only an ethical mandate to ensure full access to e-resources to all, but a legal mandate as well through Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Since planning for complete access before mounting course pages and before providing electronic resources is easier and less expensive than providing access after the fact, the author gives examples of institutions which have developed or use principles of universal design to provide resources which are accessible for all. In addition, she lists specific steps libraries can take to encourage their universities, and other agencies to create policies, procedures, and guidelines ensuring the creation and maintenance of accessible web resources. The author stresses the necessity of including all stakeholders, i.e., instructors, librarians, IT staff, and people with disabilities, in these steps. P. Ortega.

Burich, Nancy J. “Blackboard and XanEdu: A New Model for an Old Service.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 77-92. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 101-116.
In 2001 Kansas University (UK) explored partnering with XanEdu to provide electronic reserves for several courses through the BlackBoard course management system. “XanEdu is a division of ProQuest with access to the vast archive that once was UMI.” Starting with one course and later expanding to four more, various issues in the delivery of electronic reserves were explored. Students would pay for the electronic course packs, so no expenses were incurred by the library for this trial. This is not insignificant as one of the revelations of the trial was that providing electronic access is not inexpensive. For the first course the cost per student was initially $157.34, but after culling the reading list that cost was reduced to $73.02 per student. Issues raised during the trial included copyright, fair use, materials already acquired by UK, scalability, affordability, and alternative models. Several useful appendices are included with this paper. P. Pival.

Cain, Darrell L. and Barbara Lockee. Student Support Services at a Distance: Are Institutions Meeting the Needs of Distance Learners? 2002. ERIC ED 468 729.
The authors report on their literature review of support services for distance learners. They found that, while ample research has been done which indicates that strong support services have a beneficial impact on the academic success and retention of traditional, on-campus students, little research has been conducted on their impact on distance learners. Most of the literature on the topic has been descriptive reports rather than studies. The article examines literature about academic support, academic advising, library support, career advising, tutoring support, and mentoring support. The authors conclude that very little research has been conducted to determine if such web-based services are provided and if they have the same impact on distance learners as on traditional students. As such, there is a great need to investigate web-based academic support systems. P. Ortega.

Corfield, Antony, Matthew Dovey, Richard Mawby, and Colin Tatham. “A Visual Tookit for Information Retrieval.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 273-292.
A very technical overview of the JAFER product is given. JAFER (Java Access For Electronic Resources) is an open source project developed in 2001 by the Joint Information System Committee (JISC) in the UK. Providing a visual shell for configuring Z39.50 access, JAFER can provide several functions. It can be used as a linking service, to link from a reading list to a record in a bibliographic database or to local holdings information. Or it can be used in reverse, to create a list of selected readings in a “shopping basket” analogy, where the user selects citations from a database, and a web page of readings with links back to the source is created. Finally, JAFER can be configured to act as a proxy server as well. The main advantage of the product is “to allow users to take advantage of Z39.50’s capability more easily.” P. Pival.

Felts, Jr., John W., “Never Having to Say You’re Sorry: An Integrated, WWW-Based Software Solution for Providing Comprehensive Access to Journal Literature.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 239-248. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 305-316.
Jackson Library at the University of North Carolina Greensboro has developed a product that “offers patrons access to virtually any journal article through one simple WWW form.” Journal Finder was launched in August 2001, a successor to an earlier project. Journal Finder was built over the course of three months by six librarians and staff. Running on a Microsoft SQL server using ASP scripts, the product allows patrons to enter a journal title, then returns a list of access methods, including Online, In the Library, Document Delivery, or Other Libraries. No other information (ISSN, description of the title, etc) is included in an attempt to keep the interface clean. An administrative module allows searches and results with much more information. EZProxy authenticates remote access to the online products. Document delivery is fully integrated, and UNCG utilizes Infotrieve as its document delivery supplier. Future enhancements to Journal Finder may include “an advanced search interface, which will include keyword searching, support of Boolean operators, and perhaps subject searching and ‘date added’ searching.” Finally, OpenURL is being utilized where possible to allow Journal Finder to link from one database to another. P. Pival.

Frank, Heidi. “Cataloguing the Wide World of Web: Organizing the Internet for Distance Learners.” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 7, no. 2/3 (2002): 31-45, and Library Services for Business Students in Distance Education: Issues and Trends, edited by Shari Buxbaum. New York: Haworth Press, 2002, 31-45.
An argument is made that librarians need to take a more proactive role in helping catalogue information on the Web. Since distance students often turn to the web first, it behooves us to make it a better-organized source of information, which will in turn make it a better source of information. Reliability and the invisible web are both current concerns with current search engine technology. A brief comparison between computer-indexed and human-indexed searching is given. Metadata, specifically Dublin Core, makes up the bulk of the paper. A summary of metadata, including MARC and Dublin Core is given, along with a discussion of how metadata can be either incorporated into the source code of web documents, or used separately from web documents. Librarians are encouraged to work collaboratively in projects such as CORC. P. Pival.

Ingram, Caroline and Catherine Grout. “A Distributed National Electronic Resource for Learning and Teaching.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 111-121.
A description of the Distributed National Electronic Resource (DNER) in the UK is given. A project of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), DNER attempts, through the introduction of standards and guidelines, to “support the activities of current and future development programs”. DNER is intended to help bring together digital resources of all types that currently operate in a standalone manner. If successful, DNER will ensure that users will have a common interface, or at least environment, in which to operate, rather than continue with navigating different websites and interfaces to locate information. DNER suggests that the information environment should include all types of digital content, should support fully the submission and sharing of research and learning objects, should provide a range of meaningful and innovative methods of accessing electronic materials, should be collaborative, and should be underpinned by interoperability, based on common standards. Two projects, the Virtual Norfolk project, and the FILTER (Focusing Images for Learning and Teaching &endash; an Enriched Resource), are offered as successful examples of DNER resources. P. Pival.

Jeevan, V. K. J. “IT Enabled Library Services for Distance Learning: Threats and Opportunities.” Paper presented at the AAOU Pre-Conference Seminar on “Outreach Library Services for Distance Learners,” February 20, 2002, New Delhi, India. Online. Available: http://www.ignou.ac.in/aaou-pre/Jeevan.htm
An overview of the need for information technology (IT) enabled library services is given. Emphasis is placed on the libraries in India, but examples from other countries are provided. The services and benefits available to IT enabled libraries is outlined. The difficulties facing libraries who want to offer services electronically is also discussed. J. Wheeler.

Kooistra, Jan and Kees Hopstaken. “Ommat: Dealing with Electronic Scientific Information.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 241-250.
Ommat is a Dutch abbreviation that translates to: “daily practice of dealing with scientific sources”. Introduced in 1998 at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, this largely theoretical model attempts to help science students understand how science research works. It also attempts to move the traditional library into a more interactive role in the life of a student researcher. Integrated into the BlackBoard Course Information System, Ommat helps students find basic information about a topic, learn where and how this information can be acquired, and finally, learn who is producing and discussing this type of information, thus acquiring a greater and deeper knowledge of the subject. A large part of the program is based on systems that cover the social activities that people develop as they are looking for the knowledge they need. Further discussion is offered on a concept called Gi@, or Growing Intelligence Agent. Gi@ attempts to meld information technology and seeking with “classic human qualities like feeling, searching, thinking and deciding”. Connectivity provided by email and online library resources will help Gi@ not only store information, but “remember the relation you have had with the material by storing the names of the people you met, reminding you how you evaluated the information, etc.” Gi@ is currently under development. P. Pival.

MacIntyre, Ross and Ann Apps. “Working with the British Library: The zetoc Experience.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 261-272.
Between 2000-2001, a joint project called zetoc was developed by the British Library and Manchester Computing at the University of Manchester, with the Universities of Liverpool and California-Berkeley as associate partners. zetoc is an enhancement of the British Library’s ETOC (Electronic Table of Contents) database which lists the titles of nearly 15 million journal articles and conference papers. The ‘z’ indicates a move to Z39.50 compliance of this product. The development process of zetoc is described, as are future enhancements such as a current awareness alerting service, a document ordering interface, and the ability to link users to the electronic version of a journal after current awareness has been established. zetoc is free to UK institutions supported by the Joint Information Systems Committee of the UK Higher Education Funding Councils. P. Pival.

Markland, Margaret. “The Integration of Digital Libraries and Online Information Resources into the Online Learning Environment: An Annotated Bibliography and Discussion.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 3 (2002): 3-15.
This article provides an annotated bibliography of the recent literature on integrating library materials into online instruction. Authors of the articles cited suggest that library materials need to be incorporated into courseware. Librarians should seek opportunities to work closely with faculty on developing course-specific materials. Other articles note that generic library skills modules may not be as useful as subject-specific modules. The author suggests that the concept of integration ought to include the provision of specific materials including journal articles, annotated websites, newspaper articles, etc. Other studies note that students want the fastest and smoothest access to online resources. A tailor-made environment can contribute to students’ academic success. Finally, faculty must be informed about and assisted in using the wide range of online resources that libraries can offer. In some cases librarians can introduce resources to the faculty who then make the ultimate selection of material for their students. Librarians can provide the necessary expertise to ensure the integration of library resources into online courses. I. Frank.

Mikesell, Brian L. “Fee or Free? New Commercial Services are Changing the Equation.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 361-368. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 3/4 (2002): 465-475.
Academic Libraries are seeing an increasing number of commercial services compete for the attention and money of library patrons. Librarians need to pay attention to these services and help their patrons decide if paying extra is a good idea considering the access to resources they already have for “free” as a result of their affiliation with an institution. Librarians need to employ environmental scanning techniques to remain aware of “what’s out there”, and need to adapt and adopt when necessary. Questia, Ebrary, NetLibrary, XanEdu, Jones e-Global Library, Authority Finder, eLibrary, and Northern Light’s Special Collection are offered as examples of services librarians must monitor. Reminders of what makes librarians different than the commercial world include evaluation skills, interface design, price and service. P. Pival.

Öhrström, Bo. “Access to Large Amounts of Electronic Scientific Information on a National Level.” In Libraries Without Walls 4: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Facet Publishing, 2002, 122-133.
Denmark’s Electronic Research Library (DEF, in Danish) is described from concept to early formation. The vision of DEF is “one virtual research library focused on the need for easy access to scientific information for researchers and students in Denmark.” DEF was defined in late 1996, and is still being formed, though many elements are now in place. The key concepts of the project are to network all Danish research libraries, to provide virtual access to all information sources in Denmark, and to forge new standards and working relations, both within the country and internationally. Improving the national and library infrastructures, digital resources (including national license agreements), and user facilities, such as Subject Based Information Guides (SBIGs) are all discussed. Examples of successes, limitations and setbacks are given, as are suggestions for ensuring the success of similar projects in general. Participants in similar projects are reminded that “decisions are necessary &endash; everlasting discussions the librarian way do not make much progress.” P. Pival.

Tumlin, Markel D. “Serials for Distance Education Research Projects: What Are We Missing?” Serials Review 28, no. 3 (Autumn 2002): 206-212.
Distance education students have research and resource needs that are difficult for librarians to meet. Issues related to using periodical indexes, locating appropriate citations, acquiring copies of needed articles, and incorporating the ideas from the articles into a research paper are all heightened when the student is remote from the librarian and the library collection. The author discusses several factors inherent in distance learning that make it difficult to achieve the equivalency in services that is recommended in the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services. Research in serial publications is complicated even for on-campus students, and the complications are more tangled for those who are at a distance. The author covers issues related to instructional, reference, and access services; providing equivalent services will not be possible without extra funding. J. Marshall.

2001

Carr-Chellman, Alison and Philip Duchastel. “The Ideal Online Course.” Library Trends 50, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 145-158.
The ideal online course does not need the support of a library, or so it would seem by the complete omission of the word from the entire discussion. Theoretical and practical guidelines are referenced in the discussion of what needs to be included in the ideal online course. Blended learning (face-to-face and online instruction for the same course) is also given brief mention. The ideal online course includes a comprehensive study guide, has no online textbook, has comprehensive interactive assignments with timely feedback, presents students with online examples, and includes some form or communication, either synchronous or asynchronous. Theoretical bases for the above requirements are presented, as are points for debate. In fairness, those developing an online library course will find useful information here. P. Pival.

Dew, Stephen H. “Designed to Serve from a Distance: Developing Library Web Pages to Support Distance Education.” In Library User Education: Powerful Learning, Powerful Partnerships, edited by Barbara I. Dewey. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2001, 240-245.
An overview of do’s and don’ts for designers of library web pages to support distance students is provided. Examples from the University of Iowa are given. Suggestions include keeping the design simple, logical and consistent, both internally and with other library pages. Several components should always appear on a page designed to support distance students, including information about who is eligible for service, links to relevant electronic resources, information about accessing electronic resources remotely, information about document delivery services, reference services and online tutorials. Finally, some form of feedback and evaluation should be encouraged. P. Pival.

Garten, Edward D. “Online and For-Profit Graduate Education: A Challenge of Understanding and Accommodation for Academic Librarianship.” Technical Services Quarterly 19, no. 3 (2001): 1-20.
Online, for-profit graduate programs offered through virtual universities provide students the opportunity to pursue degrees without the limitations of traditional universities. For-profit universities tend to view libraries as expensive and unprofitable. Many online courses require minimal library research and students use full-text databases and document delivery services for most assignments. Requirements for physical or virtual libraries in these online settings have not been established by accrediting agencies. A number of issues facing librarians providing services to remote users are enumerated and explored. Four models of for-profit university libraries are outlined. Jones International University has no physical library collection but provides a number of resources through its e-Global Library™. Walden University uses a Web-based virtual library supplemented by contractual agreements with Indiana University Library and Capella University Library. A central physical library is available to Webster University students who also have access to a Web-based virtual library, small on-site libraries, and larger physical libraries through contractual arrangements. In addition to a physical library, the American Graduate School of International Management provides an intranet and virtual library to students. Suggestions are provided for what might constitute the preferred or best practices for library services to distance education students enrolled at online, for-profit academic institutions. S. Heidenreich.

Lim, Edward. “From ‘Bricks and Mortar’ To ‘Clicks and Mortar’: Leveraging E-Commerce Technologies for Flexible Learning Support.” In Information Online 2001: Digital Dancing: New Steps, New Partners: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Information Online Conference & Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 16-18 January 2001. Sydney: Information Specialists Division, Australian Library & Information Association, 2001, 4-18. Also online.
Libraries must become more flexible to effectively serve flexible learners. The author suggests e-commerce solutions for libraries struggling to support students who have come to expect personalized service when and where they need it. The e-commerce library model would include functions such as portal technology, enabling users to customize their library interfaces and resources; a single search engine to simultaneously search a number of different library resources; content-rich catalogs, following the Amazon.com model; push technology for disseminating information based on user profiles; and systems for user authentication, secure payments and copyright management. Without the flexibility to adopt e-commerce strategies to increase personalization and convenience of services, libraries will lose their customers to the competition. J. Markgraf.

Machovec, George S. “Course Management Software: Where is the Library?” Online Libraries and Microcomputers 19 no. 10 (October 2001): 1-2.
One of the strongest emerging trends in higher education in recent years has been the development of distance education courses and programs in a Web based environment. Online courseware companies are advertising heavily to entice universities to use their software and services. The programs typically support the ability to build course content and an interface, communication and collaboration between the professor and students, and course management software. However, with all the hype surrounding this new courseware, there appears to be a missing element &endash; the library. The author makes the case for librarians to develop partnerships with faculty and course management software companies to better integrate the rich body of electronic resources and new services that are available in the library. F. Devlin.

McPherson, Madeleine. “Position or Purpose: Situating the Library in a Webbed World.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 165-176.
The reader is asked to consider the situation of the distance learner in the year 2010 when imagining how library services will be perceived and accessed online. Librarians will need to do a better job integrating relevant information into the student’s learning experience. Rather than expect the student to come to the library home page, subject-specific links, perhaps dynamically generated, should be built in to the learning environment. An increase in the number of distance students will result in an increase in the level of service demanded of the library. Libraries will be competing with commercial entities with much deeper pockets. Tips for integrating content in to courses include keeping pages simple, and a warning not to design from the institutional perspective out, but from the student’s perspective in. Personalization will be expected, and resources will need to be presented at the point of need in order to be found relevant (or found at all) by the student. Information literacy on the Internet is discussed, and a suggestion for point-of-need information literacy is made. Copyright will of course still be a concern in 2010. Online reference services will continue to need to provide information about the local situation &endash; curriculum and resources available through one institution, not generic, across the board service. P. Pival.

Pinfield, Stephen. “Managing Electronic Library Services: Current Issues in UK Higher Education Institutions.” Ariadne, no. 29 (September 2001). Online. Available: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue29/pinfield/
Managing the development and delivery of electronic library services is one of the major current challenges for university library and information services. The article provides a brief overview of some of the key issues facing information professionals working in higher education institutions. Some of the lessons that have emerged from the eLib (Electronic Libraries) program are also highlighted. Other topics discussed in the article are: electronic library economics, systems and technical issues, collection development, new initiatives in scholarly communication and user/organizational/staffing issues. F. Devlin.

Roccos, Linda Jones. “Distance Learning and Distance Libraries: Where Are They Now?” Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 4, no. 3 (Fall 2001). Online. Available: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall43/roccos43.html
An argument is made that college libraries need to do more to promote their services to distance students. There is very little in the education literature that pairs distance education with libraries, according to recent literature searches. Libraries should make better use of web portals, or gateways, by providing subject-specific links to both paid and free resources for their patrons. Libraries should also take advantage of course management systems such as WebCT and Blackboard to deliver entire library courses for distance students. These online courses can also be used by on campus students to reinforce or repeat lessons learned in a face-to-face environment. Courses developed at the College of Staten Island / CUNY are examined as examples. P. Pival.

Schmetzke, Axel. “Distance Education, Web-Resources Design, and Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.” Paper presented at the ACRL 10th National Conference: Crossing the Divide: Denver, Colorado, March 15-18, 2001. Available: online (in pdf format)
Background information on the number of disabled in the United States is provided, as is a summary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. Argues that distance education should be a great equalizer for people with certain types of disabilities, yet most websites and online resources are not accessible to people with screen reading software. Reports on two accessibility studies of 1) distance-education providers’ web sites and 2) regional and national distance-education organizations. Bobby was used to evaluate and determine that low numbers of websites of both groups are free of accessibility errors. Strategies for change are suggested, including education, research, selective shopping for online products by librarians, and advocacy for inclusive policies. Concludes by pointing out that the ACRL Guidelines for distance learning library services do not address accessibility for students with disabilities, and suggests that another revision of the Guidelines is in order. P. Pival.

2000

Adams, Mignon. “Are We Ready for the Virtual Library?” Library Issues: Briefings for Faculty and Administrators 20, no. 6 (July 2000): 1-4.
With the increasing availability, selection and number of delivery methods of, and for, electronic materials, there are additional components that must be attended to before the “real” virtual library can come into being. A stable network to distribute materials needs hardware that is regularly maintained and upgraded. The author discusses remote access with its various methods of limiting users to individuals related to an institution, as well as their various problems and the reasons why these are necessary. Appropriate support from campus information technology departments is necessary to assure regular maintenance and security of the online systems. While the storage media of the material may be electronic, a large supply of paper, laser printer toner or inkjet ink will still be needed since patrons like paper copies. The library web page, which is the entrance point for the virtual materials, must be organized to easily lead patrons to locations in cyberspace where the materials are kept. Finally, there is a need for training programs for students to help them learn effective selection, searching and evaluation of the virtual library and ongoing programs for faculty to keep them informed of the evolving delivery methods and expanding content universe. M. Horan.

Buckstead, Jonathan R. “Developing an Effective Off-Campus Library Services Web Page: Don’t Worry, Be Happy!” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 61-71. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 93-107.
One method of designing a website for distance learners is covered in this paper. The designing of this site was driven by the cost of delivering information using the paper-based method. After examining other websites, an initial website was designed and later a web survey helped in the completion of the design process. In the author’s opinion, the opening web page should have the most critical components found most useful to distance learners; these components must be well annotated in unambiguous language. Updating must be done on a regular basis. Common graphics should tie the different levels of the site, even on tertiary level pages. Servers can be in the library or outside the library. HTML editors and transfer software should be easy to use. Web pages should be advertised and use a counter to monitor use or attractiveness. Finally, regular maintenance is absolutely necessary, especially checks to see if links are still functional. Maintenance also includes simply changing the page date even when there is no change by the editor, adding authority to the contents. M. Horan.

Cook, Douglas. “CatchTheWeb-Personal: A Versatile Web-Based Demonstration and Tutorial Creation Tool.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 111-117. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 167-176.
CatchTheWeb is evaluated here as a useful screen capture and organizer software that can be applied successfully as an instruction tool. Used by the author and his colleagues for both distance learning and infrequent students, it can be used to create and process descriptive and interactive presentations for teaching how to use databases. The presentations can be published as executable files and emailed to users or mounted on a web site for downloading. The author especially liked its ease of use and low learning curve. M. Horan.

Craven, Jenny. “Lifting Barriers to Learning: How Good Web Design Can Make Learning Materials Accessible to Everyone.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 225-237.
In 1998, a United Kingdom green paper, “The Learning Age,” challenged educators to remove barriers to learning as a lifelong practice for all. In response, the British Library Research and Innovation Center (BLRIC) and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded a project called “Resources for Visually-Impaired Users of the Electronic Library (REVIEL.) A two-year program begun in 1997, it was to supplement an already existing program providing transcription of materials into Braille, computer disk, audio-recording, organization of personal readers, provision of voice output equipment and provision of an OPAC with voice and large screen output. The REVIEL project was charged with exploring and experimenting with information technologies to expand and/or recommend coordination services to the visually impaired in higher education. However, the applications from the project went beyond to public library and secondary schools. Some examples of those uses are keyboard commands for people cannot use a mouse, voice recognition software providing additional service to individuals who have repetitive strain injury in their hands as well as other applications that provide support for individuals with learning disabilities and the hearing-impaired. M. Horan.

Fletcher, Janet. “Designing the Library Home Page for Distance Education Learners.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 60-77. Reprinted in ASHE Reader: Distance Education: Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, edited by Lenoar Foster, Beverly L. Bower, and Lemuel W. Watson. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002, 156-166.
A literature search and a focus group helped to identify criteria for the design of a website for distance education learners at Southern Cross University in New South Wales. D’Angelo and Littles’ 1998 article in Information Technology and Libraries provided the University with the most comprehensive guidance. Their guidelines limited content of the library homepage to seven library related functional categories. A focus group of 16 participants was organized and asked to compare six library homepages for usefulness. They were also asked to rank the six most important characteristics of the web sites other than prominent and clear identification of the library and its institution. The focus group ranked in order of importance: (1) simple language; (2) drop down menus that lead directly to resource, especially full-text resources; (3) prominent links to help; (4) grouping resources by subject; (5) prominent links to the catalogue; and (6) uncluttered design with two or three contrasting colors with meaningful graphics. The article has an extensive bibliography. M. Horan.

Grealy, Deborah S. “Technological Mediation: Reference and the Non-Traditional Student.” Co-published simultaneously in The Reference Librarian, no. 69/70 (2000): 63-68, and Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era, edited by Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 63-68.
In a summary of the research on the returning adult learner, the point is made that there is a disjoint between the environments of the learners’ last experience with education and their new one. Some of the issues the author presents relate to family and work needs which force scheduling issues for finding time to learn and time to support themselves. Often faced with few campus support services, returning adults must face new technology, expanded information access and a number of choices to which they respond with fear and resistance. The author proposes, in the face of diverse needs, that in order to remain client-centered, libraries must respond with more flexible services via web-based resources, tutorials and electronic reference. M. Horan.

Henning, Mary M. “Closing the Gap: Using Conferencing Software to Connect Distance Education Students and Faculty.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 157-165. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 233-246.
Cu-See-Me is a desktop video conferencing product that works with a digital camera and audio equipment to bring live video and auditory contact with patrons. University of Wyoming experimented with the system and found some positive and some negative characteristics. Three sessions, each with one student, are described. Problems with the smooth operation of the transmission and reception led to either noticeable lag times or broken communications between parties, either with video, audio, and/or conferencing text portions. Also, there was some anxiety about how the images appeared on the screens. Practice, flexibility and the right equipment, such as directional microphones, are necessary. Regardless of the problems, conference participants remained cautiously optimistic. M. Horan.

Kvaerndrup, Hanne Marie. “Denmark’s Electronic Research Library (DEF): A Project Changing Concepts, Values and Priorities.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 121-132.
An outline of the goals and objectives for the future Danish Electronic Research Library (DEF), a national library cooperative venture, are outlined in this article. The DEF is a national project under the aegis of the Danish National Library whose purpose to forge a shared interface that is easy to use, has direct access to electronic media and a unified request system. In order to do this, the organization must overcome technical issues such as network compatibility and the creation of coherent administration systems. They will also have to effectively solve issues in human administration, services, resources, finance, staffing and organization. These issues have to be dealt with in these four components, the national infrastructure (Danish Research Net), library infrastructures, digital components and user facilities. M. Horan.

Linden, Julie. “The Library’s Web Site is the Library: Designing for Distance Learners.” College & Research Libraries News 61, no. 2 (February 2000): 99, 101.
This short news article makes a case for the library web site as being the space that is the only library for the distance learner. With this as the premise, questions about how the distance learner actually views the web site arise, suggesting that overall library web pages often do not immediately address distance learner needs. Proposed in the article as a remedy is a home page for distance learners that addresses issues of connection, registration, interlibrary loan/document delivery and reference services, as well as links from the traditional library web pages that start from the main library page to distance learner pages. M. Horan.

Needham, Gill, Una O’Sullivan, and Anne Ramsden. “ROUTES: A Virtual Collection of Resources for Open University Teachers and Students.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 115-120.
Open University (UK) librarians, in order to provide better and more relevant access to web resources, developed a website called Resources for Open University Teachers and Students (ROUTES.) The heart of the site is a database, Resources Organization and Discovery in Subject-based Services (ROADS.) The ROUTES subject group librarians, in collaboration with course teams, select websites appropriate for specific coursework needs. Each of the subject groups is subdivided into six functions needed to maintain and grow the ROUTES database: manager, individuals who promote and train, individuals who surf for sites, web cataloguers, individuals who create and check web links, and technical developers. M. Horan.

Simamora, Lamhot S. P. and Firman Gunawan. “Indonesia Electronic Library Design Plan for Supporting Distance Learning Environment.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 239-244. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 361-370.
As the need for expanded educational capabilities grew, Indonesia responded by increasing distance learning services. Some of the distance education providers have joined together to form the Indonesia Distance Learning Network (IDLN) consortium. As a service to its members, IDLN projected the need for a centralized electronic library. This library is expected to be a web-based environment in which the user will simply be able to search, make a transaction and have the material delivered. Development of this program depends on the Indonesian telecommunications system, PTTelekom and its research and information technology division. Four charts outline the organizational and procedural structure of this concept of the virtual library. M. Horan.

Watkins, Judy and Richard Ebdon. “SEDODEL: Helping to Ensure Quality of Information Provision to Visually Impaired People.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 220-224.
With 7.4 million people in Europe who have visual impairment and large numbers of other print disabled individuals, the European Commission sponsored “Secure Document Delivery For Blind and Partially Sighted People (SEDODEL.) This was done largely to increase the use of libraries and universities by print disabled persons. In fact, the Open University (OU) had a disproportionate number of print disabled persons enrolled because of its delivery methods. SEDODEL felt it could expand on those methods through the use of digitization and electronic delivery. Copyright laws in Europe had to be made more consistent in order to do that and a secure system of delivery has to be created in order to comply with the law. Resulting in a model equipment configuration that has three components, the document transformation system (DTS), the document reader system (DRS) and the electronic rights management system (ERMS.) The DTS converts documents into an organized machine-readable format, HTML 4.0; the DRS then can read the document. The ERMS allows the patron after they have used an identity card access the system, but only use according to their encoded patron category. It also monitors usage and can manage copyright payments. M. Horan.

1999

Barnard, John. “Distance Learners Use of the Internet and Academic Libraries: Supplement or Replacement?” In ED-MEDIA 1999: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications: Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 99, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Seattle, Washington, USA, June 19-24, 1999, Volume 2, edited by Betty Collis and Ron Oliver. Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 1999, 1396-1397.
Results of an Arizona State University survey to gather data on distant learners’ library and Internet use are presented. Results indicate that distance learners rank the Internet as their first information source of choice, followed by academic libraries, personal contacts, public libraries, and personal book collections. Although they didn’t rank libraries as their first choice, a majority of respondents agreed that libraries were necessary. Based on the findings, the author advocates the library’s role in providing value-added service to assist students in using the overwhelming amount of information to which they have access and to meet increasing expectations brought about by the Internet. J. Markgraf.

Wong, Wai-man. “Electronic Library Services for Distance Learners – Its Developments in the Open University of Hong Kong.” In [Proceedings of the] ICDE Librarians’ Roundtable, 11-12 October, 1999, The Open University of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong, 1999, 82-85. ERIC ED 438 832.
The Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK), with 90% of its students having access to personal computers in 1996, committed itself to expanding access to materials through the development of their Electronic Library Services. Acting as an Internet service provider (ISP), the University Library also provides authentication for commercial ISP users as well. Working with classroom faculty, the Library has created a substantial collection of electronic materials, built a web-based CD-ROM Collection and initiated electronic reserves. In addition to a bilingual catalogue, a common user interface co-joins videos on demand, the catalogue and research databases. There were 150,000 accesses of the E-Lib during August 1998 that came from a portion of the 20% of students who were aware of the service. By the next August, the number of accesses increased to about 250,000. Through an agreement that year with the Hong Kong Public Library, OUHK was allowed to put direct links on the public library web pages. M. Horan.