This chapter includes works that focus on the delivery of library print materials and resources to distance learners and other remote users.


Allner, Irmin. “Copyright and the Delivery of Library Services to Distance Learners”. Internet Reference Services Quarterly 9, no. 3/4 (2005): 179-192.
This article presents a general overview of the Copyright Law of 1976 as it pertains to educational institutions and how more recent amendments such as the Digital Millennium Copyright act of 1998 and Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act (TEACH) of 2002 impact delivery of library services and distribution of information to distance learners. It outlines specific issues and requirements which libraries need to address and it also includes a critique of the current guidelines. The author presents a digest of the most significant issues to practitioners in a straightforward way. This article would be most helpful to librarians who are establishing new services for distance learners or those who need to bring their current practices into compliance. J. Crane
Having a thorough understanding of copyright is a must for distance learning library services, especially since the Digital Millenium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA) and the Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act of 2002 (TEACH) were passed. This article is extremely useful for those who have not read Crews and Lipinski particularly in the area of the (U.S.) TEACH Act. Drawing on the forementioned authors and others, the author’s examples and suggestions include the common place issues and the best practice. The author makes a strong agrument for a school wide office for Copyright attached to the school’s Intellectual Properties Attorney. M. Horan


Weible, Cherié L. “Selecting Electronic Document Delivery Options to Provide Quality Service.” In The Eleventh Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Scottsdale, Arizona, May 5 -7, 2004, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2004, 403-409. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 41, no. 3/4 (2004): 531-540.
Electronic document delivery services can be difficult to provide consistently to a diverse student and faculty population. A library desiring to implement an EDD must consider method of delivery, software choices, testing the system, and troubleshooting. Document delivery can be provided by attaching a document to an email or by offering a web site from which to download the document. The author discusses some of the software available for document delivery and how the various pieces can work together or separately to provide either attachments or downloads. After choosing software, testing and troubleshooting on a wide scale must occur to ensure seamless delivery to the user population. C. Biles.


Pearson, Kathryn. “Unforseen Opportunity: Improved Services Migrate from Document Supply to Distance Education.” Paper presented at the 8th Interlending and Document Supply International Conference, Canberra, Australia, 28-31 October 2003.
The LIDDAS (Local Library Interlending and Document Delivery) Project was implemented by Macquarie University Library’s in efforts to providing its distance education students library and information resources. This paper traces the development of the Australia University’s implementation of the project. A brief history of the University is included, focusing on the library’s innovative contributions toward ways to assist its remote users. VDX software was used to manage automated interlibrary loans and end-user searching. The author discusses Australia’s current higher education climate and she recognizes funding and the challenge of serving distance education students as major issues. M.Thomas.

Viggiano, Rachel. “Distance Learners: Not Necessarily Distant.” The Southeastern Librarian 51, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 31-34.
The increasing difficulty in distinguishing distant learners from traditional students makes it counterproductive to offer separate services to different populations, according to the author. Instead, libraries are advised to standardize services offered to all students. The exception, says the author, is document delivery. It is unfeasible to offer home delivery service to all students, unless it is on a cost-recovery basis. Yet such a service is essential in providing equitable service for distant learners. The author recommends a clear policy outlining eligibility for document delivery services for distance learners. Other service recommendations include alternatives for issuing student ID cards, relocating telephone reference service away from the reference desk so that phone and in-person reference service are not in competition, toll-free phone service, and working with faculty to promote information literacy instruction and library services. J. Markgraf.


Casey, Anne Marie and Pamela A. Grudzien. “Increasing Document Delivery to Off-Campus Students Through an Interdepartmental Partnership.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 111-117. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 137-145.
Reporting on a cooperative library effort to more efficiently deliver documents to off-campus students, the authors describe a successful 1999 project at Central Michigan University. Although traditionally two distinct public service entities, Off-Campus Library Services (OCLS) partnered with the Interlibrary Loan Office to improve collection access, fill rates and delivery time for items requested by distance students. Requests moved directly into the interlibrary loan system, were tracked and managed using Clio software and were electronically delivered to individual desktops using Prospero software thus increasing fill rates by 12%, turnaround time by days and overall customer satisfaction. Challenges encountered include budgetary and software technology issues. The enhanced OCLS service was temporarily funded through Acquisitions, however institutional and state cuts in funding demonstrated the need for a permanent budget. Paperless operations, a priority for ILL, may not work as well for OCLS. Benefits included improved access to library collections for distance students, many far removed from an academic library that can support upper level research needs, and the establishment of a model for greater cooperation and collaboration between departments. L. Frederiksen.

Chakraborty, Mou and Johanna Tuñón. “Going the Distance: Solutions and Issues of Providing International Students with Library Services.” Paper presented at the AAOU Pre-Conference Seminar on Outreach Library Services for Distance Learners, February 20, 2002, New Delhi, India.
For over thirty years the Library at Nova Southeastern University (NSU) has offered library services to students located around the world. Along with a description of services, problems, solutions and issues are also presented. In particular, the authors’ experience with various document delivery models is described. These delivery models include: access to online full-text databases, the scanning of articles, building local research resources, and negotiating formal agreements with local libraries. The pros and cons of each model are presented. Furthermore, the provision of reference and instruction is discussed with an emphasis on the cultural and political sensibilities that colour students’ perceptions of library services. Offering library services in the languages of instruction is also briefly mentioned. J. Wheeler.

Dieterle, Ulrike. “Digital Delivery to the Desktop Documents Anytime, Anywhere.” In Distance Learning 2002: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, August 13-15 2002, Madison Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002. Online. Available: (in pdf format)
See the abstract below. The same paper was delivered at two different conferences–content is identical in both. L. Fredeiksen.

Dieterle, Ulrike. “Digital Document Delivery to the Desktop: Distance is No Longer an Issue.” In The Tenth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Cincinnati, Ohio, April 17-19, 2002, edited by Patrick B. Mahoney. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002, 193-198. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 243-250.
Library Express, a web-based document request and desktop delivery service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is described. With strong administrative support and attention to technical and staffing details, the goal of providing a high-quality, timely and convenient product to health sciences graduate students, staff and faculty was achieved. In this model, a single web-based request form gives a single access point for various ILL/DD activities. All articles, book chapters, and table of contents are delivered electronically to patrons regardless of location, with no difference made between those on-campus and those in other cities, states or countries. Planning, implementation and operational phases of the project are summarized, as are hardware, software and workload issues on both the public and staff sides of the service. Lessons learned during the process may provide a best practices example for other institutions considering a complete digital request and delivery program for distance and campus populations. L. Fredeiksen.

Firman, Elizabeth. “Worth the Wait? Analysing LIDDAS for Off-Campus Library Service Delivery.” Paper presented at the Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library ServiceConference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002.
In 1998, the University of Southern Queensland (USQ) in Australia became one of six sites to implement the use of the Local Interlending Document Delivery Administration System (LIDDAS). LIDDAS was developed by Fretwell-Downing, a UK-based company, to improve interlibrary loan services, but the USQ library saw LIDDAS more as a way to improve services to its off-campus students. Although LIDDAS was not operational at the time of this paper, the author discusses anticipated advantages and challenges. Evaluation procedures will include annual student surveys. A. Lawrence.

Fuller, David H., Jr. “Distance Learning and Interlibrary Loan: A Look at Services and Technology.” Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery and Information Supply 12, no. 4 (2002): 15-25.
Using web-based software, libraries now offer many services and resources that benefit distance education users, including remote access to full-text databases, electronic reserves and real-time reference chat. Interlibrary loan departments traditionally provided library materials that couldn’t be found in local systems to on-campus populations but now also locate, retrieve and distribute books and articles to off-campus patrons as well. In this essay, the author gives an overview of enhanced interlibrary loan procedures and technologies and how they relate to distance education. Document and book delivery options that include Ariel and Prospero software, as well as mail and courier service, are described. The impact of consortial relationships on interlibrary loan borrowing and lending is briefly discussed. L. Frederiksen.


Fuller, David H., Jr. “From Document Delivery to Distance Learning: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective.” Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery and Information Supply 11, no. 4 (2001): 51-59.
Unlike the more widely used term of interlibrary loan, the meaning of document delivery to distance learners varies from institution to institution. In some cases, the phrase denotes arrangements with commercial suppliers, in others it refers to a library’s ability to send articles electronically to desktops. At the University of Florida’s, document delivery refers to a complete service of supplying books and articles to off-campus students, faculty and staff. The service encompasses materials owned by the university libraries as well as items borrowed through more traditional interlibrary loan processes. Using the Smathers Libraries program as a model, the author provides a brief history of the service. A detailed description of the document delivery processing workflow is given. The web-based request form is available to three categories of remote users, with documents delivered via UPS mail. Issues of costs, staffing, policies, and eligibility are discussed, as is the need for having a web presence to effectively market document delivery services. L. Fredeiksen.


Birch, Katie and Ian Pettman. “Linking Distance Learners With the UNIverse.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 166-174.
Utilizing Z39.50 and ISO ILL protocols, a multinational European consortium built UNIverse, a virtual union catalog that integrates search, request and retrieval library services. In this summary of the three-year venture that ended in 1999, the authors describe the goals and successes, as well as the limitations and problems involved in the creation of a single interface catalog. During the project period, the consortium sought to leverage existing and emerging standards and technologies to develop a product that provides virtual library users with the option of using the Internet to access multiple catalogs and databases, request documents and monitor the status of orders. While designed specifically with distance learners in mind, a unified electronic catalog benefits this population by removing the twin barriers of inconvenience and confusion that multiple interfaces present. In outlining the features of UNIverse, the authors present a possible solution to anytime and anywhere access to library services. L. Frederiksen.

Calvert, Hildegund M. “Document Delivery Options for Distance Education Students and Electronic Reserve Service at Ball State University Libraries.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 73-82. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 109-125.
Academic libraries that proactively develop and use new technologies to support distance education efforts also improve overall access to library services and resources. At Ball State University, students and faculty engaged in distance learning have several document ordering and delivery alternatives including web-based request forms, desktop article delivery via Ariel and DocView software, and aggregated full-text databases. The author provides a literature review of document delivery and distance education, noting that speed and convenience are of primary importance. After describing the distance education and document delivery landscape at Ball State, a report on a recent electronic reserves project is given. By working with faculty, the information technology department, and library staff, course materials are made readily available. L. Frederiksen.

Jackson, Mary E. “Research Collections and Digital Information: Will There Be a Role for Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery Services?” Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 2 (2000): 15-25, and Research Collections and Digital Information, edited by Sul H. Lee. New York: Haworth Press, 2000, 15-25.
As the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Senior Program Officer for Access Services, the author is an internationally recognized authority on interlibrary loan and document delivery. Few have as complete an understanding of ILL/DD processes and costs as the author and in this transcript of a 2000 conference presentation, she succinctly describes the current and future interlibrary loan and document delivery landscape. The link between ILL/DD, distance education and collection management is detailed. Patrons and libraries alike both desire better, faster and cheaper access to resources and while an increase in the number and availability of electronic resources benefits all users the licensing agreements that make this access possible also have the potential of restricting sharing between libraries. Copyright guidelines allow for borrowing and lending of books and article photocopies. License agreements for electronic resources may or may not allow libraries to do the same. The argument for negotiation of favorable licenses that allow for library-to-library and library-to-patron is made. Other issues addressed include the role of consortia and technology and how electronic material will be permanently archived in research library collections. L. Frederiksen.

McPherson, Madeleine. “The Missing Link: Using Interlibrary Loan Management Software to Integrate Services to Distance Students.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 108-114.
Integrating library resources and services into one common and convenient portal benefits all library users, regardless of location. At the University of Southern Queensland, while focusing on the needs of the remote student, a user-friendly system for finding and retrieving information was developed as part of an institution-wide strategic plan to provide award-winning global distance education. After appraising the needs of distance students for fast and easy access to sources, and how current library systems and procedures may limit that access, the author reflects on the implementation of a unified service whereby students can use catalog and database finding tools to identify relevant citations and full-text articles and download or verify location. Fast and convenient document delivery of needed library resources has long been a barrier to equitable service for remote users, however with the addition of LIDDAS (Local Inter-Lending and Document Delivery System), a distributed resource-sharing software developed in cooperation with the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee and Fretwell-Downing Informatics, library users will also be able to use a common interface to request items, track order requests, and retrieve requests electronically. L. Frederiksen.

Morris, Anne and Neil Jacobs. “Experiences of Using Electronic Document Delivery Services From the Workplace and From Home.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 154-165.
FIDDO (Focused Investigation of Document Delivery Options), a three-year study evaluating commercial document suppliers in the United Kingdom, is described. Document delivery services generally provide materials directly to a user’s desktop or via fax, email attachment or mail. Costs are either managed centrally by a library or are billed directly to the remote patron. While the promise of electronic document delivery to the desktop appears to be a solution for providing equitable research support to those patrons who cannot or will not travel to a campus library building, the results of this project indicate that commercial services currently available are inadequate for meeting this need. Despite the number of products on the market, problems with authentication, costs, and technical support are found in each of the five suppliers examined. Assessment criteria included product set-up and maintenance, technical support, document and service costs, equipment requirements, speed of service, subject coverage, reliability, and ease of use. Advantages and disadvantages of each supplier are given. The project concludes that while the potential exists for a product that meets access requirements, currently no commercial document supplier is able to provide the subject coverage or technical reliability that remote users should expect. L. Frederiksen.

Murphy, Molly and Karen Rupp-Serrano. “Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery: Lessons to be Learned.” Journal of Library Administration 28, no. 2 (2000): 15-24.
Current statistical management software programs, such as Clio, provide interlibrary loan librarians valuable data on borrowing and lending patterns and trends. By sharing this information with collection development staff on a regular basis, the authors argue that improved purchase and cancellation decisions might be made which, in turn, benefits all library users. Calling for better communication between departments, the authors give several scenarios whereby the details extracted from interlibrary loan and document delivery transactions could prove useful to collection managers. In the case of distance education programs, interlibrary loan reports may give a more accurate picture of areas where a collection is lacking, and also create an avenue for liaison work with instruction and subject librarians. L. Frederiksen.


Noble, Steve. “Delivering Accessible Library Services in a Distance Learning Environment.” Information Technology and Disabilities 6, no. 1-2 (April 1999). Online. Available:
Libraries must deliver reference services, document delivery and information literacy to students involved in distance learning courses. Document delivery can be problematic for students with print disabilities. Recording for the Black and Dyslexic (RFB&D) obtained a Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program (THAP) grant beginning October 1, 1998 to examine the feasibility of delivering accessible textbooks via digital delivery methods. The RFB&D’s AudioPlus books include an electronic text file with digitally-mastered audio. I. Frank.

Vassie, Roderic. “Meeting the Document Supply Needs of Distance Learners.” Interlending & Document Supply 27, no. 4 (1999): 154-157.
Regardless of physical location, college and university students need access to library resources that assist in development of research and critical thinking skills. As demand for distance learning continues to grow, customers and suppliers alike must come to terms with inadequacies in current document supply systems that set up disparities between on-campus and remote patrons. Arguing that document delivery is as important to quality education as teaching and technology, the author examines barriers that exist in the United Kingdom distance education model. Copyright restrictions and funding inequities top the list. Although improved technology allows for electronic desktop document delivery, at the time this article was written British copyright compliance meant handwritten signatures for all copies, an inconvenient and time-consuming process for the remote student. The lack of stable funding is also discussed with course packs and reliance on local libraries the solution to the problem of insufficient access to academic resources. The model described here legally and financially hampers document suppliers such as the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC) and institutions offering distance degree programs. The author contends that improvements to the model must occur at the policy rather than the project level before these problems can be resolved. L. Frederiksen.

Wessling, Julie. “Virtual Library Connections.” Colorado Libraries 25, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 48-53.
A large area network response to providing remote users with library materials, the Virtual Library Connections (VLS) project is an electronic request and delivery system that benefits students living in rural and mountain areas of Colorado. Implemented in 1999, VLC consists of 30 academic, public and school libraries throughout the state. The consortium supports distance learners based on geography rather than institutional affiliation. The author describes the main elements of the project that includes channels for document requests, document delivery and statistical management. Requests from users are submitted via web-based forms and routed through email to owning libraries then article copies are transmitted electronically using Ariel software and tracked with the Clio interlibrary loan management program. Using grant-funds to improve the speed of document delivery to remote users, libraries in the project also created an infrastructure for statewide resource sharing. L. Frederiksen.