Gu, Fang. “The role of library media services in the University Distance and Distributed Education.” Library Management 27,6/7 (2006): 379. Retrieved from Emerald Library Journals 27 February 2007.
Library and media services at California State University Sacramento are well integrated into the Distance and Distributed Education (DDE) efforts at their institution. This case study highlights the DDE efforts at CSUS with a particular focus on the contributions of the library media center. DDE at CSUS has expanded from a single-campus service to a consortial arrangement between fourteen separate on and off campus units. Services offered by library and media services include next-day availability of filmed classes in the OPAC, conversion of video from obsolete media into digital formats, and an online reserve system for media. N. Schiller


Ball, Rafael. “Libraries and Distance Education – A German View.” Libri 53, no. 2 (June 2003): 71-81.
In order to cope with the flood of information in today’s society, the author states that “no global player can manage today without electronic learning.” Distance education successfully delivers university education, corporate training, and life-long learning. While countries such as Australia have well-developed distance education programs, other geographic regions have not come as far. For example, telecommunications costs in Africa are high, slowing the development of distance learning. In addition, careful thought must be given to what kind of education can best be delivered via e-learning. Also, learners must be self-motivated and willing to co-produce their education. Ball discusses the role of professional associations and agencies such as the American Library Association (ALA) and the Association for Information Management (ASLIB) in developing programs aimed at library staff. Among the examples, “Bibweb” is a German program on the use of online media designed to train public library staff. ASLIB’s “Essential Skills in Information and Library Work” has been developed for new library staff. I. Frank.


Gover, Harvey R. “To Still Live Our Ideals.” Keynote paper presented at the AAOU Pre-Conference Seminar on Outreach Library Services for Distance Learners, February 20, 2002, New Delhi, India.
The status of international and transnational distance learning is studied. Distance learning leaders from around the globe are quoted and examples of innovative educational institutions and corporations are presented. Based on the study, essential elements for institutions of global or transnational education are listed. Socio-cultural based elements include: international peace, prosperity and understanding, successful communication and cooperation among peoples and nations, international strategic alliances, and a culture of shared leadership. Quality assurance elements include: evaluation, standards, an international exchange of knowledge, Internet access, and teaching of lifelong learning skills. Many more elements are also listed. Next, the success, importance and moral force of the ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services are discussed. The philosophical precepts on which the moral force of the Guidelines is based are listed and explained. J. Wheeler.

Ismail-Kaye, Nazira. “International Centre for Distance Learning (ICDL) and Services to Distance Learners.” Paper presented at the AAOU Pre-Conference Seminar on Outreach Library Services for Distance Learners, February 20, 2002, New Delhi, India.
The International Centre for Distance Learning (ICDL) is a centre for research, teaching, consultancy, information and publishing activities. It is based in the UK Open University’s Institute of Educational Technology. Three databases provided by ICDL are available to the public via the ICDL website. In one database a list and descriptions of providers/institutions offering distance learning programmes is provided. Another database contains descriptions of various distance leaning courses in the UK. The third database is focused on the literature surrounding distance education. A description of three projects that the ICDL is involved with is provided along with accompanying URLs. Finally, library services for the Open University’s Master of Arts (MA) in Open and Distance Education are outlined. The MA is offered online via the conferencing system FirstClass. Reference assistance and document delivery services can be obtained via an “Ask ICDL” icon within the conferencing system. J. Wheeler.


Bridgland, Angela and Patrick Blanchard. “Flexible Delivery/Flexible Learning – Does It Make a Difference?” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32, no. 3 (September 2001): 177-191.
The University of Melbourne espouses the theory of flexible learning in both its on campus and online courses. New technologies are changing the way students learn and their expectations for the style of teaching and learning, the delivery system, and the resources they use while learning. In flexible learning, the focus is placed on the learner and the delivery is adapted to suit the learner’s needs. Flexible delivery of resources breaks down barriers to learning such time, distance, and the demands of a full time occupation. However, it does have its own set of challenges, including problems of culture, teaching style differences, differing educational values, and difficulties with technology. In a review conducted by the University of Melbourne of its virtual learning environment, academics expressed the view that virtual classes should enhance contact rather than replace it. The University is attempting to create flexible learning within the campus environment as well as online, in order to better fit their students for careers in the 21st century. The author discusses the Percy Baxter Collaborative Learning Center as a case study for methods of offering resources and some of the issues involved in managing those resources, including authentication, hardware and software lockdown issues, and deployment of software. The academics participating in flexible delivery have discovered that it creates an atmosphere of immediacy that large classes usually lack. C. Biles.

Brophy, Peter. “Networked Learning.” Journal of Documentation 57, no. 1 (January 2001): 130-156.
A combination of a new emphasis on the need for life-long learning and the evolution of information and communications technology (ICT) has led to an increased focus on networked learning in higher education, allowing a wider economic and social strata and extended age groupings of people to take advantage of educational opportunities. Efforts in networked learning have concentrated on delivery systems rather than learning. Cognitive and learning styles, emphasis on the student, and multiple modalities of interaction play key roles in the effectiveness of a program. Traditional library instruction must be adapted to teach the information skills suitable for networked learning, just as traditional library reference must change to include new delivery methods. C. Biles.

Olson, Jeffery E. “Distance Learning and the Transformation of Higher Education.” The Reference Librarian, no. 74 (2001): 221-232.
Online distance learning has the potential to transform higher education more dramatically than any of the predecessor technologies. It opens discussion on institutionalized practices in higher education and also raises the priority of internet-based library services. The redefinition of quality instruction to include interactive online distance learning has potential importance for reference librarians as well. The history, obstacles, concerns and future of distance learning are discussed in the article, as well as issues related to changing technology and guidelines. F. Devlin.

Watson, Elizabeth F. “Unlocking the Potential: Distance Education in Small States – A Commonwealth Caribbean Perspective.” New Review of Libraries and Lifelong Learning 2 (2001): 153-169.
The small nation states of the Caribbean depend on education to balance limited land resources. They have turned to several options, including distance education, to meet the challenge of creating an educational system to fulfill the needs of the population. Distance education (DE), which does not require that student and teacher interact in the same geographical location, works well for a community consisting of small islands in a wide geographical footprint. Prior to the 1940s, DE programs from European communities were the only source of tertiary education in the Caribbean community. In 1980s, to meet the needs of the expanding population, regional universities began to create distance education programs to reach students unable to attend by conventional means. Distance Education is a major and necessary part of the Caribbean tertiary education system. C. Biles.


Heaps, Elizabeth. “Open Access? Libraries and Distance Learning in UK Higher Education Institutions.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 250-265.
Distance Learning has developed rapidly in the UK for a variety of reasons. It has advantages from both the point of view of the institution, which gets access to new markets of new students and continuing education students, and of the students, who get flexible hours suitable to working part-time or full-time. The UK government is pressing for lifelong learning at all levels and ages of society, requiring an educational system, which can meet diverse needs for location and time. Issues for libraries at institutions committed to distance education include special services for distance learners, access to materials, equality of service between traditional and distance learners, and the cost of the special services. Libraries must also balance between the benefits of collaboration and resource sharing and the competition for students and status. The SCONUL Task Force for Access is working to assist libraries in creating and marketing distance learning services, and also to facilitate reciprocal agreements between higher education institutions. C. Biles.

Hoerman, Heidi Lee and Kevin A. Furniss. “Education for Provision of Library Services to Distance Learners: The Role of the LIS Schools.” In The Ninth Off-Campus Library Services Conference Proceedings: Portland, Oregon, April 26 -28, 2000, compiled by P. Steven Thomas. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2000, 167-173. Reprinted in Journal of Library Administration 32, no. 1/2 (2001): 247-257.
Distance education programs are becoming an increasingly major part of higher education offerings, but schools of library and information science are not offering coursework or training in distance education services. Distance learners often access their local public or academic libraries for their materials, necessitating training for librarians of all types. The author describes the educational efforts of several LIS schools and suggests steps to create further coursework and continuing education. C. Biles.

Slade, Alexander L. “International Trends and Issues in Library Services for Distance Learning: Present and Future.” In Libraries Without Walls 3: The Delivery of Library Services to Distant Users, edited by Peter Brophy, Shelagh Fisher, and Zoë Clarke. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000, 6-48. Reprinted in ASHE Reader: Distance Education: Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, edited by Lenoar Foster, Beverly L. Bower, and Lemuel W. Watson. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002, 122-147.
The author addresses a wide variety of current topics and future trends in this article. The broad issues affecting distance learning are money and ways to save it, technology and the virtual classroom, and changing student profiles and their subsequent needs. The role of libraries in distance learning needs to change as well, both in the academic and in the public sector, as users expect more access from outside of the physical building and as the lifelong learning concept becomes more popular. Distance learning spawns organizational issues such as accreditation for US libraries. Electronic resources and services have become the primary means of reaching students, with remote access to services and being a major issue. Library instruction, which is traditionally taught on site, must be adapted both to serve remote students and to the demands of the delivery technology. More research studies on library services for distance education are needed. Professional and continuing education for distance education support is also needed, and are slowly becoming part of library school curriculum. In the future, libraries will reorganize both reference staff to include more dedicated time for distance learning support and reference services to a hybrid support model, and possibly totally electronic for distance learning support. To leverage money, institutions will enter into more consortial agreements and cooperate to provide distance services. C. Biles.