Brisbane Institute of TAFE (Queensland)

Fountain, Pauline. “Building on Success: BIT’s Flexible Learning Network.” DESIGnation, no. 18 (September 1999): 2-3.
Faculty librarians at the Brisbane Institute of Technical and Further Education (BIT) have been instrumental in the development of the “Flexible Learning Network.” This is an “integrated staff training and product development initiative” intended to extend the Institute’s reach into the global market place as well as to create new training paradigms. The author provides a historical view of the project, with sections devoted to “Where we have been,” “Where we are now,” and “Where we are going.” Concrete examples of librarians’ involvement in each phase of the ongoing project are given. B. Reiten.

Central Queensland University

Appleton, Margaret and Debbie Orr. “Meeting the Needs of Distance Education Students.” In Information Literacy Around the World: Advances in Programs and Research, edited by Christine Bruce, Philip C. Candy, and Helmut Klaus. Wagga Wagga, N.S.W.: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University, 2000, 11-24.
Central Queensland University (CQU) Library uses a variety of technologies to deliver information literacy to its geographically dispersed students. As a predominantly distance education institution, CQU and its libraries have always needed to be innovative in methods of education delivery. The technologies discussed in this chapter are videoconferencing, computer assisted learning programs, web-based courses/tutorials, and virtual workshops. All these technologies have been used by the CQU libraries to meet the various needs and learning styles of their students, which include on campus groups, multi-campus groups, undergraduate and graduate distance education students. B. Reiten.

Orr, Debbie and Margie Wallin. “Information Literacy and Flexible Delivery: Are We Meeting Student Needs?” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 192-203.
The shift in location and delivery of education has had an impact on information literacy programs. The authors explore this impact, both theoretically and through concrete examples from Central Queensland University. Using the campus “Strategic Plan for Flexible Learning 2001-2003,” the library and teaching faculty at CQU are reworking the traditional information literacy models to meet the educational and delivery needs of a widely dispersed student body. CQU is a largely distance education institution, with less than a quarter of its students attending classes on campus. Developed in answer to the campus “Strategic Plan,” the library’s “Teaching and Learning Plan” attempts to provide a framework for developing information literacy programs that supports multiple modes of delivery, teaching, and learning styles. B. Reiten.

Orr, Debbie. “Globalisation and the Delivery of Library Services.” DESIGnation, no. 17 (April 1999): 2-3.
After opening an international campus in 1994, Central Queensland University (CQU) gradually added library services at the international campus over the next several years. In 1997, the international students were surveyed regarding library services and instruction. The results of the survey implied that the international students were reluctant to acquire information skills. In response to this, a new questionnaire was designed and administered to all students enrolled in a specific course across the CQU campuses. The results of this survey reflected the earlier results, possibly indicating a cultural difference that needs to be addressed in planning library instruction. B. Reiten.

Charles Sturt University (New South Wales)

Bishop, Sarah and Glenda Henderson. “Information Literacy Made Ezy.” In Information Online 2001: Digital Dancing: New Steps, New Partners: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Information Online Conference & Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 16-18 January 2001. Sydney: Information Specialists Division, Australian Library & Information Association, 2001, 239-251. Also online.
Web-ezy is a modular software package allowing for the creation of customized web-based library and information skills programs. It was developed by Charles Sturt University (CSU) in conjunction with UNILINC. Because CSU is largely a distance education institution, the library felt the need for a new flexible delivery tool to offer information literacy programs to distance learners. The authors begin by detailing the underlying concepts that guided the software development, and then give an overview of the development process. CSU is the first institution to implement Web-ezy, and the remainder of the paper discusses their experiences and the data they have collected. B. Reiten.

Cox, Sue and Alice Ferguson. “Christmas Island and Beyond: The Delivery of a Library Service to Offshore Students.” Paper presented at the ‘Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service’ Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Available online (in pdf format)
Charles Sturt University (CSU) in New South Wales is the largest provider of distance education to students within Australia. Two thirds of its student enrollment in 2001 was composed of distance education students, with over 4,000 of those students studying offshore. Since only a minority of students can or will visit a physical library, it is important to address the needs of the majority that remain. Although the CSU library has more than 30 years’ experience in providing library services to distance education students, offshore students offer new challenges such as language differences, cultural differences, and different levels of computer literacy. The CSU library’s efforts to meet and conquer these challenges are discussed along with concerns for the future. A. Lawrence.

Sanders, Roy. “Empowering Students for Success: Developments in Information Support for DE Students in Library and Information Science.” Paper presented at the LIANZA 2000 Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, October 15-18, 2000. Available: online (in pdf format)
Using the Library and Information Sciences (LIS) courses at Charles Sturt University (CSU) as his example, the author explores the effects of old and new technologies on distance education. Attention is also given to educational philosophy, information and communications technologies, and various pragmatic factors that affect distance education delivery. Brief profiles of CSU and its School of Information Sciences are provided as well as an overview of the culture of distance education in Australia and at CSU. The “realities of the teaching environment” are then discussed, with both difficulties and possible solutions to elements such as human contact being provided. B. Reiten.

Curtin University of Technology (Western Australia)

Deubert, Kathy. “Information Literacy: The Flexible Approach.” In Partners in Learning and Research: Changing Roles for Australian Technology Network Libraries, edited by John Frylinck. Adelaide: University of South Australia Library for Librarians of the Australian Technology Network, 2001, 19-27.
In 1999, Curtin University of Technology adopted its Information Literacy Policy, ensuring that information literacy concepts be integrated into coursework and that all its graduates would be information literate. The Library, realizing its responsibility in the delivery of information literacy opportunities, established the InfoTrekk program, which is a self-paced, generic series of modules using Step-by-Step Guides, which aim to instruct the user in the principles of searching for, evaluating, referencing, and using library resources. The designers adhered to certain guidelines, such as using simple explanations, avoiding campus-specific information, and a minimum of graphics and hotlinks. Infotrekk has been well received among the teaching faculty as a course requirement for first-year students and senior students alike. Local students reacted positive to the module and ACRL’s Instruction Section’s Emerging Technologies in Instruction reviewed the program as “among the best in our profession.” Future developments focus on Infotrekk Plus, which builds upon the original content and design guidelines with emphasis on specialized resources. M. Thomas.

Deakin University (Victoria)

Cavanagh, Anthony K. “Providing Services and Information to the Dispersed Off-Campus Student: An Integrated Approach.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 99-110. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 31, no. 3/4 (2001): 149-166.
Having made the decision that dispersed students are best served with an integration of print and electronic resources, Deakin University’s Off Campus Library Service was faced with deciding how best to provide access to these services. The development of the “Deakin Learning Toolkit” by their Information Technology Services in conjunction with other units of the university, including the library, answered a number of these questions. The Toolkit is a CD ROM issued to all dispersed students containing all of the software used at Deakin University, as well as library tutorials, subject guides, and many other resources. B. Reiten.

Cavanagh, Tony. “Deakin University – A Profile of the Off Campus Library Service.” DESIGnation, no. 18 (September 1999): 3-6.
Deakin University has 29,000 students enrolled at six campuses; approximately 12,000 of these students are off-campus students. With these students spread across Australia and the world, the importance of a good document delivery service is almost impossible to overstate. The author profiles Deakin University Library’s Off Campus Service, looking at how the many facets of the service feed into document delivery. These facets include the library collection, methods of requesting material, the delivery of material, and reference assistance. The question of staffing the service over multiple campuses is also addressed. B. Reiten.

Kartus, Ebe, Donna Runner, and Susan Clarke. “Digitisation and Copyright Compliance for Course Materials and Library Reserve Materials at Deakin University.” Paper presented at the ‘Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service’ Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Online. Available:
A digitization effort employed by Deakin University Library has proven to be of great benefit to its distance and lifelong learners. This paper discusses issues involved with digitization and copyright compliance issues associated with producing electronic information resources made available to distance and lifelong learners at Deakin University. The authors discus the balance between print and e-reserves, the differences in course-pack content and electronic reserves and the copyright compliance issues that regulate fair access. Budgetary concerns, in terms of staff time, computer equipment were weighed to determine efficiency. The project was carried out in several phases, beginning with the digitization of class notes, exams, class presentations, and finally with the materials covered within copyright regulations. A respective project would complete the project. It was found that there was a significant financial savings in the digitization of electronic reserves, yet the main goal was to better serve the remote user with enhanced access. Relevant screenshots and bibliography are included. M. Thomas.

Livingston, Helen. “Moving Toward the Online Library.” In [Proceedings of the] ICDE Librarians’ Roundtable, 11-12 October, 1999, The Open University of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong, 1999, 24-27. ERIC ED 438 832. Also online. Available: (in pdf format)
Deakin University Library has embraced the flexible delivery possibilities provided by electronic technologies. Students around Australia and the world can access the library’s electronic resources utilizing the same tools made available to on-campus students. The technologies featured here are the Deakin Learning Toolkit CD ROM, which includes general use software as well as library tutorials; the Library’s home page, which mirrors some of the content on the DLT and provides an intuitive interface; and the web catalog, designed in conjunction with the home page to provide integrated access to other electronic resources. B. Reiten.

Macauley, Peter and Anthony K. Cavanagh. “Doctoral Dissertations at a Distance: A Novel Approach From Downunder.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 221-230. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 331-346.
Recognizing a lack of information literacy skills in the increasing number of off campus Ph.D. and research degree students, the library at Deakin University is running a pilot program designed to meet this need. A liaison librarian partners with a student and their advisor, serving as an integral member of the research team. One goal of the program is that the librarian will be able to increase both the student’s and the advisor’s information literacy skills, in addition to supporting the off campus student in a one-on-one manner not previously offered. This pilot study is still ongoing, so only initial feedback data is available. B. Reiten.

McKnight, Sue and Jenny McCarthy. “Delivering Library Services to Remote Users: The Deakin Learning Toolkit.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 175-182.
The Deakin Learning Toolkit is a CD ROM developed at Deakin University by the campus Information Technology Services Division, the Library, and many other student support areas. This CD ROM contains software, tutorials, and informational content to support Deakin’s distance learners. At the time this article was written, the Toolkit was in its second edition, which contains much-expanded library content. A brief overview of the non-library content on the disk leads into an in-depth discussion of the library resources in the Toolkit. These include some software, services for students’ information, research skills tools, and access to the library’s electronic forms. One advantage of the CD ROM distribution is that tutorials are able to be delivered to the users at the time of need, enabling distance learners to take more control of their learning. B. Reiten.

Flinders University (South Australia)

McBain, Ian and Tanya Rowe. “Help for Students and Profile for the Library: The WebCT Student Help Desk at Flinders University Library.” In Information Online 2001: Digital Dancing: New Steps, New Partners: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Information Online Conference & Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 16-18 January 2001. Sydney: Information Specialists Division, Australian Library & Information Association, 2001, 252-257. Also online.
The Flinders University Library put in a proposal for funding to provide support to students using WebCT, the University’s chosen course management system. With library staff as members of university and faculty committees, the Library was able to play a key role in the implementation of WebCT. No other group on campus was prepared to provide direct support to students. With additional funding, the Library deployed staff at different physical locations as well as providing a virtual service point. They also provided walk-in services during hours that the libraries are open. The library staff were able to handle the technical questions that arose as well as provide student orientation and training in the use of WebCT. Statistics on the number of training sessions and the kinds of questions answered concerning WebCT are included. I. Frank.

Griffith University (Queensland)

Nicolson-Guest, Belinda. “The Meaning of Life: Meaningful Relationships in Lean Times.” Paper presented at the ‘Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service’ Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Available online (in pdf format)
The off-campus services librarian and information literacy coordinator describes her responsibilities, having been hired to take the position in 2000 at Griffith University’s Mount Gravatt Campus. Taking advantage of existing technology to enhance dynamic library web pages, she developed information brochures available in both print and online formats, created self-directed tutorials and enhanced available electronic resources to the clientele. The librarian emphasizes the importance of establishing strong relationships through marketing library services proactively, outlining clear service parameters, maintaining open communications and working toward effective realistic alternatives to meet user expectations. In addition, she explains the importance of keeping statistics to help justify costs of providing resources and research time to accommodate the university’s postgraduate and undergraduate populations. M. Thomas.

James Cook University (Queensland)

Clark, Judith. “An Integrated Online Learning Environment – What Does It Mean for the Library?” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 2 (2001): 79-93.
James Cook University is developing an “integrated online environment for teaching, learning and research.” Utilizing the campus-wide adoption of Blackboard as a starting point, the university is creating the underlying architecture to enable seamless access to electronic information regardless of access point. This will incorporate traditionally library-based resources, such as databases, as well as locally developed resources, such as publication preprints. The driving objective of this long-term plan is “to manage access to information resources and to provide services that support users.” The architecture needed for this integrated delivery concept is built upon several frameworks: policy, repositories, document control, resource discovery, delivery, and security. B. Reiten.

La Trobe University (Victoria)

Porter, Susan. “Chat: From the Desk of a Subject Librarian.” Reference Services Review 31, no. 1 (2003): 57-67.
The author reports on a trial chat reference service offered to off-campus nursing students at La Trobe University. The trial was held during March and April 2002 using LivePerson chat software. Three health sciences librarians staffed the chat service by leaving chat open whenever they were at a computer. Information collected included number of chat sessions compared to other modes of reference service, cost per chat session, length of chat sessions, ease of use of the software, etc. Librarians noted that chat was difficult to handle if high concentration on other duties was required. Also, three librarians with a myriad of other tasks were unable to cover all the hours that patrons might use the service. Chat provided an additional access point for some students, but the trial did not indicate that it was a necessary service. I. Frank.

Macquarie University (New South Wales)

Pearson, Kathryn. “Unforseen Opportunity: Improved Services Migrate from Document Supply to Distance Education.” Paper presented at the 8th Interlending and Document Supply International Conference, Canberra, Australia, 28-31 October 2003. Online. Available:
The LIDDAS (Local Library Interlending and Document Delivery) Project was implemented by Macquarie University Library’s in efforts to providing its distance education students library and information resources. This paper traces the development of the Australia University’s implementation of the project. A brief history of the University is included, focusing on the library’s innovative contributions toward ways to assist its remote users. VDX software was used to manage automated interlibrary loans and end-user searching. The author discusses Australia’s current higher education climate and she recognizes funding and the challenge of serving distance education students as major issues. M.Thomas.

Queensland University of Technology

McCarthy, Jennifer Joan. “Integrating Library Services into the eLearning Environment at Queensland University of Technology.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 222-238.
Over the last few years, Queensland University of Technology (QUT) has responded to the changes in educational theory and information and communication technologies by revisiting its policies and formulating new ones. In 1998, QUT created a “Flexible Delivery Policy,” specifically aiming to provide a learning environment that enables students to choose their time and place for study. The QUT library has used this university-wide document to aid the planning of its new “Statement of Purpose,” which focuses on service design and delivery. The services have been broken down into Electronic – including home page structure, 24×7 service, home page content, and information resources; and Face to Face – including staffed service points, client focused training options, learning partnerships, and academic and library staff training. The library has begun to solicit client feedback to ensure the changes are moving in the correct direction. B. Reiten.

McCarthy, Jenny. “QUT Library’s Support for Flexible Delivery: Integrated Planning for an Integrated Service.” In Partners in Learning and Research: Changing Roles for Australian Technology Network Libraries, edited by John Frylinck. Adelaide: University of South Australia Library for Librarians of the Australian Technology Network, 2001, 57-76.
Described in this article are the Queensland University of Technology Library’s efforts at providing to its distance education students a flexible and integrated learning environment. The Library’s Strategic Plan illustrates its support for the University’s commitment to distance teaching and learning through the provision of electronic information resources, online reserves, and access to a number of full-text electronic materials. Traditional services at the University’s Branches are complemented by the use of technology, featuring the Library’s electronic resources and services offered via the Web. An information literacy plan was also established, encouraging the promotion of partnerships between library liaisons and the teaching faculty. A number of staff development opportunities were initiated to ensure maintenance of up-to-date skills and knowledge. M. Thomas.

Young, Caroline and Judy Stokker. “Course Materials Database: Integrating Information Resources Into Online Teaching for Students at QUT.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 240-252.
The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Course Materials Database (CMD) is an online collection of the materials professors use to support their courses. It brings together a number of previously scattered collections of material: library course reserve, departmental course reserve collections, e-reserve, past exam papers, and online teaching pages. Utilizing QUT’s intranet and their online teaching pages (OTP) system, all courses offered now have at least a single OTP with links to the CMD. One goal of the developers of the CMD is to help the teaching faculty transition to using online teaching more effectively. This article, written by the CMD project leader, provides a detailed look at the development process. Some of the specific sections include discussions of “what we built,” “what it replaces,” project planning, risks and concerns, key success factors, and “what we have learned.” B. Reiten.

Southern Cross University (New South Wales)

Fletcher, Janet and Des Stewart. “The Library: An Active Partner in Online Learning and Teaching.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 213-221.
In 1998, Southern Cross University (SCU) decided to focus its energies on “designed for online” courses. As this was a shift from the prior institutional direction, specific project boards for each school were created and funded. These were made up of a number of experts from across the university, but did not include any librarians. While librarians were eventually approached to provide support for these courses, the campus library realized that, in order for the library to remain relevant in the newly developing environment, the library staff must be involved in course development from the outset. Thinking about the library’s resources in different ways has lead to a shift in the library staff’s relationships with the academic community at SCU. Library staff has become proactively involved in committees and projects, effectively “selling” their skills and expertise. At the same time the library’s information literacy tutorials are integrated with online courses, library staff members are being seconded to projects, leading to even more adjustments within the library structure. B. Reiten.

Fletcher, Janet. “Designing the Library Home Page for Distance Education Learners.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 60-77. Reprinted in ASHE Reader: Distance Education: Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, edited by Lenoar Foster, Beverly L. Bower, and Lemuel W. Watson. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002, 156-166.
As distance learning continues to expand into the online environment, the existence of a virtual library becomes more important. One of the most familiar ways to provide this is through the library’s web presence. The library home page must be easy to use, providing clear access to the electronic resources available. This is especially important to distance learners who often cannot visit the physical library and who are likely to be non-traditional students. After performing a lengthy literature review on library web site design, Southern Cross University (SCU) librarians ran a focus group with 16 randomly selected distance learners. The results of this study informed the first round of changes to the SCU library home page. B. Reiten.

University of Melbourne (Victoria)

Bridgland, Angela and Patrick Blanchard. “Flexible Delivery/Flexible Learning – Does It Make a Difference?” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 177-191.
While the terms flexible delivery and flexible learning are being used a great deal, few who use them will offer definitions. This article offers definitions, as well as an extensive theoretical discussion of the concepts involved. These concepts include learning theory and collaborative learning, cultural sensitivity and inclusivity, the removal of barriers to learning, and development challenges and practical delivery issues. Beyond the theoretical, the authors also address the application of flexible delivery and flexible learning at the University of Melbourne, where the focus is more upon the “campus-based learning community,” as opposed to on-line alternatives. In addition, the Percy Baxter Collaborative Learning Centre is used as an example of how flexible delivery resources may be offered and managed. B. Reiten.

University of New England (New South Wales)

Ransom, Sylvia. “Project Self Help at the University of New England.” Paper presented at the ‘Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service’ Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Available online (in pdf format)
In an effort to teach information literacy skills to their distance learning students, the Access Services staff at the University of New England (UNE) Libraries launched a self-help program in 2001 which was conveyed to targeted students through a series of emails sent to their university email accounts. The entire self-help program consisted of a total of eight emails, copies of which are given in an appendix. Student responses to the first diagnostic email determined which of the follow-up emails each one received. An evaluation of the program is given along with plans for the future. A. Lawrence.

University of Queensland

“Cyberschool reaches all the parts down under.” Multimedia Information & Technology 31(1) (2005):17-18.
Since 1998 the University of Queensland (UQL) has provided outreach services to more than 170 schools in Queensland. The partnership between the UQL and the schools is described. UQL provides access to authoritative electronic resources including access to licensed databases. Cyberschool also provides training and development activities for teachers and school librarians as well as some technical support for the Cyberschool web site and resources. I. Frank.

Austen, Gaynor, Janine Schmidt, and Philip Calvert. “Australian University Libraries and the New Educational Environment.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 28, no. 1 (January-March 2002): 63-67.
Recent trends in the Australian university system, including the increase in online programs and the integration of student support services, have impacted libraries. To ensure that libraries do not become irrelevant in the online landscape, librarians are encouraged to lobby for the inclusion of information literacy concepts into the online curriculum. At a time when university teaching faculty are coming to accept the role of skills specialists in the process of course development, librarians are presented with an opportunity to promote their role as information content specialists. Increasingly librarians are joining other specialists, such as instructional designers and educational technologists, in comprising a course development team. A case study outlining the University of Queensland library’s evolution to the Cybrary is presented. J. Markgraf.

Blumson, Liz, Noeleen Fleming, and Deborah Turnbull. “UQL Cyberschool – Reaching Out For You!” Paper presented at the ‘Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service’ Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Online. Available:
The University of Queensland Library initiated its UQL Cyberschool outreach program in 1998 to help ease high school students’ transition from high school to university. Partnering with IAC (the Gale Group), the University provides access and evaluation of online databases, technical support, and training and technical support for the high schools participating in the program. Potentially reaching over 100,000 school students at all Queensland high schools, the program enables those located in rural and isolated with equal access to the same online databases, assistance from UQL’s librarians, and opportunities to enhance their information literacy skills. The Cyberschool program is well-received by the school community and there are plans for future additional outreach programs aimed at parents. M. Thomas.

University of South Australia

George, Rigmor, Holly McCausland, and Dale Wache. “Information Literacy: An Institution-Wide Strategy.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 4 (December 2001): 278-293.
The University of South Australia (UniSA) has taken the various theoretical and societal changes related to lifelong learning and information literacy and incorporated them into their current curricular plans. Using the desired outcomes laid out in their Statement of Graduate Qualities, UniSA has established the framework for curriculum reform where lifelong learning and information literacy are recognized as being discipline-specific as well as vital to the student centered approach they have adopted. The authors discuss various components of the campus implementation of these frameworks, including the creation of a database of best practices and resources that will serve as a learning resource for both the academic staff and the students. B. Reiten.

Luzeckyj, Ann. “Helping Students Help Themselves.” Paper presented at the ‘Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service’ Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Online. Available:
The Flexible Delivery Service staff of University of South Australia conducted a case study of the methods used in maintaining human factor in serving distance students, while ensuring delivery of information and encouraging information literacy opportunities. Technostress and information fatigue in older adults can be alleviated through a better-trained team of staff. The staff made efforts toward helping their adult learners acquire information literacy skills through modifying the web pages, the electronic forms, and acquiring knowledge through staff development workshops. M. Thomas.

Mcswiney, Carolyn and Stephen Parnell. “Transnational Expansion and the Role of the University Library: A Study of Academics and Librarians in an Australian University.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 4 (2003): 63-75.
As the University of South Australia has continued to expand its course offerings to offshore clientele, the information needs of that clientele have become more complex and demanding. In 2002 the University’s library commissioned a report which was expected to act as a catalyst for the library and its activities, to make the University community more aware of the library’s services, and to clarify the faculty’s thinking on offshore education and their expectations of the library. Discussions were held between librarians and more than forty academics from the four Divisions of the University, focusing on the seven outcomes that the University has adopted for its graduates. It was agreed that parity of library services for all University students is of primary importance and that there should be a strong partnership between academics and the library. Strategic plans were made to support the graduate qualities. A. Lawrence.

Parnell, Stephen. “Quality Assurance and an Expanded Role for the Library in Distance Education.” Paper presented at the 21st ICDE Conference, Hong Kong, 18-21 February 2004. Online. Available: (in pdf format)
Described in this article are the measures of quality assurance of the initiatives offered to distance education students served by the UniSA (University of South Australia) Library. The Library adheres to The International Organization for Standardization principles that distance students should be entitled to equivalent services as on campus students. Quality within the Library’s The Flexible Delivery Service (FDS) is measured in an annual student survey to both on-campus and distance users. At the national and international level, the Australian Universities Quality Agency serves to ensure the provision of quality higher education to both on-campus and distance students. The Library strives to operate within the parent institution’s framework of quality assurance and the University is dedicated to integrating quality library services into teaching and learning through an increased role in providing information literacy. M. Thomas.

Parnell, Stephen. “Ripple on the Pond: Libraries and Change in Distance Education.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 2 (2001): 29-46. Also online. Available:
The changes taking place in the information environment don’t just affect the libraries that attempt to manage this change; they have a profound impact on teaching faculty as well as distance education. The expansion of distance education has challenged libraries to provide support for students and academics in new ways. So too, the expansion of online resources has changed the way faculty design their courses and their own information gathering techniques. Libraries and teaching faculties are having to rethink their interactions with each other, as well, as “libraries are influencing teaching and learning in more far-reaching and insidious ways.” Some of the issues the author raises in this article are the lack of recognition for the role of libraries in distance education while the library is actively changing the environment distance education operates in; whether the primary selection criteria for online resources should be “likelihood of high use or reputation;” and the difference between studies of library reach as opposed to library impact. B. Reiten.

Parnell, Stephen. “Drift Without Direction: How Information and Information Technology is Changing the Education Paradigm.” Paper presented at the Conference ‘Educause in Australasia 2001, The Power of 3,’ Marriott Surfers Paradise Resort, Queensland, Australia, 20th – 23rd May 2001. Online. Available:
The explosion of information and information technology is having a profound influence upon teaching and learning. Libraries and commercial information providers are transforming the academic environment through their choices of information and the services they make available. One of the most apparent shifts is from information sources chosen by one academic to support one particular course toward sources chosen by an entire department or by the library to support a wider part of the curriculum. Another is the trend toward information held and moderated outside the institution, rather than local resources. Changes in academic work are moving the role of the faculty away from that of the dispenser of knowledge to that of support for students’ self-directed learning. In the midst of this, the need to reformulate the role of the library in education, especially distance education, becomes apparent. B. Reiten.

University of Southern Queensland

Firman, Elizabeth. “Worth the Wait? Analysing LIDDAS for Off-Campus Library Service Delivery.” Paper presented at the ‘Your Time, Your Place, Your Off Campus Library Service’ Conference, Monash University, Caulfield Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, 4-5 February 2002. Available online (in pdf format)
In 1998, the University of Southern Queensland (USQ) in Australia became one of six sites to implement the use of the Local Interlending Document Delivery Administration System (LIDDAS). LIDDAS was developed by Fretwell-Downing, a UK-based company, to improve interlibrary loan services, but the USQ library saw LIDDAS more as a way to improve services to its off-campus students. Although LIDDAS was not operational at the time of this paper, the author discusses anticipated advantages and challenges. Evaluation procedures will include annual student surveys. A. Lawrence.

McPherson, Madeleine. “Position or Purpose: Situating the Library in a Webbed World.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 165-176.
To serve distance students and others studying “flexibly,” the library needs to integrate itself more fully with the other aspects of teaching and learning. By taking cues from the advances in the overall information environment, some useful ways to accomplish this can and are being developed. Just-in-time provision of library services, seamlessly integrated with the course content, is a powerful goal, and one that the author advocates. In addition, the author discusses a number of current library services and possible future incarnations for each. B. Reiten.

McPherson, Madeleine. “The Missing Link: Using Interlibrary Loan Management Software to Integrate Services to Distance Students.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 108-114.
The University of Southern Queensland (USQ) library has found what they feel to be the “missing link” in their services to distance learners: LIDDAS. USQ is a long-time distance education institution, with approximately three-quarters of their student body studying at a distance. Recognizing that time is the most valuable resource to a distance student, the library has formulated its services with that idea foremost. This focus has led the library to implement a number of integrated systems, with the most recent being LIDDAS, a new interlibrary loan management program that will allow their students to take control over their own information seeking and retrieval activities. B. Reiten.

Marrie, Gordon and Taisoo Kim Watson. “How We Serve E-Clients Over the Sea.” In Seachange: Cataloguing in a Dot Com World: 14th National Cataloguing Conference Preprints, Geelong Waterfront Campus, Deakin University, 8-9 November 2001. Geelong, Vic.: Organizing Committee of the 14th National Cataloguing Conference, 2001, 102-107. Also online (in pdf format)
A case study of library services for “external students” (distance learners) describes the management of electronic collections at the University of Southern Queensland. An overview of the university delineates the dominant role of the distance education program (75% of all students) and the significance of overseas enrollment (4,500 in over 60 countries). In additional to “traditional” distance library services (including delivery of photocopies, email reference assistance, and web-based guides), the library has emphasized electronic resources in order to build collections appropriate for their users. Advantages of electronic collections noted include significant cost savings, increased usage, and remote access. Selection, cataloging, licensing, authentication, URL stability, and maintenance of holdings are highlighted as complex issues in the management of electronic resources. Cataloging decisions discussed include using multiple records for the same title, clarifying holdings information, including free web sources, adjusting URL’s for proxy services, and the choice of MARC tags. The authors indicate their major concern was the sheer volume of titles included in e-resource collections, requiring the balancing of efficiency and thoroughness to provide timely and accurate cataloging of these essential resources. J Brandt.

University of Technology, Sydney

Freeder, Daphne. “A Time for Review: The E-Library in Action.” In Partners in Learning and Research: Changing Roles for Australian Technology Network Libraries, edited by John Frylinck. Adelaide: University of South Australia Library for Librarians of the Australian Technology Network, 2001, 28-42.
The University Library, University of Technology, Sydney established an e-mail based Ask a Question virtual reference system in 1999 and this article evaluates the service and its sustainability. The original idea was for librarians to take this on in addition to their other reference responsibilities, but later it was decided that library liaisons and staff members handle this as administrative duty. Clients complete an online form, and library liaisons and staff members check the e-mail several times per day, responding and routing questions to the appropriate personnel. The author states that work needs to be done regarding the monitoring and measurement of the service. At the time of publication, the library did not have authentication for university-affiliated users. The Library’s goal is to respond to questions within one weekday; however success in this area depends upon the type of question asked and the time the question is received. A listing of typical questions is included. Certain technical barriers, such as incorrect e-mails, forgotten passwords/user names and firewall issues must also be dealt with. The UTS Library is also exploring the development of real time electronic reference, featuring web chat program, as well as the opportunities for training for such technological applications. M. Thomas.